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Full text of "History of education in Mississippi"

[ Whole Nmnher S55 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDU€ATION. 
CIRCULAR OF INFORMATION , NO. 2, 1899. 



CONTiilBUTtONS TO AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL HISTORY. 

EDITED BY IIEBBEBT B. ADAMS. ^ _^_ 

qil^ ' 

No. 24. 

HISTORY OF EDUCATIOI^ 



IN 



MISSISSIPPI. 



BY 



EDW^ARD MAYES, LL. D., 

EX'VhanceUdr of the University^ Mississippi, President of the State 
Historical Association of Mississippi. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1899. 



LETTER OF TRAI^SMITTAL. 



Department of the Interior, 

Bureau of Education, 
Washington, D. 0., June 3, 1899. 

Sir : T have the honor to submit herewith the manuscript of a his- 
tory of education in the State of Mississippi, to the year 1891, prepared 
by Edward Mayes, then chancellor of the University of Mississippi, for 
the use of this Bureau. 

The preparation of this history has been a work of very great, if not 
of peculiar, difficulty. It was pioneer work in that State. There were 
no books from which to obtain the needed information. The material 
had to be gathered from old newspapers, old catalogues when obtain- 
able, moth-eaten and time stained minute books, an occasional address 
etc., eked out with a large correspondence. For this reason it has 
been impossible to supply a bibliography, as desired. There are no 
books on the subjects treated to describe, if the well-known journals of 
the legislature be excepted. 

Yet, while it is true that the work of the historian of education has 
been made difficult in that State by the failure of her people to pre- 
serve the story of her institutions in the pages of a permanent litera- 
ture, it would be incorrect and unjust to infer that they have been 
indifferent to education itself. They have not been indifferent. Their 
labors in fostering education may not have been wisely directed at all 
times, but they have denied neither time nor pains nor money. Jeffer- 
son College yet remains, whose charter was the first of any sort passed 
by the Territorial legislature. Elizabeth Female Academj^, a college 
for girls in everything save the name, was established while the State 
was in its first year. The Franklin Academy, a free town school much 
like those of the present time, was organized in 1821, while its site was 
yet an outpost of civilization in the midst of savages. The Holly 
Springs Female Institute was but one of many such founded when the 
country was less than five years freed from its Indian occupants. 

It is not claimed for this history that it is exhaustive. It would be 
impossible to make it so, because of the loss of all definite knowledge in 
respect to many once excellent and fruitful schools. Prior to the civil 
war 158 special charters were granted by the legislature to institutions 
of learning, and since the war 123. These numbers do not include such 
as were incorporated under the general laws of the State, nor such as 



4 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

were content to work without charters. They were called by all names — 
academies, high schools, colleges, universities 5 but all, or nearly all, 
claimed to give sound instruction in the classics, higher mathematics, 
philosophy, and the natural sciences, and many in modern languages. 

With the exception of the State institutions, the chapters of this 
history are restricted to certain selected schools. Those described are 
selected either because they were remarkable as pioneers or because 
of their development into apparently permanent and unusually pros- 
perous institutions, or because they are excellent types of a class. 
Let it be understood clearly that there are other schools, extinct and 
existent, quite as good as several of those specially described. 

The thoughtful reader will observe that the unvarying character of 
the ante-bellum schools was classical, scientific, literary, artistic. 
Those called *' practical'' — the agricultural, the mechanical, the indus- 
trial, the normal — all originate subsequent to that period. The Bap- 
tists, indeed, endeavored to establish an industrial school in 1836, 
called the Judson Institute, in Hinds County, but it failed after a very 
short career. 

The State institutions for the higher education of the colored people, 
the Tougaloo University, the State formal School at Holly Springs, 
and the Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College, will be found of 
much interest. 

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. T. Harris, 

Commissioner, 

Hon. E. A. Hitchcock, 

Secretary of the Interior, 



TABLE OF COI^TEl^TS. 



Chapter I, 



Page. 
Early political and social history of Mississippi 11 

Chapter II. 
Educational beginnings : 

Education under the Spanish regime 22 

Early efforts by the Americans under the governor and judges 23 

Rev. David Ker. 23 

Chapter III. 
Jefferson College 25 

Chapter IV. 

Dead colleges of Mississippi : 

The Elizabeth Female Academy .^ 38 

The Holly Springs Female Institute 46 

The College and Academy at Sharon 51 

The College in Jackson, the Brandon College, and Madison College 57 

Oakland College 63 

Chapter V. 

Chamberlain-Hunt Academy i 71 

Franklin Academy * 72 

Chapter VI. 
Mississippi College 80 

Chapter VII. 

» 

Female colleges in Mississippi : 

Oxford Female Academy and Unioa Female College 93 

The Port Gibson Female College 96 

The Grenada Collegiate institute 97 

The Central Female Institute, now Hillman College 99 

Whitworth Female College 101 

Blue Mountain Female College 103 

Chapter VIII. 

Centenary College „ 106 

5 



6 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Chapter IX. 

The University of Mississippi : Page. 

Founding and endowment 118 

The location and incorporation of the institution 122 

A retarding influence and the development of a sentiment 125 

The charter 128 

Third meeting of the trustees 130 

Governor Brown's scheme for auxiliary schools 130 

Attempt to repeal the charter 131 

First appropriation for huildings ; act of 1846 135 

Buildings begun , 135 

Organization of faculty 136 

Prohibition of retailing intoxicating drinks in vicinity 136 

Scheme of education adopted 136 

The University and religion 137 

The first session opened 138 

President Holmes leaves ; Professor Bledsoe acts 138 

President Longstreet 139 

First code of by-laws 139 

Library founded 139 

The first graduating class I'lO 

Agricultural and geological survey 141 

Chemical and philosophical apparatus 141 

The law school; act of 1854 142 

First honorary degrees 1^6 

Act of 1856 appropriates $100,000 146 

The faculty enlarged 150 

The chancellorship created 1^1 

The University and the coast survey 151 

Appropriation extended ; act of 1860 ^ 151 

The civil war ; University Grays 151 

The civil war ; exercises suspended 152 

The legislature resumes the election of trustees 157 

The civil war ; the geological collections 157 

The civil war ; custody of property ; Governor Clark's message 157 

The reorganization of 1865 « 158 

A high school proposed 159 

Changes in the faculty 1^^ 

The act of 1867 appropriates $20,000 160 

Further changes in the faculty 1^1 

The special schools 1^1 

The University and reconstruction 162 

A new scheme of organization, 1870 * - - 164 

The new charter of 1871 166 

The University and Alcorn University 168 

The department of agriculture 168 

Free scholarships 1^4 

174- 

Free tuition '^ '* 

The high school 1'^^ 

Chancellor A. P.Stewart l'^5 

Department diplomas 1 ' * 

The Vaiden charity 1' * 

The Labauve charity 1 * • 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 7 

The University of Mississippi — Continued. Page. 

Chancellorship abolished ; Chairman Mayes 178 

The reorganization of 1889 178 

Canvass of the State 181 

Fellowships established 181 

Summary of the total enrollment 182 

Presiding officers and faculty 183 

Organization 187 

Postgraduate degrees 188 

Detailed statement of courses : 189 

The University property 200 

The State appropriations 201 

Alexander M. Clayton 202 

Jacob Thompson , 203 

Augustus B. Longstreet 205 

F. A. P. Barnard 208 

JohnN.Waddel '. 210 

Alexander P. Stewart 211 

Edward Mayes 212 

Chapter X. 

The Agricultural and Geological Survey 213 

Sketch of Prof. E. W. Hilgard 224 

Chapter XI. 

The Agricultural and Mechanical College 227 

The Agricultural and Mechanical College established 230 

The objects and purposes of the college 232 

Departments of instruction 234 

Buildings and grounds 239 

The Agricultural Experiment Station 240 

Farmers' Institutes and outside work 241 

Discipline 241 

Library and reading room 241 

Attendance of students 242 

Faculty 242 

Sketch of Gen. Stephen D. Lee 243 

Chapter XII. 

The Industrial Institute and College, a State college for girls: 

The struggle 245 

The charter 247 

Property 248 

Courses 250 

Attendance, expenses; etc 252 

The faculty 254 

Prof. Richard W. Jones 254 

Chapter XIII. 

Millsaps College 256 



8 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CiTAPTEK XIV. 

Education of the colored race: Pa^-e. 

Tougaloo University , ^ 259 

State Normal School at Holly Springs „ 266 

Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College . t „ 270 

Chapter XV. 

The common schools of Mississippi: 

The common schools before the war „ 278 

The common schools since the war . , 282 



LIST OF ILUJSTEATIOI^S. 



Page. 

Cbamberlain-Hunt Academy 71 

Mississippi College, main building 80 

Union Female College ^3 

Whitwortli Female College 101 

University of Mississippi : 

Lyceum, 1 118 

Lyceum, 2 135 

Library building 139 

Observatory and Hall of Physics 146 

Campus . 164 

Agricultural and Mechanical College 227 

State Industrial Institute and College 245 

Millsaps College : 

Main Building, erected in 1 892 256 

Webster Science Hall, erected in 1896 257 

Library, erected in 1896 258 

Tougaloo University : 

Beard Hall, girls' dormitory 259 

Strieby Hall, boys' dormitory 261 

State Normal School at Holly Springs t 266 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



Chapter I. 

*• EARLY POLITICAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 

In order to understand fully the early history of education in Missis- 
sippi, it is necessary to take a brief view of the State's early political 
and social history. 

We shall not linger to trace the wanderings of De Soto, nor those of 
La Salle and Tonti. Ihey are familiar to every student of American 
annals. Kor shall we do more than note that in the year 1699 the 
French planted, under the command of the Sieur Lemoyne d'Iberville, 
a colony at Biloxi, the first settlement on what is now soil of Missis- 
sippi. 

In the year 1701 a French fort and magazine were established on 
Dauphine Island, at the mouth of Mobile Bay. This establishment led, 
nine years later, to the planting of another colony on the present site 
of the city of Mobile. In 1716 another French fort and colony were 
fixed at Natchez, and called, in honor of the Comtesse de Pontchartrain, 
"La ville de Eosalie aux Natchez.'' 

In 1729 the Indians extirpated this settlement by a most horrible 
massacre, and the French seem never to have replanted it. 

On the 3d of November, 1762, a secret treaty was signed at Paris, by 
which the King of France transferred to the King of Spain all of the 
country embraced in the province of Louisiana. But the title of the 
Spaniard to this vas't and valuable territory was not unchallenged. In 
the year 1663, a century before the cession mentioned above, Charles II 
granted to Earl Clarendon and others the territory embraced between 
the thirty-first and thirty-sixth parallels of north latitude, and estab- 
lished it as a province by the name of Carolina. In 1719, ten years 
before the Natchez massacre, the division into North and South Caro- 
lina was finally completed. In 1732 George II granted a charter for the 
colony of Georgia, the thirteenth British colony in America. The terri- 
tory granted lay within the boundaries of South Carolina, running east 
and west entirely through that province, and embracing all of the coun- 
try between the Savannah and the Altamaha rivers, and from the head- 
springs of those streams due west indefinitely. South Carolina contin- 
ued to claim and exercise jurisdiction over the territory lying south of 
the Altamaha and separating the province of Georgia from the then 
Spanish province of Florida. 

11 



12 HISTOBY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

In 1763, tlie next year after the secret cession of Louisiana to Spain 
by France, by the tripartite treaty of Paris, Great Britain obtained the 
province of Florida and all that portion of Louisiana lying east of the 
Mississippi, except the island of ^ew Orleans. The territory thus 
acquired by her extended westward along the Mexican Gulf to the 
Mississippi, and embraced parts of the present States of Alabama and 
Mississippi and part of Louisiana. In the same year George III estab- 
lished by proclamation the provinces of East and West Florida. The 
northern boundary of West Florida was declared to be a line drawn due 
east from that part of the Mississippi Eiver which lies in 31^ north 
latitude, along said parallel to the Chattahoochee. By the same proc- 
lamation all of the lands lying between the rivers Altamaha and 
St. Marys were severed from South Carolina and annexed to Georgia. 
Thus the southern boundary of Georgia was located, and its western 
boundary fixed at the Mississippi River. But this south Georgian 
boundary line was not permitted to rest in peace. A commission issued 
by the King in 1764 to George Johnstone, esq., whereby he was appointed 
governor of West Florida, names as the north boundary of that prov- 
ince a line drawn due east from the mouth of the Yazoo Eiver; and a 
similar commission was issued to Peter Chester in 1770. Is otwith stand- 
ing these commissions, there is not sufficient evidence (so declares the 
Supreme Court of the United States) that the limits of West Florida 
were ever in fact extended to the Yazoo line, but their immediate effect 
was to enable the British governors of that province to contest the 
jurisdiction of the British governors of Georgia in that quarter, if, 
indeed, the latter functionaries can be said to have contested the 
matter. 

In 1764 Great Britain established Fort Panmure at the old Fort 
Eosalie. The place was found to be «^a mere ruin covered with forest 
trees and a few old French cannon lying around.'' 

A tide of immigration now set in swiftly. The colony of West 
Florida having been established by the King, as stated above, Pensa- 
cola was made the capital of the province. Governor Johnstone 
brought with him a British regiment of Highlanders, and numerous 
persons followed in his train to settle in the province. He appointed 
commandants and sent garrisons to Fort Charlotte at Mobile, to Fort 
Bute at Manchac, and to Fort Panmure. He appointed civil magis- 
trates and organized a superior court at Pensacola, whose jurisdiction 
extended over the whole province and which, until the close of the 
British rule in 1782, administered justice according to the common law 
of England. 

The governor bad Uberal instructions in regard to public lands and was author- 
ized to make grants, without fee or reward, to every retired officer who had served 
in America against the French and Indians and to any private soldiers disabled in 
America who should apply. * * "" This generous provision on the part of the 
Crown was the nest eg^ of our population. It attracted a class of enterprising and 
intelligent men who, after the peace of 1763, had been drifting about. Immigration 
rapidly set in, consisting at first of disabled officers and soldiers. 



EARLY POLITICAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY. 13 

This was the first stream. A second and even more important stream 
of immigrants soon followed. 

The troubles and dissensions between the colonies and the mother country were 
growing serious. Great diversity of opinion existed among the colonists, and espe- 
cially in the Carolinas. Many persons, loyal to the Crown, but unwilling to take 
part against the people among whom they lived; embracing in numerous instances 
their kindred' and even their own households, sought refuge in West Florida. ^ ^ * 
Many of this class from Georgia and the Carolinas and some from colonies farther 
north followed the British ilag to Pensacola, and thence made their way to the shores 
of Lake Pontchartraiii, to Manchac, Baton Rouge, Natchez, Bayou Pierre, and 
Walnut Hills, 1 and also up the Tombigbee River. 

Special mention should be made of some of the immigrants. In 1772 
Eichard and Samuel Swayze, of New Jersey, with their families and 
a number of their kindred and friends, settled on a purchase of 19,000 
acres in Adams County, on the Homochitto Eiver, at what is now 
known as Kingston. 

Samuel Swayze had been for a number of years a Congregational minister, and 
most of the adults who came with him were communicants. The faithful shepherd, 
as soon as he had provided a shelter for his wife and children and planted corn for 
their bread, gathered up his fold and organized his society, undoubtedly the first 
Protestant pastor and congregation in the Natchez district. * « * The Jersey 
settlement; begun in 1772 by men of intelligence, energy, and high moral character, 
became prosperous and rich, densely populated, highly cultivated, distinguished for 
its churches and schools, its hospitality and refinement, and in the course of years 
it sent its thrifty colonies into many counties, carrying with them the characteristics 
of the parent hive.^ 

Many of the best families in Mississippi and Louisiana are descended 
in one branch or another from the brothers Swayze. 

In December, 1773, Gen. Phineas Lyman, an eminent lawyer and 
statesman of Connecticut, who had served with distinction as a major- 
general of the royal provincial troops, embarked at Stonington for Kew 
Orleans. He was accompanied by his family and a large party of 
friends, some of whom had along their wives and children. There were 
also several slaves. In February, 1775, the general having died in the 
meanwhile, the Crown granted 20,000 acres to his family. These lauds 
were located on the Big Black and the Bayou Pierre, in the present 
county of Claiborne, and were occupied by the Lymans and their party. 
'^Among this band was the Eev. Jedediah Smith, who had long been a 
Congregational minister in Greenville, Mass., and his ten children, 
from whom descended large and influential families.'' 

This immigration was very different from that of the French. These 
had come, " for the most part, in public vessels, with free transportation, 
under special charters, with soldiers to protect them, and with constant 
succession of ships, year after year, bringing reenforcements and sup- 
plies. They devoted themselves to exploration, to hunting and trap- 
ping, to the establishment of isolated posts, and to a fruitless search 
after silver and gold, starving on a soil capable of supporting 50,000,000 
of people. The French consisted either of the cadets of noble families, 

^ Claihorne's Mississippi, 102-107. 



14 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

who came to seek military distinction, or soldiers of fortune^ who fol- 
lowed the profession of arms and were capable of no other vocation; 
of the civil employees of the company, who were also a nonproducing 
class; and a few peasants and Acadians, poor, ignorant, and contented 
with their condition. The priests and the Canadians were the only 
energetic class. The first were devoted exclusively to the reclamation 
of the Indians; the latter were satisfied with their fowling pieces and 
their pirogues. The very women that- were sent out by the Govern- 
ment to furnish wives for the colonists, instead of being selected from 
the farms and villages, had been, for the most part, picked up in the 
streets of Paris and from the houses of refuge." 

The ouly inducement the British authority held out for immigration was a liberal 
dispensation of land to those that had rendered service to the Crown. No transpor- 
tation was furnished ; few military posts established; no vain search made after 
metals. Those that came came at their own expense. They crossed the mountains 
to Pittsburg or to the head waters of the Tennessee, where they often made a crop of 
corn and wheat the first season, and then built their boats and brought down with 
them to their point of destination their families, their slaves and stock, and a year's 
supply of i)rovi8ions; or they came from Georgia and Carolina, the overland jour- 
ney on pack horses, through the Creek and Choctaw territories; or by sea from 
some more northern posts to Pensacola and New Orleans, and then by boats to their 
respective stations. Nine-tenths of them came to cultivate the soil; they brought 
intelligence and capital, and they embarked at once into the production of supplies 
for home consumption, and selected indigo as their crop for exportation. Tobacco 
was next introduced, and subsequently cotton. All the necessaries of life were in 
abundance and cheap. The corncrib had no lock upon it. Bacon, beef, butter, and 
poultry wer« plentiful. Orchards were on a large scale and the fruit better than at 
present. It was a common sight to see one hundred beehives in a farmyard, and 
both buckwheat and clover were then grown especially for the benefit of these epi- 
curean manufacturers. Beeswax and honey were articles of export. The medicinal 
herbs and roots — rhubarb, ginger, pimento, madder, saffron, hops, the opium poppy, 
and many others which we now purchase from the apothecary — were grown in the 
gardens. Many planters tanned their own leather. Shoes were almost always made 
on the plantation, either by a workman belonging to the place or by a man hired to 
do the work. Gentlemen and ladies were clad in homespun. Even the bridle reins, 
girths, and saddlecloths were made at home.-^ 

This immigration was further stimulated and increased by the out- 
break and pendency of the war between the American colonies and the 
mother country. The Floridas took no part in the great rebellion. 
They were the land of loyalty and of peace. 

Many families of wealth and distinction, and who were either loyal in sentiment 
or desired to be neutral, sought an asylum in West Florida. Settlements on Bayou 
Pierre, Big Black, and the V^alnut Hills still further multiplied. The majority of 
those who came were men of intelligence and character. Bad men — outlaws and 
fugitives from justice — came likewise, but they were outnumbered and restrained by 
the better class, and there was generally peace and order, and security for property. 
The landholders were, for the most part, educated men. Many of them had held 
commissions in the British and provincial array ; others had held civil offices under 
the Crown or the colonies and had been accustomed to the administration of the 
laws of England, now and for ages past the great security of social order and public 

1 Claiborne's Mississippi, pp. 114-115. 



EART.Y POLITICAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY. 15 

liberty. Snch a population is a guaranty against anarchy and mob rule, andtbougb 
remote from the provincial government at Pensacola and no court of record nearer, 
the Natchez district was proverbial for its immunity from crimes and criminals. 
There is no British record of judicial proceedings in the Natchez district; and as 
there was considerable wealth in land, slaves, cattle, and merchandise, the good 
order that prevailed must be ascribed to the superior character of the early immi- 
gration. The intelligent and cultivated class predominated and gave tone to the 
community. 

Natchez, at this period (1776), was but a small village, and the buildings were all 
on the batture under the bluff— some twenty ordinary frame and log houses. There 
were four merchants, viz, Hanchett & Newman, Thomas Barber, Captain Blomart 
(a half-pay British officer), and James Willing, from Philadelphia. 

Such (in 1778) was the prosperous condition of the Natchez district and of the 
Province of West Florida generally under the British administration. Plantations 
rapidly multiplied. The planters established credits in London, Pensacola, and 
Jamaica, and received their merchandise and negroes direct from those ports. The 
Atlantic colonies, from Avhich most of the inhabitants had migrated, were then in 
the crisis of the Revolutionary war. Washington and his army had passed the 
dreadful winter at Valley Forge, the cities of Philadelphia and New York were in 
the hands of the enemy, and Carolina and Georgia were wasted and harassed by 
the British and Tories. But profound peace and good order prevailed in West 
Florida, and no colony in the British Empire or elsewhere was in a condition more 
happy and prosperous.^ 

This fortunate condition did not continue. The storm cloud was 
rising in an unexpected quarter. A change of dynasty impended. 

The English in A¥est Florida had taken no pains to conciliate the Spanish rulers 
of Louisiana. They floated by New Orleans with their vessels loaded with British 
wares, which they disposed of on the river without license, to the ruin of the Spanish 
merchants, and by superior energy their traders monopolized almost the entire Indian 
trade. England was at war with France, on account of the part she had taken for 
the colonies, and Spain having attempted to interpose, and being scornfully rebuked, 
declared war against England (in the year 1779) on the point of honor.^ 

Spain waged no war against the American colonies. On the con- 
trary, they combated a common enemy. Had the Natchez district 
been confessedly territory of Georgia or of Oarolina, as those colonies 
claimed that it was, Spain would probably not have interfered with it. 
But, as we have already seen, that territory and all other below the cel- 
ebrated Yazoo line were claimed by the governors of West Florida to 
form part of that province. Certainly those governors had taken pos- 
session, and were ruling it de facto, whether de jure or not 5 and west 
Florida, not having thrown off the yoke of the British supremacy, as 
had the other colonies, was confessedly British territory, and fair gam^ 
for the Spaniard. 

Don Bernardo de Galvez was then the civil and military governor of 
Louisiana, and the ablest and most active man that ever ruled that 
province. He immediately proposed and set about the conquest of 
Florida. In the first year (1779) he took forts Bute and Baton Eouge, 
receiving the surrender of all the British forts in those parts, including 
Fort Panmure, the posts on the Amite and on Thompsons Oreek, and 



1 Claiborne's Mississippi, pp. 115, 116. ^ij^^^^j^^ p^ 124. 



16 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

the entire district of IS'atchez. In 1780 he took Mobile and the whole 
country from the Pearl to the Perdido; and in 1781, captured Pensacola 
and the remainder of the province. Thus ended the British dominion 
in West Florida, after a period of nineteen years. '^Strong garrisons 
of Spanish infantry, then renowned for their valor and discipline, occu- 
pied Pensacola, Mobile, Baton Eouge, Natchez, Nogales (Vicksbnrg), 
and other points ^ all under the cantrol of the ablest soldier and admin- 
istrator of his times.'^ 

In November, 1782, provisional articles of peace were signed between 
the United States and His Britannic Majesty. By these articles the 
southern boundary of the United States was fixed at a line drawn from 
the Mississippi due east along the thirty-first parallel to th^ Chattahoo- 
chee, and thence to the Hint Eiver junction, and thence to the head of 
the St. Marys, and thence by that river to the ocean, thereby adopting 
the north boundary line of the Eloridas as fixed by the proclamation of 
17G3. The same line was expressly confirmed by the definitive treaty 
of peace made on September 3, 1783; but on the same day a treaty of 
peace was concluded between Great Britain and Spain, in which the 
former ceded back to the latter both the Floridas, declaring an entire 
cession in full right, but without defining the boundaries. Spain was 
not a party to the treaty between Great Britain and the United States, 
and, standing upon her own treaty, the Johnstone and Chester commis- 
sions, their actual exercise of jurisdiction, and upon the Galvez occupa- 
tion, Spain refused to surrender to the United States the territory 
south of the Yazoo line, but, on the contrary, erected forts at Nogales 
(the site of the present Yicksburg) and New Madrid, and strengthened 
the garrisons at Natchez, Baton Rouge, and Manchac. 

The long controversy with Spain as to the boundary of Florida was 
ended by the treaty of October 27, 1795, just as it was about to give 
rise to a war with that power. This treaty agrees that the line which 
was described in the treaty between Great Britain and the United 
States as the southern boundary of the United States shall be the 
line dividing the territories of the United States from east and west 
Florida. The treaty does not import a cession of territory, but is 
understood as an admission that the right was originally in the United 
States. 

The disturbances and losses incident to the Spanish conquest and 
occupation naturally and inevitably stopped the American-English 
immigration to west Florida. But about the year 1790 a third tide set 
in. These immigrants were people who came chiefly to better their 
fortunes. ''The clemency of the Spanish authorities, the easy terms on 
which they granted lands, the exemption from taxes and military 
duties, their interposition to protect the honest debtor from usurers and 
alien creditors, the unrivaled fertility of the country, and the free 
access to New Orleans permitted to settlers were powerful inducements 
to colonization.'' Moreover, there \vas a firm conviction that the United 



EARLY POLITICAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY. 17 

States had a just claim to the country 5 that the need of the Mississippi 
Eiver outlet would soon bring about the assertion of that claim ; and 
that the expatriation would therefore be for a period not long. These 
immigrants were not a rude people. They brought with them "culture, 
social position, enterprise, and considerable wealth, and these elements 
controlled and characterized the community. At no period since has 
there been better order and fewer crimes. The Spanish authorities had 
no disposition to be severe, nor did they manifest any desire to be so. 
The successive commandants at Natchez and the governors-general of 
Louisiana were accomplished gentlemen, trained to arms, stately but 
courteous, punctilious, fond of etiquette and pomp, but hospitable, gen- 
erous, and forbearing. They were Catholics, of course, and such was 
the religion of the Kingdom and its provinces,* and those who emi- 
grated to the country came with a full knowledge of the fact. A large 
majority of the settlers were Protestants, who enjoyed their faith and 
the right of private worship. Ko attempt was made to proselyte or 
proscribe them, nor was there ever any official interference unless the 
parties in their zeal, or under indiscreet advisers, became offensively 
demonstrative. There was, in fact, more religious freedom and toler- 
ation for Protestants in the Fatchez district than Catholics and dis- 
senters from the ruling denomination enjoyed in either old or New 
England." 

Property was secure, debts were promptly collected, and justice impar- 
tially administered. After the treaty of 1795 General Wilkinson, under 
the date of May 20, 1797, in his written instructions to Captain Guion 
for the occupation of the Natchez district, said: "At Natchez you will 
find yourself in an extensive, opulent, and polished community, agi- 
tated by a variety of political interests and opinions." In 1801 Gov- 
ernor Claiborne writes this to Mr. Madison, then Secretary of State: 

The river front here (Natchez) is thronged with boats from the West. Great quan- 
tities of flour and other produce continually pass. Cotton, the staple of this Terri- 
tory, has been very productive and remunerative. I have heard it suggested by 
our business men that the aggregate sales this season will exceed $700,000, a large 
revenue for a people whose numbers are about 9,000, of all ages and colors. 

The establishment and development of these settlements along the 
Mississippi were accompanied by a corresponding movement along 
the Tombigbee, from Mobile upward. They have a history similar, but 
not so brilliant. Grants of lands were made to immigrants about 
McIntosh^s Bluff, Fort St. Stephens (subsequently the Territorial capi- 
tal of Alabama), and along Bassett's Creek, in the vicinity of the 
Tombigbee. These lands, however, were not so fertile nor in such 
extensive bodies as in the region of the Mississippi, and the river was 
of such inferior importance to the latter stream that the settlements 
in that region did not increase with the same rapidity as in the latter 
country, nor attain such a height of prosperity, nor extend themselves 
21785— No. 24 2 



18 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

witli the same swiftness. Many of those first stopping on the Tom- 
bigbee ultimately removed to the Mississippi.^ 

A little later Pearl Eiver became the locality of a noteworthy set- 
tlement. It was, however, composed mainly of a people essentially 
different from those in the Katchez district. 

Most of the settlers were from the poorer districts of Georgia and the Carolinas. 
True to the iDstincts of the people from whom they were descended, they sought as 
nearly as possible just such a cojintry as that from which they came, and were 
really refugees from a growing civilization consequent upon a denser population 
and its necessities. They were not agriculturists in a proper sense of the term ; 
true, they cultivated in some degree the soil, but it was not the prime pursuit of 
these people, nor was the location sought for this purpose. They desired an open, 
poor, pine country, which forbade a numerous population. Here they reared 
immense herds of cattle which subsisted exclusively upon the coarse grass and 
weeds which grew abundantly among the tall, long-leafed pine, and along the 
small creeks and branches numerous in this section. Through these almost inter- 
minable pine forests the deer were abundant and the canebrakes full of bears. 
They combined the pursuits of hunting and stock minding, and derived support and 
revenue almost exclusively from these. They were illiterate and careless of the 
comforts of a better-reared, better-educated, and more intelligent people. They 
were unable to employ for each family a teacher, and the population was too sparse 
to collect the children in a neighborhood school. * * * Some of these pioneers 
remained in the country many years and came to be surrounded with descendants, 
men and women, the growth of the country, rude, illiterate, and independent. 
Along the margins of the streams they found small strips of land of better quality 
than the pine forests afforded. Here they grew sufficient corn for bread and a few 
of the coarser vegetables, and in blissful ignorance enjoyed life after the manner 
they loved. The country gave character to the people — both were wild and poor; 
, both were sui generis in appearance and production, and both seeming to fall away 
from the richer soil and better people of the western portion of the State. Between 
them and the inhabitants of the river counties there was little communication and 
less sympathy, and perhaps no country on earth of the same extent presented a 
wider difference in soil and population, especially by one speaking the same lan- 
guage and professing the same religion. ^ 

We have already seen that in the year 1795 the treaty with Spain 
fixed the parallel of 31o as the southern boundary of the United 
States, and, by consequence, of the State of Georgia. It was not 
known, however, until March 29, 179.8, that the Spanish garrison was 
withdrawn. 

On the 7th of April following, Mississippi Territory was created with 
boundaries, however, very diiierent from those appertaining to the 
present State, viz, the parallel of 31^ on the south, the line drawn due 
east from the mouth of the Yazoo Eiver on the north, the Mississippi 
Eiver on the west, and the Chattahoochee on the east. Winthrop 
Sargent, of Massachusetts, was appointed governor of the new terri- 
tory, and arrived at Natchez August 6, in the same year. Governor 
Sargent's administration was unfortunate. 

The governor was a total stranger to the people. They were a mixed population 
of various nationalities; but the controlling element was Southern, and it gave tone 



i Sparks' Memories of Fifty Years, p. 246. ^ i\y\d,, pp. 331, 332. 



EARLY POLITICAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY. 19 

to society and to public sentiment. The immigrants from the Southern States and 
a few English and French gentlemen settled among them were opulent, polished, 
hospitable, and convivial, delighted to have a chief magistrate and an organized 
government, but greatly disappointed by his saturnine temperament and grim 
demeanor. The governor had as little fancy for their cavalier deportment and the 
freedom of their conversation.^ 

His high-toned Federalism, his manifest want of sympathy with the 
people, nay, antipathy to them ; his excess of all conceivable stretch 
of republican authority verging closely on tyranny, made the people 
first restive and then turbulent and clamorous for a change. He and 
the judges commissioned for the Territory had promulgated a code of 
laws severe and incompatible with the spirit of our institutions. 
Remonstrances, carefully drawn and eloquent in their indignation, 
were forwarded to Congress, complaining of those laws and of the 
governor's arbitrary abuses of executive power. The result of all 
which was that in 1801 Mississippi Territory was advanced to the sec- 
ond grade of government, which secured to it a legislature to be elected 
by the people. 

The first territorial legislature after Winthrop Sargent was removed 
and William 0. 0. Claiborne made governor, convened at Natchez on 
the 1st of December, 1801. It immediately repealed most of the laws 
passed by Governor Sargent and the judges and enacted a new code. 
We get here a curious and- interesting side light on the scene from a 
letter by Governor Claiborne to Secretary Madison, dated February 5, 
1802. He says: 

The people complain that they are ignorant of the laws. The fact is so, but it is 
not in my power to offer a remedy. The only printer in this Territory (and he is a 
novice in the profession) has been employed on high wages to print the laws. The 
work is going on, but from want of type, a good press, and assistant, it can not be 
completed for several months. I am surprised that printers from the older States 
do not turn their attention in this direction. I know of no quarter where a well- 
conducted paper would be more lucrative and of more advantage to society. 

In the latter part of this same year, 1802, the legislature was again 
in session, and the printer not liaving completed the printing of the 
laws, Edward Turner, a young lawyer, was employed to make a num- 
ber of manuscript copies, for which he received $36. Well might the 
historian of Mississippi exclaim, *' Economical days!''^ 

This legislature established the Territorial capital at Washington, 
Adams County. This village is thus described in 1805 : 

The town of V^ashington, 6 miles east of Natchez, in a rich, elevated, and pictur- 
esque country, was then the seat of government. The land office, the survey or- 
generaPs office,, the office of the commissioners of claims, the courts of the United 
States were all there. In the immediate vicinity was Fort Dearborn and a i)er- 
manent cantonment of United States troops. The high officials of the Territory made 
it their residence, and many gentlemen of fortune, attracted by its advantages, 
went there to reside. There were three large hotels, and the academical department 
of Jefferson College, inaugurated by Governor Claiborne, was in successful oper- 
ation. The society was highly cultured and refined. The conflicting land titles had 



1 Claiborne^s Mississippi, p. 206. ^n^j^j^^ p^ 228. 



20 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

drawn a crowd of lawyers, generally young men, of fine attainments and brilliant 
talents. The medical profession was equally well represented, at the head of which 
was Dr. Daniel Rawlings, a native of Calvert County, Md., a man of high moral 
character and exalted patriotism, eminent in his profession, and who, as a vigorous 
writer and acute reasoner, had no superior and few equals. ^ * * It was a gay and 
fashionable place, compactly built for a mile or more from east to west, every hill in 
the neighborhood occupied by some gentleman's chateau. The presence of the 
military had its influence on society; punctilio and ceremony, parades and public 
entertainments were the features of the place. It was, of course, the haunt of 
politicians and office hunters; the center of political intrigue; the point to which 
all persons in pursuit of land or occupation first came. Was famous for its wine 
parties and dinners, usually enlivened by one or more duels directly afterwards. 
Such was this now deserted and forlorn-looking village during Territorial organiza- 
tion. In its forums there was more oratory, in its salons more wit and beauty than 
we have ever witnessed since — all now moldering and forgotten in the desolate 
graveyard of the ancient capital.^ 

In the year 1802 the controversy between the United States and the 
State of Georgia over the ownership of the Mississippi country was 
settled by a cession from that State of all the territory outside of ber 
present limits. In 1803 France sold to the United States all of Louisiana 
as that French colony then existed. In 1804 all of the country lying 
between the then Mississippi Territory and Tennessee was annexed to 
the Territory. In 1813 all of that part of Louisiana lying between the 
Pearl and the Perdido rivers was also attached to the Territory. 
Finally, in 1817 Mississippi was admitted into the Union as a sovereign 
State with its present limits. 

However, the whole of the State's territory was not, even after that 
admission, available for settlement. Excepting that portion of the 
State which lay east of the Tombigbee Eiver and is now included in 
the counties of Lowndes and Monroe, all of the northern portion of the 
State, and so far south as the southern boundaries, roughly speaking, 
of the counties of Hinds, Rankin, Smith, Jasper, etc., was still in the 
hands of the Chickasaw and the Choctaw Indians. 

The treaties of Doak's Stand and of Dancing Rabbit Creek, made in 
October, 1820, and in September, 1830, respectively, with the Choctaws, 
and that of Pontotoc Creek, made in October, 1832, with the Chicka- 
saws, relieved the situation. The tribes were removed to the West as 
soon as was possible, and thus in the short space of fifteen years was 
thrown open for occupation all the vast and fertile territory of central 
and northern Mississippi. The effect was prompt and marked. Both 
from the northward in Tennessee and from the southward in Missis- 
sippi the tides of immigration had been arrested by the Indian bound- 
aries. They had fretted against the unwelcome barriers. ^^IS^atura 
abhorret vacuum," say the physicists, and so says the heart of the 
immigrant. The odious barriers being broken down, there was a surge 
of humanity into the vacant spaces, the suction of which was felfc far 
and near. 

1 Claiborne^s Mississippi, p. 258. 



EARLY POLITICAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY. 21 

I^o phase of this State's history can be properly understood without 
a clear view of these facts : 

In the year 1820 the population of the State, all being in the south- 
ern portion and below the southern line of Hinds County, roughly 
stated, was 75,448. In the year 1830, after the treaty at Doak's Stand 
and the movement of the Indian lines to about the northern boundary 
of Holmes County on the north and the eastern boundary of Madison 
County on the east, the population was 136,621. In 1840, after the 
two other treaties, it was 297,566. In 1850, or about fifteen years after 
the two later, and principal, treaties, it was 606,526. That there should 
be a sudden and long plunge of the center of population northward in 
a new State, most of whose territory had been but recently thrown 
open to settlement, is not of itself a singular matter; but as a fact it 
must be constantly remembered by the reader of this history. 



Chapter II. 

EDUCATIONAL BEGINNINGS. 
EDUCATION UNDER THE SPANISH E,:EaiME. 

The Spaniards had no public schools in Natchez and only one or two 
private tutors. Not only did that Government do nothing for the 
education of the people, but, on the contrary, its course rather tended 
to repress any disposition or eifort on the part of the people (largely 
American and Protestant, as we have seen) to do anything for them- 
selves in that direction. So late as 1803 we find the board of trustees 
of Jefferson College petitioning Congress for aid in their efforts, 
"attended with peculiar impediments, in a community but lately 
emerged ^from the lethargic influence of an arbitrary government, 
averse from principle to the general information of its citizens." 

Yet, barren as this period was of school work, it is here that we 
must look for one of the most accomplished and interesting characters 
of our history. This was Sir William Dunbar, youngest son of Sir 
Archibald Dunbar, of Elgin, one of the most ancient and famous of 
the earldoms of Scotland, who settled at Natchez in 1792. He had 
been thoroughly educated at Glasgow, where he evinced such a faculty 
for mechanics and mathematics that he was induced to repair to London 
to pursue those studies. 

From Natchez he maintained a correspondence with Sir William Herschel, Presi- 
dent Jefferson, Rittenhonse, and other learned men, and obtained from London a 
costly telescope and a complete set of instruments for his observatory and labora- 
tory. From this remote country, then regarded as a wilderness, he traced the course 
of the planets, and made experiments in chemistry, and solved problems in mechan- 
ics that were eagerly adopted by the philosophers of Great Britain, and his name 
became familiar to the academicians of the Continent. Mr. Jefferson solicited his 
correspondence. At his instance, Mr. Dunbar explored the Ouachita to its sources, 
geologically one of the most interesting fields in America. His reports of that 
exploration, on the delta of the Mississippi, and on the sign language of the Indians, 
a remarkable medium by which the most remote tribes intercommunicate, and his 
classification of the tribes are among the most valuable contributions to the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society. This useful and virtuous citizen, the most distinguished 
scholar in our annals, died at his plantation, The Forest, in 1810, leaving numerous 
descendants and a fortune to each of them.^ 



1 Claiborne's Mississippi, p. 201. 
22 



EDUCATIONAL BEGINNINGS. 23 

EARLY EFFOBTS BY THE AMERICANS UNDER THE GOVERNOR AND 

JUDGES. 

Governor Sargent and the judges did nothing for the cause of educa- 
tion. The country was in a very unsettled state, and the people were 
too entirely absorbed in the resistance of his aggressions and tyranny 
to devote much attention to schools. Yet they did nQ|} wholly overlook 
so important an interest. On the 23d of December, 1799, Mr. Sewall 
presented to Congress a letter from Governor Sargent, inclosing a 
memorial from the inhabitants of Natchez, praying for legislative aid 
in the establishment of a seminary; also a petition of John Henderson 
and others, inhabitants of Natchez, praying the aid and patronage 
of Congress in the establishment of a regular ministry of the gospel, 
and schools for the youth.^ 

About the time of the Spanish evacuation, Warren County was set- 
tled by people in culture and means far ahead of the usual class of 
pioneers. Among them were the Vicks and the Xlooks, who were 
Methodists, and exerted a most wholesome influence throughout the 
county. Their first business, after providing a roof for tlieir families, 
was the building of churches and schoolhouses.^ Here and in the 
Natchez district, and especially in the latter locality, were families of 
means who employed private tutors; some boys were sent to the 
Eastern and Northern States to be educated ; some were sent even to 
Europe. Yet, while these favorable indications existed, it is also true 
that the general state of the Territory was, from an educational point 
of view, deplorable. English schoolmasters were difficult to obtain. 
Many strangers who undertook to act in that delicate and responsible 
profession were found to have contracted, in other scenes, habits so 
vicious as to render their dismissal necessary.^ 

REV. DAVID KER. 

The first public female school in the Territory was started in 
Natchez in the year 1801 by the Rev. David Ker. It will be appro- 
priate to devote a few words to this, the first teacher of reputation in 
Mississippi. 

We first hear of this gentleman as connected with the Presbytery of 
Temple Patrick, in the north of Ireland. Although born in Ireland, he 
belonged to the historic family of Kers, in Scotland. In 1789, his name 
appears as a member of Orange Presbytery, North Carolina. In 1790 
he was' residing in Fayetteville as a minister, and in charge of a clas- 
sical academy. In 1794 he was elected professor of humanities in the 
University of North Carolina, and placed in charge of the institution. 
Resigning in 1796, he removed to Lumberton, where he became a mer- 
chant and studied law. He moved in 1800, with General Willis, of 

^Annals of Congress, sixth session, Honse of Representatives. 

2 Claiborne's Mississippi, pp. 535-536. 

^Hairs Mississippi Territory, Salisbury, N. C, 1801. 



24 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Lumberton, to Mississippi, where in 1801 he was appointed sheriff of 
Adams County; and again, clerk of Adams County in 1802, and judge 
of the superior court in the same year. He was accounted the ablest 
and best judge on the bench. The governor wrote of him to Mr. Madi- 
son, '^Mr. Ker's appointment has given much satisfaction to a large 
majority of the citizens. He is a valuable acquisition to the bench." 
He was assisted in his school work by his wife and daughters, who were 
highly finished scholars and very elegant ladies.^ 

» Claiborne's Mississippi, pp. 231, 238, 242; P. K. Montgomery, in History of Jef- 
ferson County; Claiborne Papers, Vol. G. 



Chapter III. 



JEFFERSON COLLEGE. 

On the 13th of May, 1802, JefPerson College was incorporated by the 
territorial legislature, being named after '^Thomas Jefferson, President 
of the United States, and president of the American Philosophical 
Society." It is noteworthy that not only was this the first institution 
of learning established by authority in the State, but also that its 
charter was the first act of incorporation for any purpose in Mississippi. 

The institution is still in existence. Chartered eighty-nine years ago 
(1891), it is believed that it has never yet graduated a student with an 
academic degree. For all that, its usefulness has been great, and it 
is now in a flourishing condition, constituting about the only hope of 
the poor educable youth of its section. Among its students have been 
the sons of Audubon, the celebrated naturalist, and themselves in 
later years his efficient assistants; J. F. H. Claiborne, the accomplished 
legislator and historian, who has done more than any other native Mis- 
sissippian to rescue from oblivion the names of the heroes and states- 
men of this State; B. L. O. Wailes, the eminent geologist; Senator and 
Governor A. G. Brown, and Jefferson DaVis.^ 

Its history presents the strangest complication of good and of ill 
fortune, and is so finely characteristic of both the vicissitudes and 
tbe successes of such institutions that it shall be noted at some length. 
Although a continuous narrative will take us far ahead of the period 
of its establishment, it is deemed best to present the history in that 
shape : 

Jefferson College had no endowment granted by its charter, but was to be sup- 
ported by voluntary contributions, to which end the trustees were authorized to 
receive donations from citizens and others, and to raise a sum of money by lottery. 

On the 3d of January of the succeeding year (1803) the trustees met at the town 
of Washington and organized the board by the election of William C. C. Claiborne, 
governor of the Mississippi Territory, president; William Dunbar, vice-president, 
and Felix Hughes, secretary. On the 6th of June following, Alexander Montgomery 
was elected treasurer. 

Sensible of the difficulty of the task of erecting an institution for public educa- 
tion without public funds, the trustees at their first meeting adopted an address to 
the public, in which they appealed to the patriotism of their fellow-citizens to sup- 
ply this want by their private liberality, and depicted in forcible terms the benefits 
to be derived from the support of the institution and the great advantages of home 
education. 

The trustees at the same time petitioned Congress for aid in this first attempt to 
institute a place of general education for the youth of the Territory, which, by a 

^ Centennial oration of Gen. Jos. Shields. 

25 



26 HISTORY OF EDUCATIOISr TN MISSISSIPPI. 

law of tlie legislature, had devolved upon them — an attempt attended with peculiar 
impediments in a community but lately emerged from the lethargic influence of an 
arbitrary government, averse from principle to the general information of its citi- 
zens, a community which would consequently be tardy in learning the necessity of 
affording effectual aid to such an object by voluntary contribution. 

The appeal to the public was productive of very limited aid; that to Congress 
was promptly and liberally responded to by a grant, on the 3d of March, 1803, of a 
township of land and some lots of ground in and adjoining the city of Natchez. 

For a site the board accepted a valuable donation of lands offered 
by John and James Foster and Eandall Gibson, adjoining the town of 
Washington, the territorial capital. 

The donations were subsequently extended to about 47 acres. The 
lottery scheme proved ineffectual, and was abandoned. The lots in 
the city of Ii^atchez, and an out lot adjoining the same, granted to 
the college by Congress, were duly located in 1803, and upon these 
lots were several valuable buildings. Steps were immediately taken 
by the trustees to render these buildings available, by means of leases, 
toward supplying a revenue for the college. The trustees, however, 
were thwarted in this attempt, being met by the claims of an indi- 
vidual and of the city of Natchez to the same property. 

The active interference of these adverse claimants procured the passage of an act 
of Congress for suspending the location; and at a succeeding session the property 
so located was regranted to the city, saving, however, the right of the college. 
* * * While the controversy as to the eventual title was pending, the buildings 
went to decay and were destroyed. 

Appeals were made to the public for aid in vain, and finally, on the 21st of 
December, 1805, a loan from the leg^islature was prayed for with like result. From 
this period the trustees were not reassembled until the 12th of April, 1810, a period 
of more than four years. 

Toward the close of this interval the Washington Academy had been established 
and was conducted by the Rev. James Smylie. Temporary frame buildings had been 
erected, or were in the progress of construction, on the lands of the college by 
means of subscriptions raised for that purpose. A conference between the boards 
of the two institutions resulted in a transfer of these buildings and subscriptions 
to Jefferson College, the latter institution assuming all the contracts and -engage- 
ments of the former. 

Thus, on January 1, 1811, nearly nine years after the date of the char- 
ter, the trustees, on failure of the means for putting the institution into 
operation on a larger scale, opened it as an humble academy, under the 
superintendence of Dr. Edwin Eeese, assisted by Mr. Samuel Graham. 
Upon this unpretending organization it continued for many years 
under the charge of various instructors, generally respectable in char- 
acter and attainments, in many respects well fitted for the duties of 
their respective stations, meeting the demands of the neighboring 
community for a preparatory school, and depending almost wholly 
upon the avails of the tuition charges. 

In the meantime the trustees resumed their efforts to render the 
endowments of the institution available. A suit at law was commenced, 
about the close of the year 1813, for the recovery of the lots in Natchez. 
The legislature having granted to the college in the year 1812 all 



JEFFERSON COLLEGE. 27 

escheats for the period of ten years, about $5,000 or $6,000 were 
realized from that source. But, on the other hand, in two cases, each 
involving a large property, the college was unsuccessful, and was sub- 
jected to heavy expenses by the prosecution of its claims. 

Under the act of Congress of February 20, 1812, the township of 
land granted to the college in 1803 was at last located. The land 
selected was situated on both sides of the Tombigbee River, about 20 
miles above St. Stephens, and consequently within the limits of the 
present State of Alabama. An agent was appointed to lease out a 
portion of this land and to collect rents from intruders who had settled 
upon it, but the low rates and liberal credit upon which the Goverp- 
ment lands were obtainable at this period, and the impunity with which 
they were extensively occupied by intruders, afforded but little pros- 
pect of realizing much profit for the college from its right of leasing 
its lands. 

In December, 1816, the sum of $6,000, payable in four annual install- 
ments, was appropriated by the territorial legislature for the employ- 
ment of a principal of the college. Mr. James McAllister, a Scotch- 
man, then filling a professorship at Bardstown, Ky., and for many 
year^ advantageously known in the United States for his profound 
learning, was accordingly engaged, and attracted to the institution an 
increased number of students. 

Mr. McAllister took charge of the institution in June, 1817, and in 
Angust following, the litigation with the city of JSTatchez about the lots 
within the city limits having been compromised by the payment to the 
college of $5,000, the trustees contracted for the building of the east 
wing of the proposed college edifice, preparatory to the anticipated 
extension of operations. The litigation with the city about the lot 
adjoining the town continued, and it was destined to continue for many 
a weary year. 

About the close of 1818 the Alabama lands began to produce some- 
thing. Immigration to that new State had become very great, and a 
demand for cotton lands arose, which enhanced their prices to a rate 
before unexampled. Leases of the college lands were effected for terms 
of ninety-nine years; and about $8,000 were realized as the first install- 
ment, and the remaining installments, amounting to more than $25,000, 
payable in two, four, and six years, were counted on with the utmost con- 
fidence. The trustees thereupon anticipated the resources of the insti- 
tution and obtained bank loans aggregating about $9,000. This money, 
with a further sum of $4,000 lent by the State, was applied toward the 
completion of the buildings which were in the course of erection. 

The expectations of the trustees of further revenues from the Alabama 
lands, however, were in a few years proven to be utterly fallacious. 
The United States, in 1820, reduced the price of the public lands, and, 
to extinguish the land debt already outstanding, offered liberal dis- 
counts from time to time, and the privilege of relinquishing the lands 
purchased was accorded. A great depreciation in the values of lands 



28 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

ensued, and disposed those who had it in their power to surrender their 
purchases. In vain the trustees surpassed the liberality of Congress, 
and offered an abatement of one-half of the amounts due from their 
debtors. 

All, with one inconsiderable exception, preferred forfeiting their leases, a measure 
to which they were the more inclined as the greater portion of the land was found 
to be utterly worthless. Thus was the chief source of income of the college destroyed 
with all hope of future revenue from the unhappy location. The institution was 
consequently burthened with a heavy debt which ib had no means of discharging, 
and which the trustees and a few liberal friends of the institution were soon under 
the necessity of assuming individually. 

For years it was harassed by its creditors, and executions even levied upon the col- 
lege edifice and the '^ commons ^^ in the city of Natchez. 

Not only in its finances during this period were the trustees doomed to disappoint- 
ment. A religious convention of the clergy of all denominations assembled, about 
the close of the year 1818, at Washington. The institution being under the patron- 
age of no exclusive sect, the religious opinions of Mr. McAllister, then at its head, 
however unobtrusive and unknown, were chosen for animadversion, and the insti- 
tion was publicly and bitterly denounced by the convention and an injury done it 
which the able and indignant response of the trustees was insufficient entirely to 
repair. Nor did the appointment of a clergyman (the Rev. R. F. N. Smith), who 
was subsequently associated with Mr. McAllister, find more favor with the public 
than his coadjutor with the convention. When the funds appropriated for main- 
taining them in their stations were exhausted, the patronage of the community 
afl:orded no adequate support, and their connection with the college was dissolved, 
Mr. Smith retiring first by the resignation of his professorship. 

From the retirement of Mr. McAllister, in June, 1821, an academy was generally 
kept up, under the charge of various instructors, on the same scale and footing as 
before his appointment. 

During the session of 1822-23 this institution enjoyed the high^ 
though not then, it is to be feared, fully valued, privilege of having for 
its drawing master John James Audubon, whose graphic pen and glow- 
ing pencil were even then busy with that delineation of the birds and 
quadrupeds of America which has made his name illustrious through- 
out the world, and whose soul was then burdened with the gloomy fore- 
bodings that so often oppress struggling genius at the very portals of 
fame.^ 

In the legislature, at the session held in January, 1825, the institu- 
tion was assailed, and a suit against it for the recovery of the money 
loaned it many years before was threatened. This measure, however, 
the majority of that body refused to countenance. 

In order to give to the college that support which would be due to it 
as a State institution, the trustees proposed to the legislature, in Jan- 
uary, 1826, a modification of their charter, whereby the State should 
fill the vacancies in the board of trustees as they should occur. The 
act of January 30, 1826, was accordingly passed, and accepted by the 
trustees. This right was exercised by the State for a number of years ; 
and, moreover, the governor was long, ex officio, the president of the 
board. 

1 Life of Audubon, by his widow, p. 91. 



JEFFERSON COLLEGE. 29 

In May, 1826, the professor in charge of the college died, and no 
person of suitable qualifications could be found to accept the situation 
on any inducements which the board had it in their power to offer. 
The doors of the institution were necessarily closed for a time, to the 
discontent of the public, and at the hazard of further alienating the 
good feelings of the legislature. Under circumstances so imperious, 
the trustees had no alternative but to terminate the litigation with the 
city of ^Natchez, which had been pending since 1813, at any sacrifice. 
A compromise was accordingly made, by which a public promenade 120 
feet in width along the entire city front was reserved to the city; the 
remainder of the property was to be laid off into lots and sold, and 
the proceeds of sale to be divided between the city and the college 
in the proportion of 30 to 70, respectively. Here, again, however, was 
disappointment. Sales were slow and low priced. The whole of the 
property was not disposed of until 1836, and then on a credit of three 
years, the last installment falling due January 1, 1839. So late as 1840 
less than half of the proceeds of those sales had been realized. But 
little relief, therefore, was afforded to the exigencies of the institution 
for the gloomy period beginning in 1826, as shown above. The trus- 
tees were consequently under the necessity of obtaining loans at differ- 
ent times, on the personal responsibility of a few of the members, to 
discharge an execution levied upon the college edifice and to enable 
them to make some repairs, and to erect a building for the accommoda- 
tion of a steward, preparatory to the reopening. 

In the meantime the legislature had under consideration the subject 
of a general system of education for the State, and at its session in 
February, 1829, authorized the executive to appoint three agents to 
inquire into all the means and resources in the State, applicable to the 
purpose of general education, and to confer with the trustees of Jeffer- 
son College and ascertain the condition and purposes of the institution; 
and whether it was practicable, and on what terms, the trustees would 
consent to surrender the charter to the State. The conference accord- 
ingly took place on the 27th of October, 1829, but the movement came 
to naught. The trustees declined to surrender their charter, mainly 
for the reason that to do so would cause either a forfeiture or an escheat 
of their lands and lots. 

The prospect of realizing much revenue from the Natchez property 
being remote, the trustees found it necessary to resort to some other 
means of conducting the institution. It was believed that a system of 
education like that pursued at West Point might be advantageously 
engrafted upon the college course, and would find favor with the 
public and be productive of much benefit. The experiment was deter- 
mined upon. An agreement was accordingly entered into for the term 
of five years with Mr. E. B. Williston and Maj. John Holbrook, the 
first as president, and the latter in the capacity of superintendent of 
the scientific and military departments. These gentlemen were prac- 
tically familiar with the system. They engaged to employ, at their 



30 . HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

own charges, a number of competent professors and instructors, ade- 
quate to the operations of the college; to provide good commons, under 
the direction of an attentive and efficient steward, and to be depend- 
ent for remuneration wholly upon the success of their own exertions. 

The college, under this arrangement, was opened on the first Monday 
of December, 1829, and its success was eminent. For the first time 
since its establishment, the institution was viewed with pride and grat 
ification. A large number of students repaired to it. Their attain- 
ments were varied and useful; and their progress and deportment 
afforded much pleasure to their friends. 

In April, 1832, however, the president, Mr. Williston, from his rapidly 
declining health found it necessary, greatly to the regret of the trus- 
tees, to resign. And in the August following, Major Holbrook, who 
succeeded him in the presidency, died. In these gentlemen the institu- 
tion sustained a loss at that time irreparable. 

In March of that year (1832) an act of Congress was passed for the 
relief of the college. By it the trustees were authorized to relinquish 
the Alabama lands, in whole or in part,* to locate other lands in the 
State of Mississippi, either before or after they should have been 
offered at x)ublic sale; to make the location, not as heretofore in one 
entire township, but in tracts of two sections, and were empowered to 
sell the lands, in whole or in part, or to transfer the right of location. 
Under this act the rights of location were all sold, between the 1st of 
March and the 6th of August, 1833, at the rate of $6.50 per acre, on 
credit, with 8 per cent interest; but the locations to be made by the 
purchasers in the various land offices were not effected until August, 
1834. Mortgages were then executed upon the lands to secure the 
purchase money, notes with personal security having been previously 
given. The last note due for these lands was payable on the 6th of 
August, 1839; but the payment of the notes was partly retarded by 
the unparalleled embarrassments of the country during the years 1837 
to 1840. The whole debt was, however, regarded as perfectly secure. 
With a view of providing a regular income to meet some of the current 
expenses of the institution at an early period, about $50,000 of the notes 
were discounted and converted into bank stock (which shortly after- 
wards vanished into airy nothingness). 

To return now to the year 1832 : The passage of the law for the relief 
of the college became speedily known to the public, and representa- 
tions as to the highly favorable provisions not only produced very 
exaggerated notions as to the value of the grant, but also vague 
opinions were generally afloat that immense sums were poured at 
once into the coffers of the college, and that the trustees had nothing 
more to do than rear up immediately a splendid institution. 

Nor were the trustees themselves, in the first flush of success — to many of them 
unexpected — quite prepared to temper the ardor which impelled them to the fulfill- 
ment of the public expectations by a dispassionate survey of the measures yet to 



JEFFERSON COLLEGE. 31 

be adopted, or to contemplate with patience any delay in the full accomplishment 
of their wishes. A conscious independence immediately manifested itself in a prop- 
osition '^ to change the system of education," and to obtain a relinquishment of the 
lease of Major Holbrook, a measure which contemplated, of course, an immediate, and, 
in fact, a premature, assumption of all the charges of conducting the institution. 

It was not long to be disguised, however, that the lands to be located were yet to 
be surveyed ; that the land offices were not yet established ; and when, to the period 
necessary to effect this, the terra of credit, which would perhaps be required, upon 
the sales, was added, an interval would be found quite sufficient for cool delibera- 
tion and dispassionate action. 

It was therefore determined to permit the existing order of things to remain undis- 
turbed. The lamented death of Major Holbrook, however, which soon occurred, ter- 
minated the contract with the college and made it necessary to provide a successor. 

It being ascertained that Capt. Alden Patridge, formerly Superintendent at West 
Point, was willing to accept the presidency of the college, he was accordingly 
appointed. Professor Ransom, one of Major Holbrookes assistants, having provi- 
sional charge of the institution until his arrival. * * * This arrangement was 
speedily dissolved. The views of Captain Patridge on slavery and emoluments, 
the compensation of assistants, * * * the control to be exercised by him, and 
his residence at the North during a great portion of the year, were all objectionable. 
He remained only a few months in charge of the college. 

The trustees then determined to abandon the West Point system, and to employ 3 
professors at fixed salaries. Two of the gentlemen appointed arrived and entered 
upon their duties on the 11th of November, 1833. The number employed was subse- 
quently increased to 4. This arrangement continued for some years, with occasional 
changes in the professorships as they became necessary, and with such increase of 
salary as the available means of the institution would allow. One of these gentle- 
men, Mr. Charles L. Dubuisson, was advanced to the presidency on the 6th of June, 
1835, and his salary fixed at $2,000, which was subsequently increased to $3,000. 

On the 2d of June, 1835, the first appropriation was made for the foundation of a 
library. The institution had never before been in a condition to devote any of its 
resources to this object. The small commencement previously made arose from 
donations chiefly from Congress. 

The institution had been declining since the year 1833; and its prosperity or 
utility by no means accorded with the number or ability of the faculty employed, 
or with the pecuniary means devoted to its support — a circumstance which impressed 
itself forcibly and painfully upon the notice of the trustees. * * * The session 
which closed in March, 1838, exhibited a lamentable decline and the reduction of the 
number of students to 23, only 5 of that number being in the college proper — less 
than two to each professor. These, for want of employment, had been compelled to 
volunteer as assistants to the instructor in the preparatory department. 

At the close of that session, the president determining to resume the profes- 
sion of the law, in which he had previously engaged, retired from the station he 
occupied, accompanied by the good wishes of the trustees. 

The resignation of all the members of the faculty at the same time afforded the 
board a much desired opportunity of reorganizing the institution. The better to 
prepare for this, it was determined to await a fuller development of its resources, and 
to apply the unappropriated and accumulating income in the interval to the erec- 
tion of commodious and extensive buildings. With this view the operations of 
the college proper were suspended for one year, during which period, however, the 
preparatory school was carried on under the charge of an efficient and competent 
rector. In the erection and repairs of buildings and in inclosing and improving 
the college grounds to fit them for future operations the board expended about 
$25,000.1 

1 Jefferson College pamphlet of 1840. 



32 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



In the year 1840 the work of the institution was resumed, an elaborate catalogue 
and historical sketch having first been published and widely disseminated. The 
scheme of organization and of instruction then presented was as follows : 



STUDIES OF THE FRESHMAN YEAR. 



First session, 
Cicero^s Select Orations, or Livy. 
Xenophon's Anabasis. 
Latin prose translation. 
Roman antiquities. 
Ancient geography, reviewed. 
Davies' Algebra. 

French' grammar and exercises in trans- 
lation. 

STUDIES OF THE 

First session. 

Horace^s Satires. 

Iliad of Homer. 

Greek antiquities. 

Greek prose translation. 

Greek prosody and metre, with choral 
scanning. 

Hackley's Trigonometry, plane and spher- 
ical, and navigation. 

Davies' Surveying. 

Descriptive geometry. 

Blair's Rhetoric. 

French grammar, and Voltaire's Life of 
Charles XII. 

STUDIES OF THE 

First session, 

Cicero de Oratore, and Horace's Epistles. 

Alcestis of Euripides. 

Plato's Phsedo and Crito, from Grseca 
Majora. 

Lectures on the Roman language and lit- 
erature. 

Mechanics. 

Electricity, magnetism, and electro-mag- 
netism. 

Chemistry. 

Whateley's Logic. 

Evidences of revealed religion. 

Montesquieu's Esprit des Lois. 



Second session. 
The Odes of Horace. 
Grseca Majora, begun. 
Roman antiquities. 
Latin composition, in verse. 
Mythology. 
Legendre's Geometry. 
French grammar and Telemachus. 

SOPHOMORE YEAR. 

Second session. 

Cicero de Officiis. 

Grseca Majora. 

Greek and Latin composition in prose and 
verse. 

Greek antiquities. 

Chronology. 

Davies' Analytical Geometry. 

Davies' Differential and Integral Cal- 
culus. 

Rhetoric, continued. 

Lectures on English Literature. 

Works of Racine or Corneille. 

JUNIOR YEAR. 

Second session. 
Cicero de Natura Deorum, or Lucretius. 
Euripides' Medea. 
(Edipus Tyrannus of Sophocles. 
Lectures on Greek literature. 
Mechanics, completed. 
Whateley's and Campbell's Philosophy of 

Rhetoric. 
Kames's Elements of Criticism. 
Say's Political Economy. 
Finance. 
Montesquieu or Montaigne. 



STUDIES OF THE SENIOR YEAR. 



First session, 
Prometheus Vinctus of ^schylus ; and 
Demosthenes' select orations. 
Tacitus. 

Lectures on Greek literature. 
Optics. 
Astronomy. 

Chemistry, applied to the arts. 
Political economy, completed. 
Cousin's Elements of Psychology. 
Works of Moliere. 



Second session. 

Longinus on the Sublime, or Aristotle's 
Treatise on Rhetoric. 

Lectures on philology. 

Mineralogy. 

Geology. 

Natural history. 

Ethics. 

International and constitutional law. 

Lectures on modern history and litera- 
ture, and the fine arts. 

Works of Boileau. 



JEFFERSON COLLEGE. 33 

The institution was then provided with a very good equipment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus, with a mineralogical and geo- 
logical cabinet of considerable extent and value, and with a library. 
The library comprised only 1,522 volumes, but a fund of $2,000 per 
annum was devoted to its increase. 

The degrees offered were only those of B. A. and M. A.; the latter 
being offered to "alumni in pursuit of learning, who shall have main- 
tained a good moral character for three years after having received the 
degree of A. B.," and was honorary. 

The estate and resources of the college were, at this time, as follows : 

Real estate, land, and huildings of college $59,625.74 

Library and apparatus 6, 902. 25 

Bank stock 61,500.00 

Cash 7,543.53 

Debts due from purchasers of Natchez lots 35, 025. 42 

Debts due from purchasers of lands 74,874.52 

Money on loan 6,200.00 

Total 251,671.46 

The college owed — 

The city of Natchez $17,000.00 

The State 10,000.00 

Miscellaneous, about ... * 3, 000. 00 

30,000.00 

Balance over liabilities, about 221,671.46 

The faculty at this time were Rev. A. Stephens, president; professor 
of mental and moral philosophy, belles lettres, ancient languages; 
salary, $3,000. 

Leonard D. Gale, M. D., professor of natural and experimental phi- 
losophy, chemistry, and mineralogy; salary, $2,000. 

Jacob Ammen, professor of mathematics and civil engineering, and 
superintendent of the military department; salary, $2,000. 

^ professor of drawing, painting, and lithography; salary, 

$2,000. 

J. A. T. Midderhoff, professor of modern languages and assistant 
professor of ancient languages; salary, $2,000. 

, principal of the preparatory department; salary, $1,000. 

Eev. William Whielden, assistant in the preparatory department, and 
librarian; salary, $900. 

On the 21st of October, 1841, the main building of the college was 
destroyed by fire. A high wind at the time spread the flames with 
such rapidity from room to room that it was impossible to save even 
the library, of which 500 valuable volumes were consumed. The entire 
loss was estimated at about $30,000. But a damage incomparably 
greater, because irreparable, was the destruction of all such archives 
of the Territory of Mississippi as had not been removed to Jackson. 

The fire did not, however, interrupt the exercises of the institution 
for more than a week. Studies were resumed in the new building 
21785— No. 24 3 



34 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

lately completed. The burnt buildiug, being of brick, was not entirely 
consumed, and by the following June it was repaired, refitted, and 
ready for use.^ 

In the year 1845 the college was under the direction of Professors 
Jacob Ammen, John Eowland, and Orrick Metcalfe, and was enjoying 
one of its palmy seasons. It was then the center and crowning orna- 
ment of a neighborhood of beautiful homes. In that year the annual 
examinations were, as usual, held in public, and before a large and 
attentive audience of ladies and gentlemen, and addresses were de- 
livered by the now venerable Rev. Dr. Joseph B. Stratton, of Katchez.^ 

In October, 1850, the college passed under the charge of President 
Ashbel Green, who had been for many years intimately connected with 
educational movements. Mr. Green was a son of Dr. Ashbel Green, 
long the president of Princeton College, and for many years offlcially 
connected with the workings of the free-school system in Pennsylvania 
and afterwards with the public schools of Philadelphia, and he united a 
full knowledge upon those subjects with rare personal opportunities and 
attainments. Associated with him were Capt. J. M. Wells, a graduate 
of West Point, formerly in the Army of the United States and lately in 
service in the Mexican War, and Mr. F. B. Wells, late of the United 
States Navy. There were also a professor of modern languages and a 
principal of the preparatory school. In April, 1853, the institution was 
placed under the charge of the Eev. Charles Eeighly; an arrangement 
which terminated at the close of the session of 1856. Mr. Eeighly was 
succeeded by the Eev. E. J. Cornish, under whose administration the 
college was maintained in a highly flourishing condition until the spring 
of 1859, when Mr. Cornish, on account of feeble health, was compelled 
to relinquish his charge, as was then hoped, temporarily. The affairs 
of the institution were conducted until the close of the term by his able 
assistants, Henry L. Fouly and J. P. Green. Mr. Cornish did not, how- 
ever, live to resume his position at the head of the college; and upon 
receiving news of his death, which oc(iurred at a distant point, trustees, 
patrons, pupils, and the community at large, alike felt that the institu- 
tion had incurred a great loss. 

About this time the institution was freed from a seriou.. incumbrance. 
In the year 1854 suit was brought on the debt of $10,00C due to the 
State. Judgment was rendered, but on the 19th of ISTovember, 1858, 
an act of the legislature was passed whereby the State released the 
debt on payment by the college of the costs of suit. This was done on 
the 10th of January, 1859, and thus was a troublesome burden disposed 
of, for the large assets exhibited in the publication made by the trustees 
in 1840 had shrunk from various untoward events until but little 
was left, comparatively, and the college could ill bear to pay a sum so 
considerable. 

1 Natchez Free Trader, October 23, 1841 ; October 28, 1841 ; May 24, 1842. 

2 Address by Dr. Stratton on July 23, 1875, delivered at Jefferson College. 



JEFFERSON COLLEGE. 35 

At the opening of the session of 1859 Prof. J. J. Oritchlow was 
appointed president pro tern. At the same period an application was 
made to the legislature for aid in the establishment of a normal school 
department and in placing the school on a military footing. The only 
response was a loan of 75 stand of arms. 

During the session of 1860 the legislature passed an act transferring 
to the college a collection of specimens in natural history and geology, 
made by Prof. B. L. O. Wailes in connection with the State Agricul- 
tural and Geological Survey, and at that time deposited in the State 
capitol at Jackson. 

Professor Oritchlow continued at the head of the college until the 
summer of 1861, at which time its financial affairs were so greatly 
embarrassed by the disorganized state of the country that the board 
of trustees felt themselves unable to pledge a prompt payment of sal- 
aries. Under pressure of tbis difficulty, the Eev. W. K. Douglass 
and Prof, J. J. Oritchlow were employed as coequals in authority to 
assume charge of the institution, but under a special agreement that 
the amounts allowed them as salaries should be considered obligations to 
be paid only when practicable. This arrangement continued until the 
close of the session of 1863, when the doors of the institution were 
closed by the stern pressure of war. 

During the occupation of the country by the Federal troops the col- 
lege buildings were seized by the commandant at ISTatchez and used as 
barracks. At a meeting of the board of trustees, held in January, 
1865, a memorial was prepared, which afterwards was forwarded to 
General Davidson, commanding at Katchez, praying that the college 
buildings be vacated. The general replied that he no longer had any 
control in the matter, since the property had been turned over to the 
bureau of refugees, freedmen, and abandoned lands. On receipt of 
this reply a similar memorial was presented to that bureau, and in 
response the property was restored to the trustees in November, 1865. 

During the seven years following, the literary management of the col- 
lege was committed to Mr. Jesse Andrews. The arrangement with 
him terminated at the close of the summer session of 1872. At this 
time Prof. J. S. Eaymond, the present principal, was elected president 
of the college, and authorized to employ an assistant professor. 
Tuition was made free, and the educational advantages afforded by 
the institution extended without charge to all white male pupils from 
Adams and the adjoining counties. With occasional modifications, 
this system of free scholarships continued in force until the expiration 
of the session of 1875, when regular rates of tuition were again 
imposed. 

From 1872 to 1879 President Eaymond managed the literary depart- 
ment of the college with the aid of only one assistant, but the session 
of 1879-80 was an unusually prosperous one, the number of students 
having reached 63, and under circumstances so favorable the trustees 



36 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. - 

authorized the employment of two additional assistants. The faculty 
was thereupon organized as follows: Professor Eaymond, president; 
Professors James McOlure, Matt. 0. Harper, and J. E. Blankenshipp.^ 
During the following session the number of students reached 81. 

From 1881 to the present time it has been deemed best to employ only 
two assistants, and at that time Professor Blankenshipp retired from the 
faculty. In the summer of 1889 Professor McClure was succeeded by 
Jackson Eeeves, A. B. and B. S., of the University of Mississippi. 

A remarkable harmony has marked the associate career of these 
gentlemen, and as a natural result admirable conformity to rule and 
excellent progress have characterized the entire body of students. 

This sketch of the most venerable institution in the State, and 
indeed in the Gulf States, will be concluded by a brief statement of its 
present (1891) organization. 

aROUNDS AND BUILDINaS. 

The college grounds are quite extensive, embracing some 80 acres, 
tastefully arranged and handsomely adorned with forest and ornamental 
trees. The buildings are large and commodious, and in fine repair, and 
to the eye of the stranger present a very handsome and imposing 
appearance. The two main buildings are built of brick, each three and 
a half stories high, with a front of 80 feet and a depth of about 50 feet. 
The recitation rooms, dormitories, reading room, library, etc., are con- 
veniently arranged, admirably warmed, lighted, and ventilated. The 
study hall and recitation rooms have recently been fitted up with 
entirely new schoolroom furniture, consisting of the most improved 
study desks and settees ; also with handsome lamps of the most improved 
style. 

LIBRARY, APPARATUS, ETC. 

The college is provided with a well selected library of over 2,000 vol- 
umes, a philosophical apparatus, and a mineralogical and geological 
cabinet. 

PLAN OF ORGANIZATION. 

To meet the wants of pupils of different ages and requirements, 
instruction is given in three departments, viz, primary, intermediate, 
and high-school departments. 

The primary department occupies one or two years, the intermediate 
department two years, and the high school three years. 

PRIMARY DEPARTMENT. 

Applicants for admission to this department are received ordinarily 
under 12 years of age, and must be able to read in any of the primary 
readers. 



JEFFERSON COLLEGE. 37 

HIGH-SCHOOL DEPARTMENT. 

SCIENTIFIC COURSE. 

Firsf year. 
First term. Second tei'm. 

Higher arithmetic (Thompson's). Higher arithmetic completed. 

Algebra begun (Wentworth). Algebra continued. 

Higher English (Reed and Kellogg). Higher English completed. 

Physical geography or bookkeeping. Physical geography completed 

Second year. 
First term. Second term. 

Algebra continued. Algebra completed. 

Geometry begun (Wentworth). Geometry completed. 

Physiology (Steele or Walker). Physiology completed. 

Bookkeeping or French. Bookkeeping or French. 

Third year. 
First term. Second term. 

Trigonometry. Surveying. 

Natural philosophy or French. Natural philosophy or French. 

Chemistry begun (Steele). Chemistry completed. 

Rhetoric or English literature. Rhetoric or English literature. 

Throughout the entire course in the high-school department, regular 
exercises in reading (Hudson's Classical Eeader and English History), 
as well as in declamation and composition, are required; also daily 
practice in spelling and composition, until a satisfactory standard has 
been attained. 

CLASSICAL COURSE. 

The classical course, beginning in the second year of the intermediate 
department, and extending through the three years of the high- school 
department, embraces, in addition to Latin and Greek, or Latin, French, 
and higher English, the entire course of mathematics taught in the 
scientiiic course, together with rhetoric and English composition. , 

The attendance of pupils averages 60 per annum. 

The expense of attendance is, to day scholars, $30 per annum; to 
boarders, $165 per annum. 

The faculty is now composed of Prof. J. S. Raymond (of Washington 
and Lee University), now, and for sixteen years past, principal and 
instructor in Latin, Greek, and English; Prof. Matt. C. Harper, A. B. 
(of University of Mississippi), instructor in mathematics and assistant 
in English; Prof. Jackson Reeves, A. B. and B. S. (of University of Mis- 
sissippi), instructor in natural sciences and assistant in English. 



Chapter IV. 

DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 
THE ELIZABETH FEMALE ACADEMY. 

This institution was a school celebrated in its day for the thorough- 
ness of its work and for its large measure of success. Although extinct 
since about 1843, it is still memorable because of several facts. It 
was not the first school at which girls were received to be incorporated 
in the territory of Mississippi; it was the first to be incorporated by 
the State after its admission into the Union. It was the first school 
designed exclusively for girls to be incorporated by either the Territo- 
rial or the State legislatures. It was the first in Mississippi or any Gulf 
State to aspire to and achieve the dignity of a college in fact, although 
not in name, and it was the first fruits of Protestant denominational 
work in all the extreme South. 

The first Methodist Church of the State was organized in E^atchez in 
1799. Its first member was Eandall Gibson, one of the three men who 
donated to the Territory the site of Jefferson College. Another mem- 
ber, a Mrs. Elizabeth Eoach (afterwards Greenfield), donated to the 
Mississippi conference the land and buildings long and favorably known 
as those of the Elizabeth Female Academy. This institution was also 
situated at Washington, Adams County, one-half mile from the town 
and near Jefferson College. The donation was made in 1818. In the 
year following the institution was granted a charter by the legislature, 
under the auspices of the conference, and under the superintendence 
of John Menefee, Daniel Eawlings, Alexander Covington, John W. 
Briant, and Beverley E. Grayson, and their successors. A condition 
of the donation was that the conference should there maintain a high 
school for the education of girls. On these terms it was accepted, and 
in token of gratitude for the gift the institution was called by the 
Christian name of the donor. The academy began work in November, 
1818; Mr. C. Stiles, president 5 Mrs. Jane B. Sanderson, governess. This 
Mr. Stiles was a lay member of the Methodist Church from Claiborne 
County. He died in 1822 and was succeeded by the Eev. James Smiley, 
a scholarly and experienced teacher, who was also principal of Wash- 
ington Academy (see Jefferson College). He in turn was followed by 
the Eev. John C. Burruss, an educated, elegant, and eloquent gentle- 
man. Under Dr. Burruss was engaged as governess Mrs. Caroluie 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 39 

Matilda Thayer, of New York. The higli literary claims and splendid 
talents of this lady were then well known from her numerous publica- 
tions, in both prose and verse, and her great experience in teaching 
gave her a decided advantage in the instruction of youth. She was a 
granddaughter or grandniece of General Warren, who fell at Bunker 
Hill, and her only child, worthy of such lineage, while yet a youth, 
took up arms for Texas and perished at the storming of the Alamo. 

At that time, in the year 1826, the course of education embraced the 
English, French, and Latin languages, taught according to the prin- 
ciples then most approved, with scrupulous attention to pronunciation. 
Also history, composition, elements of chemistry, geography, and 
astronomy (with use of globes), and arithmetic. The improved mode 
of instruction recommended by Edgeworth, Pestalozzi, and Gondillac, 
of addressing the understanding without oppressing the memory, was 
adopted. Tuition, without any discrimination as to branches, was $12 
per quarter; with board and furnishings, $50 per quarter.^ 

From 1828 to 1832 the academy was under the presidency of the Eev. 
Benjamin M. Drake, ]\Irs. Thayer still governess. 

With the indulgence of the reader we will now attend a commence- 
ment exhibition, doubly interesting because it is the first in Mississippi 
of which we have a detailed account, and because it is one at the palmy 
period of the first institution of learning in the State to win any repu- 
tation of enduring character. The exhibition took place on the 21st of 
August, 1829. The eager actors in the animated scene have doubtless 
all passed away, but their names will meet with loving recognition in 
many homes of Mississippi. 

From the Galaxy of September 3, 1829, the following notice is taken : 

ELIZABETH ACADEMY — WASHINGTON. 

We were in attendance during both days of the recent examination at this insti- 
tution, and the least that we can say is that our opinion is in full accordance with 
the general terms of the report of the committee appointed to inspect the exercises, 
and which is found in this day's paper. 

We might, however, be very justly charged with intentional flattery did we speak 
in "unqualified praise.^^ It is not our practice, under any considerations, and for 
the obvious reason that it would be inconsistent with candor, not to say with truth. 
Error is blended with all human concerns ; to point it out is, oftentimes, to correct 
it — it seldom ceases to be a duty. 

But, to the examination. The indistinctness of articulation, on the part of the 
pupils, was a serious injury in the exhibition of their acquirements. It was, in part, 
imputable to the circumstance that the space to be filled with sound was much 
greater than that in which they had been usually examined. But, in a great meas- 
ure, it must be attributed to timidity; modesty, however, is the loveliest trait in 
the female character; and even when a fault it is still a virtue, and readily forgiven. 

The pronunciation in reading and recitation was generally bad. For instance — we 
heard Athens pronounced with a short a; angel in the same manner ; the first syllable 
of parent as if written p-a-i-r; patriot and patriotism with a short a; sacrifice with a 
long a in the first, and a soft c in the last syllable ; nothing as nawthing. We noticed 
also a very general habit of clipping words— an indistinctness of enunciation. 

' The Ariel, Natchez, August 1 and December 19, 1825. 



40 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The compositions, with two or three exceptions were of a lower order than those 
at a former examination— less originality— less genins both in thought and style. 

The answers to the questions in political philosophy were occasionally vague and 
indefinite— sometimes erroneous. For instance, by the class examined in the Consti- 
tution of the United States it was said: When the electoral college fail to elect the 
President he is chosen by Congress ; the Senate choose their own officers ; the judges 
of the Federal courts appointed by the President, etc. But these are, in a great 
degree, excusable as it requires a practical knowledge of the operation of our insti- 
tutions— of the apparently nice distinctions and balanceof orders— before the under- 
standing can draw definitely and with precision the line between the powers that 
are wielded conjointly by the President and one or both branches of the Legislature, 
and those that are exercised by the one independently of either of the others. Such 
were the most prominent faults. 

The other side of the picture is contemplated with more pleasure. The class in 
geography answered with singular promptitude and correctness. The solutions upon 
the blackboard, of questions in mental arithmetic, discovered no less readiness and 
precision. 

The recitations were, to say the least of them, interesting. The readings were 
spirited and correct. Action we could not expect from little girls of 10, 11, or 12 
years of age. 

The proficiency exhibited in natural and mental philosophy and chemistry by the 
higher classes reflects great credit upon the capacity and industry of the students, 
as well as the highest encomium upon the government of the institution. If at this 
stage of the examination we were delighted, when we heard the class in mathe- 
matics we were astonished ; and certainly it is a matter of astonishment to witness 
little girls of 12 years of age treat the most abstruse problems of Euclid as mere 
playthings. Nor were they dependent upon the memory alone ; and we will give our 
reasons for so thinking. During one of the solutions upon the blackboard (we for- 
get which it was) it was suggested that the young lady was in error. "No, ma'am,^' 
replied the pupil, with great promptitude and self-possession; "I am correct. The 
bases of a parallelogram must be equal." The principle is indeed a simple one, but 
the readiness with which it was adduced in argument, and that, too, under embar- 
rassing circumstances, was to us the most conclusive evidence of an extraordinary 
discipline of mind. 

We were particularly pleased with the examination of a junior class in natural 
philosophy. The members had been taught by oral instruction exclusively. Their 
answers were given in familiar language, divested of that technical obscurity which 
has ever formed a serious obstacle at the very threshold of science and philosophy. 
Children learn to advantage only when they understand what they learn. They 
must be taught by what they already know; that is, knowledge must be communi- 
cated in language which is already familiar to them. The subject, however, is of 
too much consequence to be discussed in a necessarily brief notice of an examination. 
In relation to the exercises at the Elizabeth Academy, in common justice wo must 
acknowledge that it has seldom fallen to our lot to enjoy a more unmingled gratifica- 
tion than on this and a similar occasion. The pleasure, however, was not derived 
exclusively from what we saw and heard. The view was a broader one. We could 
not but reflect upon the vast sway that the female sex hold in society ; that they ever 
have and ever will, among civilized beings, extend an almost superhuman influence, 
not only over the external deportment, but over the fundamental principles that gov- 
ern the actions of man. It would be strange indeed if, under such reflections, we 
could behold with ordinary feelings so numerous a body of this fair intelligence not 
only founding in wisdom and virtue their own happiness, but preparing, under the 
most cheering auspices, to wield the destinies of others. 



DEAD COLLEGES OP MISSISSIPPL 41 

REPOKT. — ELIZABETH FEMALE ACADEMY. 

[Annual examination.] 

The undersigned, having been appointed by the trustees of the institution as a 
board of visitors to inspect the present annual examination, feel pleasure in declar- 
ing it one of the most interesting occasions of the kind they have ever witnessed. 
The examinations were continued during two days, before a very crowded audience, 
during which time the young ladies were examined minutely on all the different 
branches of their studies. The most unqualified praise would be no more than jus- 
tice for the splendid evidence of their close attention and assiduity, as exhibited on 
this occasion ; and we take pleasure in giving it as our opinion that such honorable 
proof of female literary and scientific acquirements has seldom been exhibited in 
this or any other country. And while it proves the order and discipline with which 
science and literature are pursued by the pupils, it proves no less the flourishing 
condition and the merited patronage the institution enjoys. Nothing reflects more 
honor upon the present age than the libero^lity displayed in the education of females, 
nor can anything evince more clearly the justness with which female education is 
appreciated in the South than this exhibition and the interest manifested by the 
large and respectable audience during the whole of the exercises. The literary and 
scientific character of the governess, Mrs. Thayer, is too well known to admit of 
commendation from us, but we may be permitted fco say it receives additional luster 
from this evidence of her successful efforts — 

To rear the tender thought, 

To teach the yonng idea how to shoot, 
To ponr the fresh instruction on the mind. 

The junior classes were examined in the general principles of a common English 
education, such as reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, geography, and 
history; the senior classes, in mental arithmetic embracing questions which require 
the compound rules for their solution, in rhetoric, astronomy with the use of the 
globes, botany, chemistry, mechanical philosophy, and the French language; the 
monitorial class, in chemistry, mathematics, intellectual philosophy, political econ- 
omy, and the Constitution of the United States. Several compositions of the 
monitorial class, in prose and verse, were read, which were alike honorable for the 
refined sentiments they contained and the elegant style of expression. Among the 
most interesting exercises were the recitations of the younger pupils in verse, with 
the most elegant adaptation of manner and gesture to the sentiment. * * ^ 
The exercises were closed with an address to the young ladies by Dr. J. W. Monett. 

Edwd. Turner, 
Geo. Potts, 
RoBT. L. Walker, 
Jas. p. Turner, 
A. B. Johnson, 
Horatio Smith, 
J. F. H. Claiborne, 
J. W. Monett, 

Committee, 
At this time, as already stated, the connection of Dr. Burruss with 
the academy had ceased, Kev. Mr. Drake being president and Mrs. 
Thayer governess. The following report was made by her to the trus- 
tees in December, 1829: 

ELIZABETH FEMALE ACADEMY. 
[Fourth annual report submitted to the board of trustees.] 
Gentlemen: At the suggestion of a number of your board, the annual report, 
which it becomes my duty to lay before you at this time, will embrace a succinct 



42 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



view of the progress of the institution over which I have had the honor to preside 
from its commencement to the present date. 

The irregularity occasioned by admitting pupils at any time during the session 
renders it difficult to ascertain the precise number who have resided in the academy 
edifice for any given period. The following results have been obtained by estimat- 
ing the number at the close of four successive periods of the year, each comprising 
twelve weeks. The average is obtained by adding the several numbers and dividing 
their sum by 4. 

The data from which these estimates are made are found in the register, which has 
been accurately kept by the president of the academy, from which it appears that the 
school opened November 12, 1818, under the superintendence of Mr. C. Stiles, presi- 
dent, and Mrs. Jan© B. Sanderson, governess. The whole number of pupils admitted 
from that date to June 15, 1825, is 161. From this period the operations of the 
school were suspended until June 1, 1826, when it was reopened under an assistant 
teacher. [The buildings were being repaired.— E. M.] My official relation to the 
institution commenced at this time, but my arrival was delayed until January 23. 
From this date the number of pupils admitted is 176, making in all 337. The 
number of residents in each year is exhibited in the following table : 



Tear. 



1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 



G-reatest 
number 
residing in 
the academy 
edifice at 
any time. 



28 
17 
13 
18 
25 
10 
30 
40 
45 
63 



Least 
number. 



20 
17 
13 
10 
12 
18 
9 
20 
25 
30 
42 



Average 
number. 



24 
22 
11 
11 
15 
18 



25 
30 
35 
54 



From this statement it appears that the highest average under my predecessor 
in office did not equal the lowest for the four years during which I have been 
honored with your confidence. Another pleasing fact connected with this brief 
recapitulation of our yearly history is, that during the four years of my residence in 
the academy edifice only three instances of severe indisposition have occurred, and 
one of these, which terminated fatally, was of a pulmonary character, and by no 
means dependent on climate or situation. This single instance of mortality is the 
only one which has taken place at the academy during the ten years that it has been 
in operation. During the academical year commencing September 23, 1828, and end- 
ing August 22, 1829, not a single instance of indisposition occurred. This simple 
statement of facts, well known to your board, speaks more decisively than any com- 
ment I could make in favor of the healthiness of our location. 

The course of education, methods of instruction, and system of discipline pursued 
in the institution are subjects which have been frequently brought before you in 
my former communications. A brief recurrence to them will therefore be sufficient 
for our present purpose. 

The course of study, as marked out in the second article of your by-laws, is as 
follows: Penmanship; the English, French, and Latin languages; geography; 
ancient and modern history and belles-lettres; arithmetic, with the elements of 
mathematical science; astronomy, with the use of the globes; chemistry; natural, 
moral, and intellectual philosophy; Constitution and Government of the United 
States; the study of the Bible, and evidences of Christianity. 

This article of your by-laws was my guide in arranging the plan of study to be 
pursued by my pupils. You had pointed out the subjects which were to engage our 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 43 

attention, but the order in which the several branches were to be taken up, and the 
limits of those of which only a partial knowledge can be obtained in the short period 
usually allowed for female education, were left solely to my own discretion. My 
first object, in assigning the studies of the respective classes, was so to limit my 
requisitions that the time and means might bear proportion to the end. 

In accordance with this principle, I have not made the study of the French or 
Latin languages imperative, and I have limited our course in mathematics to those 
elementary principles of the science which seem to me absolutely essential to a 
thorough acquaintance with geometry and astronomy. Our senior pupils study four 
books of Euclid, plain trigonometry with its application to mensuration, and enough 
of algebra to be able to apply its principles to practical geometry. 

In intellectual and moral philosophy, we read Beattie^s Moral Science and a part of 
Paley's Philosophy, and a few have extended this branch of study to Brown's 
Philosophy. By your regulations, I am required to teach the principles of the 
Government of the United States. On the subject I have found no book suitable 
to place in the hands of young ladies. This deficiency has been supplied, to the 
best of my ability, by familiar lectures, in which I have made ''the Federalist '' my 
text book of politics. 

Arithmetic, geography, and English grammar are pursued to a greater or less extent, 
by every young lady who enters our institution. In arithmetic, we begin with Col- 
burn's Introduction. The system, of which this work gives the elementary princi- 
ples, is founded on the maxim that children should be instructed in every science, 
just as fast as they are able to understand it. In conformity to this principle, the 
first questions in this invaluable little work are extremely simple, and the pupil is 
led progressively and by a process so easy and gradual, to the more complex and 
difficult combinations of numbers, that he finds himself familiar with the subject 
and enjoys a satisfaction in his study which he could never realize in performing 
the mechanical operation of cyphering by artificial rules. 

But we do not confine ourselves to intellectual arithmetic. So soon as some facility 
in mental calculation is attained, our pupils commence a regular course of instruc- 
tions on the rules and principles, in which the blackboard is used, that they may 
learn to arrange their work with the greatest economy of space. 

Geography and drawing are commenced simultaneously, and our first lessons in 
the latter consist in drawing the maps of the countries which form the lesson in the 
former. In a former report I have briefly sketched a method of teaching geography, 
with the aid of maps, by oral instruction alone. Since the date of that communica- 
tion I have fortunately obtained Mrs. Willard's '' Geography for Beginners," a work 
which contains the same illustrations which I have been in the habit of using with 
my junior pupils. It is no slight recommendation of this plan that two persons, 
having no communication but each endeavoring to apply the principles of sound 
philosophy to the business of teaching, should have been led to adopt precisely the 
same methods. 

Our first exercise in geography consists in drawing, as well as we are able, a map 
of the academy grounds. We next draw the little village, In the suburbs of which 
we are located, first laying down a scale of miles and adapting our map to it in size. 
When this is well understood we proceed to delineate a map of the United States, and 
repeat the exercise until the whole or any single State may be drawn with accuracy 
and dispatch, without a copy. In like manner we draw Europe and the remaining 
divisions of the earth, and in our recitations no map is referred to by the pupil but 
the one she is able to draw from memory alone. 

In chemistry our pupils have enjoyed the benefit of a course of lectures and experi- 
ments by Dr. William A. King. The course comprised twenty lectures, which were 
so perspicuously arranged and amply illustrated that the amount of information 
gained from them was far greater than my best instructions could have aff'orded for 
the same time. 



44 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

In a former communication I have suggested the propriety of procuring a small 
apparatus to illustrate the leading facts and principles of chemistry and mechanical 
philosophy, and you will not, I trust, deem me too imi)ortunate if I reiterate my 
request that this want may he supplied as speedily as your means will allow. 
Instruction in chemistry and philosophy must necessarily he imperfect when unaided 
hy experiment, and I am encouraged to press this suhject upon your attention from 
the fact that an apparatus, suitahle for our purposes, may he ohtained at a very small 
expense. 

By the politeness of Dr. King I have been enabled to begin a cabinet of natural 
history and mineralogy, which already contains many valuable specimens. 

At our annual examination in August six young ladies, having pursued the full 
course of study, received honorary certificates as graduates. Three of these are 
still members of the academy, and are assiduously engaged in geometry and algebra 
and in a general review of their former studies. 

Our regular-session class is divided into three sections. The first section are occu- 
pied with the study of Colburn's Algebra, Playf air's Geometry, Mrs. Willard^s His- 
tory of the United States, Mrs. Bryants Chemistry and Philosophy, Beattie's Moral 
Science, and a general review of grammar, geography, and arithmetic. The second 
section study Murray^s Grammar, Colburn's Intellectual Arithmetic and Sequel, 
Goldsmith^s England, Woodbridge and Willard's Geography, Mrs. Bryan's Philoso- 
phy and Chemistry, and Fowler's Linear Drawing. 

The third section pursue the same studies, except chemistry. 

The junior class is also divided into three sections. The first section study Mur- 
ray's Grammar, Mrs. Willard's Geography, Colburn's Arithmetic, with exercises on 
the blackboard, and first lessons in the history of the United States. The second 
study Colburn's Arithmetic, Mrs. Willard's Geography, American Popular Lessons, 
and Peter Parley's Tales about America, and receive oral instruction in the elements 
of English grammar. 

The thi^d section is composed of small children who are not yet capable of any- 
thing higher than spelling, reading, and exercises in intellectual arithmetic. 

You will perceive that arithmetic forms a prominent exercise in every section ; it 
is, in fact, the sine qua non of our institution, and I am happy in believing that your 
board agree with me in considering this branch of study as a mental discipline 
equally important in the education of both sexes. 

The time has been when the education of females was limited to those branches 
in which their immediate occupations lie. For those destined by the favor of for- 
tune to move in the higher circles, personal accomplishments, music, dancing, and a 
superficial acquaintance with the more showy parts of literature ^^ ere deemed suffi- 
cient, while those of humble rank were satisfied if their knowledge embraced those 
domestic occupations in which they were necessarily engaged. 

Happy for the present age, and happy, too, for posterity, the public sentiment has 
undergone an important change in favor of female cultivation. Without under- 
valuing personal accomplishments, or disregarding domestic duties, we are permitted 
to aspire to the dignity of intellectual beings, and, as was beautifully expressed by 
a gentleman who addressed us at the close of our examinations, '^The whole map of 
knowledge is spread before the female scholar, and no Gades of the ancients is set 
up as the limits of discovery." 

Under these favorable auspices, gentlemen, with our work still enlarging before 
us, our course is still onward. To you it must afford pleasure to look back upon the 
diificulties you have encountered, and behold the complete success of your exer- 
tions. It was your laudable design to establish a permanent female seminary, where 
the accomplishments, which please for a day and then cease to be regarded, should 
be held in subordination to substantial knowledge, and under every difficulty the 
institution has been sustained by your untiring zeal and perseverance. 

Without legislative patronage or endowment and supported by the avails of 
tuition alone, the Elizabeth Female Academy has outlived pecuniary embarrass- 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 45 

ments, extended her boundaries, and enlarged her accommodations, and now 
promises to be a lasting monument of the generosity of the foundress and a blessing 
to many who shall resort hither for instruction when we shall be sleeping in our 
graves. 

With high personal regard, I am, gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

C. M. Thayer. 
Elizabeth Female Academy, December 15 j 1829, 

In 1833 Mr. Drake was succeeded by the Rev. J. P. Thomas as 
president. Mrs. Thayer had left the year before, and had been fol- 
lowed by Mrs. Susan Brewer, with Miss Rowena Crane as assistant. 
In 1833, also, the teaching of piano music was introduced, and thence- 
forward was a part of the branches regularly taught. 

In 1836, Mr. Thomas and Mrs. Brewer having left, the Rev. Brad- 
ford Frazee, of Louisville, Ky., was elected president. He was assisted 
by a new governess, whose name is now not known, and Mrs. Frazee 
undertook the departments of art and needlework. 

In 1838 or 1839 Mr. Frazee relinquished his presidency, taking a 
school at Emory, in Holmes County, and in 1839 the presidency of the 
Elizabeth Academy was conferred on the Rev. R. D. Smith, Miss Lucy 
A. Stillman being principal governess, and Miss Mary B. Currie music 
teacher. 

In the Mississippi Free Trader of the 10th of March, 1842, appeared 
the following notice : 

ELIZABETH FEMALE ACADEMY. 

There is prohably no subject dearer to the patriot and Christian philanthropist 
than that of female education. 

According to his view, both national and individual happiness and prosperity are 
immediately and inseparably connected with the proper intellectual training and 
moral culture of the female mind. 

This conclusion is not the result of a long train of philosophical or logical deduc- 
tions, but is immediately inferred from the important position that woman holds in 
the social compact and from the many endearing relations she sustains in life. 

I was led into these reflections from witnessing the semiannual examination of 
the pupils of the Elizabeth Female Academy at Washington, Miss., which took place 
on Thursday and Friday last. 

This examination did equal credit to the zeal and ability of the several teachers 
and to the industry and menial resources of the pupils. They showed an extensive 
and accurate knowledge of the most important branches of mental and physical 
science, as well as great skill and taste in several of the more strictly ornamental 
branches of education. 

A delightful variety was given to the whole examination by the performances of a 
very fine class in music. I would mention the names of two or three individuals of 
this class, whose voices and performances called forth the admiration of all who 
heard them, but for reasons which are obvious I forbear. 

This institution is admitted by all who know its history to be more ably con- 
ducted by its present talented and highly accomplished principal, Mrs. Campbell, 
and more deserving of patronage than it has been since the administration of Mrs. 
Thayer. 

At the close of the examination a very appropriate and elegant address wAs deliv- 
ered to the young ladies by Rev. D. C. Page, of Natchez. 

-_ „ -.o.^ Philanthropos. 

March 7, 1842. 



46 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

But the praises of '^ Philanthropos " were given to the last leap of an 
expiring flame. There is no further history of Elizabeth Academy. 
After a course of about twenty-five years, most of its original patrons 
having died or removed to other parts of the country, and other female 
schools having been organized at I^atchez, Port Gibson, Woodville, 
and other places, the academy was abandoned, and by the terms of the 
grant its property reverted to the heirs of the donor.^ 

THE HOLLY SPRINGS FEMALE INSTITUTE. 

From its earliest day the educational advantages of the city of Holly 
Springs were of a high order. This was especially true in regard to 
schools for girls. They extended unusual facilities for learning, under 
the guidance of enlightened and experienced teachers. These benefits 
attracted the residence of families of wealth and refinement, who came 
from a distance to secure the education of their children. They brought 
with them a high standard of religious, moral, and intellectual culture, 
and gave a character of unusual elevation to the place. This was so 
eminently the case that in a very short time the population was over 
4,000 and its real estate was in demand at high prices. 

In the month of January, 1836 (the same year in which the Chickasaw 
Cession was organized into counties), a meeting of the citizens of Holly 
Springs and its vicinity was held for the purpose of electing trustees 
for the Female Academy of Holly Springs. A. C. McEwen, James 
Elder, L. D. Henderson, William C. Edmondson, Calvin Squires, J. 
Walker, John Hardin, and James W. Hill were chosen. At another 
meeting held shortly afterwards Hill was elected president of the board 
and McEwen secretary. At this meeting a Miss Moseley was employed 
to teach during the first session with the rates of tuition fixed at $8, 
$12, and $ 15 for the first, second, and third classes, respectively. The 
academy was located on lot numbered 271, lying south of and fronting 
on the road to Hernando. The building was a modest but comfortable 
structure of hewn logs, with clapboard roof, overhang by friendly oak 
trees. 

At another meeting of the board, held on the 2d of July, C. Kyle, 
K. S. Holland, James Davis, and J. M. Blackwell were added to that 
body, and at an adjourned meeting, held on the 4th, a Mr. Cottrell and 
his wife were elected to take charge of the academy. They agreed to 
do so, and fixed on the 1st of January, 1837, for their day of opening, 
but for some reason, not now known, they abandoned the engage- 
ment, and opened about that time a female school near Hudsonville 
in the same county. Miss Moseley remained in charge through the 
year 1836. 

In 1837 a Mr. Baker and his wife were installed as principals. During 
that year the school seems to have prospered, and some steps were 
taken to provide enlarged and more comfortable accommodations. 
John A. McKindree, Hon. Parry W. Humphreys, and E, H. Patillo 

1 Letters of Rev. J. G. Jones, Prof. J. S. Raymond^ and others. 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPL 47 

were added to tbe board, and a committee was appointed to examine 
sites for the purpose of removing the academy to a better situation. 

During this year, also, the town of Holly Springs was incorporated. 
The owners of the land on which it was located made a donation of 
50 acres to the citj^, and this tract sold for enough money to build an 
excellent court house and jail and furnish means toward the enlarge- 
ment and the great improvement of the academy. The sum of $10,500 
was appropriated to the last purpose by the police court, and private 
subscriptions increased the sum to $14,121.59, 

At this time an unsuccessful effort was made to engage a Mr. 
Holiaster as principal. Deeming it important to have at the head of 
the institution '^a gentleman of literary abilities and one that has 
practical experience in conducting a female school," the session of 1838 
was postponed until the 1st of February, and meanwhile Colonel 
Henderson was dispatched on the special mission of finding an accept- 
able man. The result was that Mr. Thomas Johnson was selected. 

This was an eventful year for the academy. Notwithstanding the 
dire financial calamities of the period, there was prosperity through 
this community. The town increased in population. The frictions 
and disorders usually incident to new settlements yielded so promptly 
to the power of a refined and cultured element that they can hardly 
be said ever to have had a place in the community. The trustees 
resolved to adjust their plans, not only to the wants of the present 
but also to the anticipated demands of the future. 

In March, 1838, Mr. Hill resigned the presidency of the board and 
was succeeded by Judge Humphreys. Mr. McKindree became treas- 
urer. It was determined to move the academy to a more desirable site. 
On the 9th of April Mr. Whitfield (lately elected a member of the 
board), chairman of a special committee, reported the purchase of a 
4:-acre lot from one W. S. Eandolph. A committee was appointed to 
make building contracts and superintend the work. It was further 
resolved to lay the corner stone on the 25th of June with masonic hon- 
ors, and Holly Springs Lodge, Fo. 35, was invited to perform the cere- 
mony. This programme was duly carried out, and the academy (which 
at this time was called the Holly Springs Collegiate Institute) was 
established on grounds amply capacious and beautifully located amidst 
residences well improved and even in some instances ambitious in style. 
Streets were laid off about the premises; grass seed and shade trees 
planted. 

In order to extend more widely the interest in the institution, Samuel 
McCorkle, J. E. Palmer, T. K. Loving, and a Mr. Cain were added to 
the board. Dr. William Hankins testified his interest in the enter- 
prise by the gift of an "elegant electrical machine." Two pianos were 
purchased. 

Meanwhile the labors of the faculty progressed. In the year 1838 
there were about 80 pupils. The musical department was under the 
care of Mr. and Mrs. Kenno and was well conducted. 



48 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The institution embraced a primary and a collegiate department. In 
the primary department were taught orthography, reading, writing, 
English grammar, geography, history, and arithmetic. The collegiate 
department was divided into three classes— junior,, intermediate, and 
senior — and the studies were arranged in this order: 

Junior class. — Elocution, English, Latin or some modern language, 
natural philosophy (including physics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, pneu- 
matics, acoustics), chemistry, history, arithmetic, composition, vocal 
music. 

Intermediate class, — English, rhetoric, Latin or some modern language, 
physiology, outlines of geology, mineralogy, botany, natural history, 
algebra, vocal music. 

Senior class. — English, Latin or some modern language, optics, astron- 
omy, history, natural theology, mental and moral philosophy, criticism, 
logic, geometry, composing themes, music. 

The institute was then provided with live teachers in the college, 
including the president and the two teachers of music and art. There 
was a sufficient additional force for the primary department. There 
was an elaborate published constitution and laws. The expenses were 
fixed as follows for the collegiate year : 

Tuition in the primary department $30 

Tuition in the college 50 

Music : 

Piano or guitar 50 

Harp Qo 

French, Italian, or German 35 

Drawing or painting 30 

ISTo salaries were paid by the trustees, but the principal and the 
teachers depended wholly on earnings. 

In the Eepublican of January 12, 1839, President Johnson published 
an open letter to the people urging the claims of the institute. It con- 
tains a good presentation of the advantages of a high education, a fine 
insistence on the desirability of a home education rather than a foreign 
one, and it has this passage of interest: 

Holly Springs four years ago was a cotton plantation; now we number a popula- 
tion of 2,500. Marshall County at the same time was little better than a wilderness, 
now one of the most populous counties in the State. Our population consists not of 
adventurers who come to the South for the purpose of regaining a lost fortune, but 
of substantial men, who brought their fortunes and, better still, their intelligence 
along with them, who believed they could enjoy in a substantial degree the 
advantages of cultivating the great staple commodity of the South and at the 
same time breathe a pure, healthful, invigorating atmosphere, and they were not 
mistaken. ^ * * 

The people of Holly Springs have given such evidence of their convictions on the 
subject of education that we think the public may rely upon their establishing 
schools of such a caste as to meet their views, however elevated. They have raised 
by subscription $30,000 to erect and endow a college for young gentlemen, and have 
already commenced improvements upon a liberal scale for its accommodations, part 
of which is already prepared; the balance is in progress. This college is now fur- 
nished with a faculty that would do honor to any school. 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 49 

They nave appropriated $15,000 to erecting and endowing a high order of female 
school, the principal edifice of which is now in progress and will he finished early- 
next spring. This Is a fine edifice of the Tuscan order, 64 feet front, two tall stories 
upon a hasement, with a wing extending back 60 feet. When completed it will he 
one of the best buildings for the purpose in the Southwest, sufficiently large to 
accommodate the teacher's family, 140 pupils; board, 60. The schoolroom is well 
A^entilated; the dormitories warm, comfortable, and well aired ; the playgrounds are 
extensive and so retired that, when properly inclosed, they will be free from observa- 
tion and intrusion. These will be handsomely laid out in promenades, decorated 
with native trees. 

Our object is to impart a sound, substantial, liberal education, not masculine, but 
approximating as near to it as the peculiarities of the female intellect will permit. 

In May, 1839, a matter of no great consequence in itself led to the 
severance of Mr. Johnson's connection with the institution.^ He was 
succeeded by the Eev. O. Parish, A. M. 

The new principal had been engaged in teaching at Holly Springs 
since the first Monday of January, 1838. He was one of the two teach- 
ers in the academic department of the Holly Springs Literary Insti- 
tute, the germ of the University of Holly Springs. At the time of his 
election to the presidency of the Female Institute he was professor of 
ancient languages in that university. 

In this year, 1839, the institute was granted a charter by the State 
legislature. . 

The faculty was at this time composed as follows : Bev. G. Parish, 
A. M., president and professor of natural science, mathematics, lan- 
guages, and belles lettres; Miss Euth Beach, assistant teacher; Eufus 
Beach, esq., and daughter, Eliza, teachers of music; Mrs. E. Langley, 
teacher in the ornamental branches. 

The first session, under the reorganization, began on the first 
Monday in January, 1840. The students registered were 80 in number, 
and the year's work satisfactory to the patrons. 

In the summer of 1841 an opposition school appeared. The Eev. 
0. A. Foster, an Episcopalian clergyman, published, in the Holly 
Springs Gazette, a card proposing to open a high school for young ladies 
under the name of The Holly Springs Female Institute. This card 
excited the ire of the Eev. Mr. Parish. He addressed a series of open 
letters to the papers on the subject. Of course he could not challenge 
the right of Mr. Foster to open a rival school; but he made very severe 
criticism on the name selected for that school. '^The Holly Springs 
Female Institute " was a style that belonged to the school under the 
writer's charge, etc. 

Mr. Foster's reply was that the Parish school was named by its 
charter, and that its name was properly the Holly Springs Female 
Academy; to which Mr. Parish rejoined that the charter name was a 
blunder of the legislature, and that <4nstitute" was the true term, on 
j^hich he insisted. Each man stood on his own judgment, and for a 

» The Repuhlican, June 1, 1839, 
21785— No. 24 4 



50 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

while there were two schools in Holly Springs called the Holly Springs 
Female Institute; and the geographical discrimination of the eastern 
and the western parts of the town becomes prominent. 

Mr. Foster won the battle. Exactly how is not now known ; but in 
January, 1842, Mr. Parish resigned and Mr. Foster was elected to suc- 
ceed him. Mr. Parish's resignation was received with regret; and the 
board passed very complimentary resolutions on that occasion. During 
his presidency several young ladies were graduated with the degree ot 
M. P. L,, presumably meaning mistress of polite literature. 

Mr. Foster took a lease of the institute for five and a half years. 

The new faculty consisted of Eev. C. A. Poster, rector and principal; 
Rev. A. P. Merrill, associate principal; Mrs. A. P. Merrill, preceptress; 
Miss Martha W. Fraser, assistant tutoress; J. F. Goneke, esq., pro- 
fessor of music; Miss M. Goneke, teacher on pianoforte; Mrs. Sarah 
B. Thompson, matron. A fine cabinet of minerals had been provided, 
and a good philosophical apparatus. Part of the institute grounds 
was laid off for a botanical garden. A library was also provided. Mr. 
Foster's administration was for a time remarkably successful. The 
attendance of pupils for 1842 was about 100; that for 1843, 120; and 
that for 1844, 150. In 1843 Professor Goneke and his daughter were 
gone, and their places were supplied by a Mr. Morse (late of Jackson) 
and a Miss Covington. 

On the Thursday, Friday, and Saturday of the last week in Decem- 
ber, 1844, there was a public examination, of which a full account 
remains. The pupils gave numerous experiments and illustrations in 
practical chemistry; they conversed publicly in French, and read com- 
positions in that tongue; they were quizzed in mental philosophy, in 
geometry, and in geology; they gave a public concert, etc.; they are 
said to have acquitted themselves with great credit. 

In the spring of the year 1845 President Foster resigned. His suc- 
cessor was promptly summoned. It was the Eev. James Weatherby, 
until then principal of the Oxford Female Academy. Under his charge 
the institute was successfully conducted from the first. The registra- 
tion of the year 1845-46 was 120 pupils, and the Avishes of its patrons 
were in all respects fully met.^ 

The sessions of 1846-47 were also prosperous. At this time among 
the faculty were Monsieur Yalette, professor of French; George M. 
Maclean, M. D., professor of chemistry; and Dierck Breuer, professor 
of music.^ 

With the opening of the fall term, 1848, the Eev. G. W. Sill, who 
enjoyed a high reputation, became principal. He remained through a 
period of eight years. He was followed by the Eev. N. Chevalier, 
whose connection with the institute was for only two years. His suc- 
cessor, in turn, was J. H. Hackleton, who held the office of president 
until the civil war swept the institution away. It is but too well 

i Holly Springs Gazette, jimo 27, 1846. 
^Ibid., January 5, 1847. 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 51 

known that the institute perished during the war at the hands of an 
incendiary. 

From the inauguration of the Rev. Mr. Sill onward the institute was 
at its best. It had tided over the financial breakers of the period from 
1837 to 1840. The purposes of the trustees were crowned by the com- 
pletion of the buildings and the crowding of its halls by bright girls 
from, all the country round about. Its board of control counted 
amongst its members some of the most intelligent and influential gen- 
tlemen of the State: Judge Parry W. Humphreys, Judge Chalmers, 
Judge J. W. 0. Watson, Hon. J. W. Olapp, A. J. McOonnico, and others. 

It should be remarked, in conclusion, that James W. Hill was pres- 
ident of the board from its organization until the end, except during a 
short period when that duty was discharged by Judge Humphreys, 
James Davis, and E, H. Whitfield, successively. Mr. Hill lived in the 
vicinity of the town 5 was an energetic and successful planter; took 
much interest in public affairs, and held those of the institute as dear 
to himself as his own. So, also, A. C. McEwen was the secretary 
throughout, except for a short time when James Elder held the of&ce. 
McEwen was a staunch friend of the institute and had more to do with 
its finances than any other man. He was a person of very positive 
character, with sound sense, high qualifications for business, and strict 
integrity.^ 

The institute was destroyed by the war, but its work remained. It 
contributed largely to the development of the high order of culture in 
the community, and consequently to the production of yet other fine 
schools, its natural and direct successors. 

THE COLLEaE AND ACADEMY AT SHARON. 

This institution, located at Sharon, in Madison County, was founded 
by B. W. Minter, J. W. P. McGimsey, E. F. Divine, Kinsman Divine, 
William Joiner, and James M. Baker, with perhaps others. The scheme 
at the first was that of a school under the auspices of the religious 
dinominatious of the vicinity — a union school; and the Methodist, 
Baptist, and Presbyterian churches all took part and had representa- 
tion in both the trustees and the faculty. Many intelligent persons of 
the community thought that in this very fact lay the germ of future 
dissensions and possible disruption.^ 

The institution was incorporated in 1837. Its plan of organization 
embraced a college for males and an academy for females, with a pre- 
paratory school. The first seems to have been called distinctly the 
Sharon College and the second the Sharon Female Academy. There 
were distinct establishments and faculties under one president. 

By the same legislature which granted the college charter the town 
of Sharon was incorporated; and, with special reference to these insti- 
tutions, the mayor and council being authorized to pass all such by-laws 

i The Independent South, February 20 and March 6, 1873. 

2 House Journal, 1840, p. 321; Mississippi Creole, February 28, 1842. 



52 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

as might be necessary to promote education and learning and to pre- 
vent retailing liquors, gaming, and the wearing of weapons. 

The Female Academy was the first in the field for work. Their 
announcement was made in April, 1837. The trustees had secured the 
services of Misses J. H. and H. W. Copes, of Maryland, and flattered 
themselves that the qualifications of those teachers and their experience 
in the instruction of young ladies, together with the healthful and 
Ijleasant location of the institution, would offer the strongest induce- 
ments to parents desirous of procuring for their daughters a solid and 
ornamental education. The course of instruction was arranged into 
three classes. The preparatory class took orthography, reading, i>en- 
manship, arithmetic, English grammar, and geography, with the use of 
globes. The junior class took astronomy, natural philosophy, moral 
and mental philosophy, history, chemistry, rhetoric, logic, and political 
economy. The senior class continued the studies of the junior, with 
the addition of drawing, oriental, mezzotinto and velvet painting, 
ornamental needlework, and music. 

On the 1st of October, 1838, Sharon College was also opened. The 
preparatory department had been in operation since the first of the 
year with about 40 pupils. The course of studies In the college was 
designed to be equal to that in any other college in the United States. 

Five gentlemen from different States in the Union, all of whom were 
or had been professors in other institutions, were elected to the facul- 
ties. Four of them were clergymen, one Methodist, one Baptist, one 
Presbyterian, and one Cumberland Presbyterian. This distribution 
was from a policy adopted in the by-laws, designed, on the one hand, 
to save the institution from any exclusive sectarian influence, and, on 
the other, to secure it against irreligion. So far as religious men were 
elected to fill chairs at Sharon, they were purposely taken from the 
more numerous sects in the State, so that there should be at no one 
time more than one permanent professor of one denomination. Yet 
one of the professors was not a member of any church, a want of 
religious profession not being a barrier, provided there was good 
scholarship and good morals. The by-laws forbade professors to employ 
any influence whatever, direct or indirect, to proselyte students. The 
faculties were arranged as follows : 

Eev. Alexander Campbell, a Presbyterian minister, was president of 
both institutions. He is described as a disciplinarian perhaps unsur- 
passed, which, blended with his great urbanity of manners, rendered 
him very efficient in advancing the interests of the institution and of 
the youth placed under his charge. His salary was fixed at $2,500 per 
annum. He was brother-in-law to the Misses Copes, who first conducted 
the female academy. 

In the college Rev. Richard Beard was professor of ancient lan- 
guages 5 William L. Williford, professor of mathematics and natural 
philosophy, and John F. Little, teacher of the preparatory school. 



DEAD COLLEGES OP MISSISSIPPI. 53 

In the female academy Rev. H. W. Smith was principal; Dr. 0. S. 
Brown, assistant teacher; Mrs. H. W. Smith, instructress in French, 
Italian, and the ornamental branches; Miss Stratton, assistant; Mr. 0. 
Brachus, teacher of music. 

The property consisted of two lots, on one of which the college build- 
hig stood and on the other the academy. There were some outstanding 
credits for lots sold and about $20,000 due on subscriptions. There was 
no library and no apparatus. 

The attendance of pupils in the college (including preparatory depart- 
ment) for 1839 was lOO.i 

In the year 1841 Dr. Campbell relinquished his connection with this 
institution, accepting the presidency of Mississippi College, and Sharon 
seems to have been placed under the charge of Professor Beard. 

In January and February, 1842, the Rev. Bradford Frazee published 
in the Mississippi Creole, of Canton, a long letter, in which he charged 
substantially, among other things, that the college was deceiving its 
patrons in giving but a preparatory course under the name and for the 
pay of a collegiate one. This charge drew forth an elaborate response 
from Professor Beard, which is given, not for the controversy, but for 
the exhibit made in it of the class work of the college: 

Sharon College, March ^, 184^. 
To the public: 

From an article which appeared in the Mississippi Creole of last week in relation 
to this institution, I feel compelled to make the following statements with regard to 
the course and manner of instruction here : 

First, the course: When I commenced my labors in the department of ancient 
languages, the Rev. Mr. Campbell, then president of the institution, and myself 
agreed to recommend to the trustees that the following books should constitute the 
literary course: 

Preparatory. — Latin grammar. Liber Primus, Viri Romae, CsBsar, Ovid, Virgil, 
Sallust. 

Freshman year. — Horace, Juvenal, Cicero de Oratore, Cicero^s Orations, Livy, 
Tacitus. 

Sophomore year. — Greek grammar, Greek reader, Greek Testament, Grseca Minora, 
Grseca Major a (first volume). 

Junior year. — Graeca Majora (second volume). Homer's Hiad. With these were 
to be connected Mair's Introduction to Latin Syntax ; geography, ancient and modern, 
with the use of the globe ; Roman and Grecian antiquities. 

It was agreed that the following branches, and in the following order, should con- 
stitute the mathematical and scientific course : 

Euclid^s elements, algebra, conic sections, calculus, natural philosophy, astron- 
omy, chemistry, botany, belles-lettres, political, mental, and moral philosophy. 
This course was approved by the trustees. It will be seen that we placed literature 
before mathematics, mathematics before physics, and these before the elegant, 
political, mental, and moral sciences. For this arrangement we have the highest 
authority now in the literary and scientific world. Furthermore, we have the order 
of nature; we follow the obvious developments of the human mind. It was under- 
stood that other professors, should they come in, would have the privilege of revi- 
sions and chatnges in their several departments, if changes were found necessary. 

1 CampbeH's letter to Governor McNutt, House Journal, 1840, p. 321. 



54 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The classical course was supposed to be established. It was not, however, expected 
that each of the specified authors would be read throughout, but a sufficiency to 
acquaint the student thoroughly with all peculiarities of syntax, style, and manner. 
Some of the more difficult authors were to be read throughout. The public will 
thus see what we wished to do. 

Now for what we have done : Juvenal and Cicero de Oratore have never been used, 
because we have not been able to procure them. Grseca Minora has been dropped 
and Neilson^s Greek Exercises adopted in its stead. Viri Romse has been changed 
for the Latin reader. Every man of experience will acknowledge that the literary 
course is no contemptible affair. It is equal to any in the South or West, if not to 
any in the United States. Soon after we commenced our operations, the freshman 
class, which was our highest class, requested permission to unite the study of Greek 
with the study of Latin. I agreed that they mighfe read Latin three days in the 
week and Greek two. It will be seen that this arrangement was equivalent to two 
recitations a day, one in Latin and one in Greek. The same amount per week was 
accomplished in each language which would have been if the class had divided the 
day between them instead of the week. For the plan I am responsible. My object 
was to make the course of instruction more thorough. In process of time mathe- 
matics were brought down into the sophomore year, . and combined with Latin and 
Greek. Mathematics, when commenced, were recited every day. The recitations 
were then equivalent to three recitations a day. I will now make a statement of 
the order and plan of studies pursued by the sophomore and junior classes of last 
year as a more practical illustration of our system : The sophomore class in the early 
part of the year recited on Monday from Woodbridge and Willard's geography with 
the globe; on Tuesday and Wednesday in Latin; Thursday and Friday in Greek. 
After geography was completed, the recitation for Monday was from the Greek Tes- 
tament, and subsequently from Blair's Rhetoric. The other days were still divided 
between Latin and Greek. The recitations in all were equivalent to three a day. 
The Latin authors were Livy, Cicero, and Tacitus ; the Greek, Xenophon, Herod- 
otus, Thucydides, Isocrates, Demosthenes. At the beginning of the second session 
Euclid was commenced and recited every day. The recitations were then equivalent 
to four a day. 

The junior class at the beginning of the year recited on Monday and Tuesday from 
Blair's Rhetoric, receiving lectures in the evening. This was succeeded by natural 
philosophy, and then by chemistry, both attended with lectures. On Wednesday, 
Thursday, and Friday the recitations were in Greek. The authors were Plato, Aris- 
totle, and Homer. About the middle of the first session Greek was temporarily laid 
aside and French was substituted. All the while there were daily recitations in 
mathematics. After the class had rendered as much attention to French as was 
thought necessary, it was agreed to defer the balance of the Greek course to the 
present year and for the time to substitute moral philosophy and logic. Toward the 
latter part of the year an additional lesson was required in astronomy. Weekly 
compositions were required of both classes ; also weekly exercises in declamation or 
debate before the instructor. At the close of the year the junior class had completed 
Latin, modern and ancient geography, Gifecian antiquities, rhetoric, natural philoso- 
phy, chemistry, moral philosophy, logic, geometry, algebra, and the principal por- 
tion of trigonometry, and could read French with some fluency. The balance of the 
Greek course could have been read in two months, and was deferred by common con_ 
sent to the present year. I am thus particular that the public may know that we are 
not tricking our patrons out of their money by charging them for ^* collegiate instruc- 
tion'^ and not giving it. We despise the slander. Our friends may find fault with 
the quality of our labor, but they can not, in justice, with the quantity. Of the 
quality I shall say nothing; there are other tribunals. But of the amount I may 
speak freely. The truth is, we have labored like galley slaves for two years past to 
keep up this institution. We have done so because we thought it might be a blessing 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPL 55 

to this community. Tlie results of our labors haA^e been before the public. To^ihem 
we confidently appeal whether the course of instruction in Sharon College has been 
a system of knavery or not. Our examinations and exhibitions have not been hold 
in a corner. Our fellow-citizens have seen and hoard, and they shall decide. 

Richard Beard. 

Ill the early part of the year 1843 the female academy was placed 
in the hands of the Mississippi conference of the Methodist Oharch. 
It was reorganized, and entered on a new era of prosperity, under the 
new name of the Sharon Female College. 

Ko further account of the '^Sharon College" (the boys' school) is 
found; and it would seem that since the Methodists were then building 
up Centenary College at Brandon Springs, not more than 20 miles 
away, the male branch was discontinued. 

The following extracts from an advertisement of date September 6, 
1843, will show further the history of the female college : 

SHARON FEMALE COLLEGE, MADISON COUNTY, MISS. 

This Institntlon, under the patronage of the Mississippi Annual Conference, will 
commence its regular session on the first Monday of October. 

Board of instruction. — Rev. E. S. Robinson, A. M., principal and teacher of ancient 
languages, mathematics, and natural sciences. C. W. F. MuUer, esq., (a native of 
France, and a gentleman of thorough education), professor of music and modern 
languages. Mrs. J. A. Robinson, chief governess and teacher of botany, history, and 

ornamental needlework; , second governess, and teacher of drawing, 

painting, and vocal music. A preceptress of the preparatory department will be 
selected by the Ist of October. ^ * * 

Course of study— Preparatory department. — Orthography, reading, writing, English 
grammar, geography, arithmetic, mythology, progressive exercises in composition, 
Bible and its natural history, Latin and Greek grammars, Latin tutors and readers, 
and vocal music. 

Course of study — Collegiate department, — Ancient and modern languages, algebra, 
geometry, trigonometry, mensuration, syntax and English composition, analysis, 
rhetoric, natural philosophy, chemistry, geology, mineralogy, botany, astronomy, 
logic, elements of criticism, ancient and modern history, ancient geography, phi- 
losophy of natural history, physiology, mental and moral sciences, introduction to 
study of Bible, evidences of Christianity, daily use of sacred Scriptures, music, 
drawing, painting ; wax, coral, and ornamental needlework. * * * 

The last examination closed the first semiannual session of its existence under 
the patronage of the Mississippi Annual Conference. Its success has equaled the 
highest expectation of its trustees and patrons, having closed with more than 
80 students, and the prospect of large accessions at the opening of the next 
session. * * * 

J. P. Thomas, 

President Board of Trustees. 
Sharon, September 6, 1843. 

In 1844, the faculty had been increased by the addition of Ool. G. D. 
Mitchell, a distinguished educator from Tennessee, lately principal of 
the academy at Grenada, as principal of the preparatory department; 
Miss Almeda Mitchell, second governess and assistant in the prepar- 
atory department, and Miss Martha E. Mitchell, teacher of drawing 
and of painting. 



56 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The college was ably ^nd satisfactorily conducted by President 
Eobinson, and steadily increased its patronage. In the year 1845, 
however, he resigned, and moved with his family to Jasper County. 
He was succeeded in the same year by the Eev. Pleasant J. Eckles. 
This gentleman, aided by bis accomplished wife, who had rare ability 
as a teacher, added much to the reputation of the college, already 
popular as it was. After remaining several years, he resigned in 1854, 
and was followed by the Eev. J. W. Shelton. This gentleman, however, 
retained the presidency but a short time. He resigned and returned 
to the State of Tennessee, whence he had come; and there, after a few 
years, he died, universally regretted. 

His successor at the college was the Eev. Mr. Guard, who, with a 
competent corps of teachers, had charge of the institution until the 
year 1861. He was then followed by the Eev. William L. 0. Hunnicutt 
(now president of Centenary College). President Hunnicutt, however, 
soon enlisted as a chaplain in the Confederate army. He was followed 
at the college by Eev. Samuel D. Aikin. This gentleman remained 
several years and did good service. 

In the year 1867, President Aikin resigned, and moved with his family 
to Texas. Mr. Hunnicutt was then reelected to succeed him. 

In the^year 1868, the college suffered a great misfortune in the burn- 
ing of its boarding house. From this calamity it never recovered, and 
the loss led eventually to the closing of the school. 

In October, 1869, President Hunnicutt was succeeded by the Eev. 
Josiah M. Pugh, formerly of Madison College. President Pugh, in 
turn, resigned in July, 1870, because of ill health, and Mr. Hunnicutt 
was elected president for the third time. Again, in 1871, Mr. Hunnicutt 
was succeeded by Mr. Pugh. In 1872, and under President Pugh, the 
last graduating class of Sharon Female College received their degrees. 
They were three in number, Mattie B. Holliday, Mary J. O^Leary, and 
Emma M. Wiggins. The last named was the valedictorian j and the 
commencement of that year was said to be the most brilliant in the his- 
tory of the institution. But it was the last. 

In July, President Pugh resigned, to accept the presidency of Marvin 
College, in Texas. He was followed, for a few months, by the Eev. Mr. 
Moss, from Alabama 5 and this gentleman was the last principal of the 
college. The suspension and close of the college was owing to condi- 
tions which raise no imputation of blame to anyone. The destruction 
of property and of values by the civil war, the loss of the boarding 
house, as related, many removals from a population already sparse and 
impoverished, the remoteness from railroads — all were contributing 
causes. 

There are many cultured and lovely women in Mississippi and the 
adjacent States who look back with pride to Sharon College and bless 
the teachers who fitted them by faithful instruction and godly admoni- 
tion for positions of usefulness and of happiness as well. 



BEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 57 

THE COLLEGE IN JACKSON, THE BRANDON COLLEGE, AND MADISON 

COLLEGE. 

When Dr. Thomas O, Thornton resigned the presidency of Centenary 
College, in the year 1844,^ he did not abandon his labors in educational 
fields. On the contrary, he immediately set about the organization of 
a college in the city of Jackson, of higher grade than any the State had 
as yet seen. He took the work in history, political economy, intellectual 
and moral philosophy, and associated with himself five other gentle- 
men, all men of experience and of more or less reputation in educa- 
tional circles. The Rev. Norman W. Camp, A. M., was given the chair 
of classics and rhetoric; Prof. J. M. Pugh (afterwards principal of 
Sharon Female College and of Madison College), that of mathematics 
and civil engineering; M. Louis Julienne, a native of France (and for 
many years after a well-known citizen of Jackson), instructor in French; 
Dr. James B. C. Thornton, his own brother (and for whom further see the 
chapter on Centenary College), the chair of natural sciences and also 
that of medicine; and Hon. Daniel Mayes, formerly professor of law in 
the Transylvania University, at Lexington, Ky.^ the chair of law. 

The college opened on the 15th of January, 1845, for the reception 
of pupils. The following statement from the Mississippian of date 
August 13, 1845, will explain its location and the plan. The Eagle 
Hotel referred to was a large frame building on the site now occupied 
by the residence of Joseph A. Brown, esq., just north of the capitol 
grounds. 

COLLEGE IN JACKSON, MISS. 

This institution, now in successful operation in this city, opened fur the reception 
of students, in that commodious building known as the Eagle Hotel, on the 15th of 
January last, and in connection with it a preparatory school in which those who 
desire it may have their sons and wards qualified for the common business of life, 
or prepared to enter college. * * * 

To meet the wishes of those who send their sons and wards to the preparatory 
school in this institution, and to have them well prepared to enter college, that 
department is under the immediate care and instruction of" the president and Pro- 
fessors Camp and Pugh, aided by competent assistants, and they are determined to 
have the boys in this school so taught thai they shall spell, write, and read well. 
The course of study for the college classes adopted by us, being virtually that of the 
first colleges of our country, will be the standard for the examinations of college 
students, and we hope to give satisfaction to those who commit their sons to our 
instruction, by having them not only well drilled in elementary principles but taught 
in their course of mathematics especially, with the use of the instruments, surveying, 
heights, distances, and civil engineering. 

For the information of persons at a distance, we subjoin the following respecting 
the principles on which this school is founded and the manner in which it is to be 
conducted: 

First. That it is not to be under the government of any particular sect or denomi- 
nation. 

Second. That the governor and chief officers of the State, the mayor and aldermen 
of the city of Jackson are its acknowledged superintendents, visitors, and patrons. 

Third. That the students attend with the professors at public prayers at some 
convenient time each day, and divine worship on Sunday, at such church as their 
parents or guardians direct. 



' See Cha])ter VIII. 



58 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Fourth. The discipline of the school shall be as nearly parental as possible, and be 
administered on this principle. 

Fifths Every student is expected to be at his studies or our recitation rooms from 
9 o'clock each day, Saturday and Sunday excepted, to 12 o'clock in the morning, and 
from 2 to 5 in the afternoon during the winter. In summer, from 8 o'clock to 12 m 
the morning, and 2 to 5 in the afternoon. During these hours the students will be 
under our immediate and special oversight and instruction, at other hours only 
under our general supervision as friends and protectors, being left as much as possi- 
ble to the care of those with whom they board, the force of moral suasion, and the 
influence and power of public opinion. 

Sixth. The students will regularly declaim in public, and thus be trained for public 
speaking. 

Seventh. We can have nothing to do with the financial concerns of the students, 
except to receive the tuition fees. The merchants or persons with whom they board 
can act as patrons for them, or as agents in this matter for parents ; their books, board- 
ing, and clothing can all be had at reasonable prices in Jackson, and parents or 
guardians must make their arrangements with others, as the professors can not take 
the time to provide these, nor have any responsibility respecting the expenses of any 
youth. 

Eighth. The year is divided into three sessions. The first from the second Monday 
in January to the 15th of April. The second from the 15th of April to the 15th of 
July, when there will be a vacation of two months. The third from the 15th of Sep- 
tember to the 20th of December — a few days' vacation at Christmas — the second 
Wednesday in January being commencement day. 

Every student is liable for tuition fees from the day of admission to the termina- 
tion of the session. The tuition fees in the literary departments must be paid in 
advance for each session — that is, one-third of the whole amount for the year at a 
time. 

. Ninth, Good board can be obtained in many private families in Jackson at from 
$10 to $12.50 per month. 

Tenth. A young man may enter as an irregular student provided he shall pay the 
same amount of tuition fees as those on a regular course. 

Eleventh. No student who regularly absents himself from recitations or avoids 
our annual examinations can retain his standing with us. His recitations and prog- 
ress in study will be recorded and a transcript thereof be sent when deemed jiroper 
to his parent or guardian. 

Twelfth. Those who learn the modern languages must exhibit the written permis- 
sion of their parents o^; guardians, and must pay an extra charge of $8 per session, 
and as a recreation and relief from the dullness of study a student will be allowed to 
learn music, provided his parent or guardian shall order it, and is willing to pay an 
extra charge for the same, and provided, also, that it does not interfere with his reg- 
ular recitations. 

TERMS OF TUITION. 

For orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, and English grammar, in the junior 
division of the preparatory school, $8.33 per session or $25 per annum. 

These, with geography and algebra in the senior division thereof, $11.66 per session 
or $35 per annum. 
For the ancient languages, or in the college classes, $15, or $45 per annum. 
Modern languages and music are extra charges. 

The tuition fee in the professional classes is $75 for the year, to be paid in advance. 
A matriculation fee of $5 must be paid by each student when he enters the insti- 
tution. 

T. C. Thornton. 

N. W. Camp. 

Dan. Mayes. 

J AS. B. C. Thornton. 

J. M. PUGH. 



DEAD COLLEGES OP MISSISSIPPI. 59 

The following editorial from the Mississippian of the 6th of August 
casts some light on this undertaking : 

COLLEGE IN JACKSON. 

We shall publish in our next the advertisement of this institution. Two sessions 
of the present collegiate year have expired, and the third commences next month. 

From what we learn there is a fair prospect for a fine school. Of this, indeed, there 
could be no doubt. The uniform genteel deportment of the students, their regular 
and studious habits, the constant good feeling which has existed between them and 
the citizens of Jackson, and the reciprocal regret at parting— even during the vaca- 
tion — all bespeak for the college an increasing patronage. An institution of learn- 
ing of this grade at the capital of our State must succeed if our citizens will take 
hold of it and exert themselves as they ought. The school, recitation, and lecture 
rooms must not be a charge on the professors or students. This, in either case, would 
materially injure if not break down the school. Until houses are erected for a col- 
lege and preparatory school, we ought to see that the rents are not a charge on the 
president and professors. For years Jackson has been as it now is— one of the health- 
iest cities in the South or Southwest. In proof of this, extensive improvements are 
going on in almost every part of the city; houses of every description rent well; and 
among the numerous students here during the two past sessions there has hardly 
been a case of indisposition, much less of serious illness. 

Almost the whole city united in giving the students a party at the Mansion House 
on the evening previous to their departure. Such an array of youth and beauty we 
have seldom seen. Success to the college in Jackson. We have not been, nor do we 
intend to be, wanting in the performance of our part. Every man in Hinds County 
ought to take an interest in it. The whole State is interested in its success— the 
cause of education is the cause of our country. 

Attached to the college is a very respectable law class under the instruction of 
that distinguished jurist and professor, Hon. D. Mayes, and also a class engaged in 
the study of medicine, with Dr. James B. C. Thornton, the professor of natural 
sciences. 

In 1846 this institution was incorporated by the legislature under the 
general designation of «^The College in Jackson." Dr. Thornton's hope 
was to get the college taken under the patronage of the city and the 
State, to be subsidized by them, but neither plan succeeded. " 

The very second year revealed the result of the failure. The announce- 
ment showed a discontinuance of both the professional schools; and in 
the literary and classical department only three instructors, viz, T. 0. 
Thornton, J. M. Pugh, and G. D. Mitchell. In fact, matters were even 
worse, for Colonel Mitchell resigned his connection with the college 
before any actual service in it, and formed a partnership with a Mrs. 
Judd to conduct a female academy. 

After a career of only two years the college was abandoned.^ Yet 
the college was not wholly without fruit. At the commencement of 
1845 the following young gentlemen (some of whom had studied at Cen- 
tenary College) received degrees: Asa Brundage, Eussell W. Howard, 
Edward H. Hoard, and Nathaniel S. Lane. 

THE BRANDON COLLEOE. 

Disappointed in his "College in Jackson," Dr. Thornton still perse- 
vered. In the year 1847, accompanied by Professor Pugh, he went to 

1 MSS. of Hon. A. R. Green and Rev. J. M. Pugh. 



60 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Brandon^ smd there took charge of the Male and Female Academy. 
There were two commoxiious two-story buildings — one for each sex — 
erected in the year 1838, and having fou'r and six fireplaces, respec- 
tively. 

The doctor immediately raised the curriculum to the received colle- 
giate standard. A charter was obtained in 1849, under the general 
statute, by the name of Brandon College. 

At this institution, during his presidency, were graduated Pinckiiey 
T. Bailey, George P. Finlay, Luke W. Finlay, A. J. Ferguson, Jack D. 
Fore, Benjamin D. Estes, and Theodore 0. Chapman. There was also 
graduated, with the degree of Mistress of Arts, Miss Yeturia J. Finlay, 
who completed the entire course prescribed for young men, and was 
probably the first young lady in this State to graduate on that plan. 

In the year 1851 the Brandon College lost the services and influence 
of Dr. Thornton under circumstances explained under the title Madison 
College, and was converted into a flourishing school of lower grade. 

MADISON OOLLEaE. 

In the year 1850 Dr. Thomas C. Thornton, then president of Brandon 
College, delivered an address at the Sharon Female College. The peo- 
ple were so much pleased that certain gentlemen waited on him for the 
purpose of securing his services in a college for young men, to be estab- 
lished in Sharon. Mr. James S. Pritchard visited him in Brandon, 
and after their consultation President Thornton aud Professor Pugh 
determined to ^^transfer the charter of Brandon College to Sharon, 
and change the name to Madison College, '^ upon condition that suitable 
buildings should be erected. To this Mr. Pritchard consented on behalf 
of the people of Sharon; or, perhaps more precisely, on behalf of him- 
self, William A. Baldwin, Owen W. Baldwin, and perhaps others. 

Thus Madison College was organized, the first session beginning in 
October, 1851. The institution had no endowment. Pursuant to the 
agreement with Dr. Thornton, the trustees provided at the first, and at 
the cost of about $1,200, for the college a building formerly used as a 
hotel, but afterwards a brick building was erected at a cost of $5,000, 
and the old hotel building sold. In the year 1855 a charter was 
obtained from the legislature, with liberal provisions as to powers. 
One of its provisions was to the efieect that the buildings were to remain 
forever the property of the State for educational purposes. 

The faculty was at first composed of only Dr. Thornton and Professor 
Pugh, but shortly afterwards it was enlarged, and was composed as 
follows: 

Dr. Thornton, president, and professor of moral and intellectual 
science and sacred literature. 

Rev. J. M. Pugh, vice-president, and professor of mathematics, nat- 
ural philosophy, and astronomy. 

H. W. Pierce, A. M., professor of English literature and assistant pro- 
fessor of moral and intellectual science. 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 61 

W. L. O. Hunnicutt, A. M., professor of ancient languages. 

J, 0. PitcMord, A. M., principal of the preparatory department. 

William H. Hartwell, professor of music. 

PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT, 

There were two departments, collegiate and preparatory. In the latter, the course 
of study for the first division embraced orthography^ reading and writing, first les- 
sons in arithmetic (Schell), geography (Olney), United States history (Goodrich), 
mental arithmetic (Enos), English grammar and exercises (Murray), and declama- 
tion; while that of the second division embraced Latin grammar (Ruddiman), 
historia sacra, Caesar's Commentaries (four books; Andrews's edition), Virgil's Bu- 
colics (Cooper or Delphini), Latin exercises (Mair), Greek grammar (Fisk), Grseca 
Minora, Greek exercises (Fisk), analysis of English language (Towns), ancient 
mythology (Dillaway), ancient and modern history (Goodrich), arithmetic (high 
school; Dodd); algebra (through simple equations; Dodd), Sallust (Butler and 
Sturges), composition and declamation. 

COLLEGIATE DEPARTMENT. 

Freshman class : VirgiPs -^neid (six books ; Cooper or Delphini), Cicero's Orations 
(Johnson), Latin grammar (Ruddiman.; reviewed), Latin exercises (Mair; con- 
tinued), Excerpta Historica (Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon's Cyropedia and 
Anabasis; Graeca Majora), Greek Testament (Gospels), Greek grammar (reviewed; 
Fisk), Greek exercises (continued; Fisk), classical antiquities (Bojesin), arithmetic 
(reviewed; Dodd), algebra (continued; Dodd), plane geometry (Dodd), (mensuration 
of planes, solid geometry (Dodd), mensuration of solids (Dodd), maxima and minima 
of geometry (Dodd), ancient geography (Mitchell), ancient and modern history (2 
volumes; Tytler), English grammer and exercises (Murray), philosophy of natural 
history (Smellie), composition and rhetoric (Quackenbos), declamation. 

Sophomore class: Horace's Odes and Epodes (Lincoln), Livy (Lincoln), VirgiFs 
Georgics (Cooper or Delphini), Latin and Greek exercises (continued; Fisk), 
Excerpta Rhetorica (Lysias, Isocrates, and Demosthenes; Graeca Majora), Philos- 
ophicaet Critica (Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle, and Longinus; Graeca Majora), Greek 
Testament (Acts), algebra (finished; Dodd), plane trigonometry (Dodd), surveying 
(theoretical and practical ; Dodd), application of algebra to geometry, navigation 
(Dodd), spherical trigonometry (Dodd), rhetoric (Boyd), zoology (Reese), anatomy, 
physiology, and hygiene (Cutter), composition and declamation. 

Junior class: Satires, Epistles and Ars Poetica of Horace (Lincoln), Terence 
(Andria and Adelphi), Latin prosody and composition (Arnold), Excerpta Heroica 
et Tragica (Homer, Hesiod, Apollonius Rhodius, Sophocles, and Euripides; Graeca 
Majora), Greek prosody and composition (Arnold), Greek Testament (Epistles), 
conic sections, (Coffin), analytical geometry (Coffin), calculus (McCartney), 
mechanics (Olmsted), mental philosophy (Upham), logic (Hedges), chemistry 
(Silliman), evidences of Christianity (Paley), natural theology (Paley), original 
orations. 

Senior class : Germania and Agricola t>f Tacitus, Juvenal and Persius (Leverett), 
Excerpta Bucolica, lyrica et miscellana (Theocritus, Bion, and Moschus; Graeca 
Majora), Greek Testament (Revelations), natural philosophy (hydrostatics, pneu- 
matics, electricity, magnetism, and optics; Olmsted), astronomy (Olmsted), meteor- 
ology (Brocklesby), moral philosophy (Paley), Butler's Analogy (with Tift's analysis), 
agricultural chemistry (Johnson), geology (Hitchcock), mineralogy (Dana), politi- 
cal economy (Say), American constitutions (Sheppard), original orations and 
discussions. 

In addition, the Hebrew and French languages were taugM when 
desired, and also an extended course in sacred literature, embracing 



62 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

the Bible in the original languages, if possible, ancient and sacred 
geography and chronology, Jahn's Archaeology, History of the Jews 
(Josephus and Eobertson), Prideaux's Connection, Home's Introduc 
tion, Hengstenberg's Christology, McEwen on the Types, Paley's Evi- 
dences and ISTatural Theology, Butler's Analogy, Eusebius and Mosheim, 
B'Aubigne's Reformation, Watson's Institutes, essays on sacred sub- 
jects — this being designed for a school of theology for young ministers. 

The college was provided witli a scientific apparatus, which cost 
about $6005 also a small museum, or cabinet, of curiosities, and a 
library of about 500 volumes. 

The degrees offered were the A. B., A. M., D. D., and LL. D. 

A literary society was organized in connection with the curriculum. 

The expenses of attendance were about $160 per annum. 

At its most prosperous period, from 1852 to 1859, the annual attend- 
ance of pupils was about 150, of whom usually about two- thirds were 
in the collegiate department. Some patronage was drawn from Lou- 
isiana. 

An interesting fact about this college was that its faculty and trus- 
tees regarded it as a continuation of the college at Jackson and of 
Brandon College; and the youths graduated at those schools were 
adopted as alumni of Madison College, and so announced in its cata- 
logues, without even any distinction of classification. 

In an address on Southern Education, delivered at the Madison Col- 
lege commencement, July 18, 1859, the Hon. A. G. Brown, formerly 
governor and then a member of the United States Senate, said : 

The colleges, academies, and schools at Corinth, Holly Springs, Columbus, Aber- 
deen, Macon, Lexington, Grenada, and other places, including Zion Seminary, and 
Salem High School, have all contributed largely to the general sum of scholastic 
intelligence. 

I would not be invidious, and I am sure the venerable president of this college 
and his learned associates would not accept applause bestowed at the expense of 
other institutions. It is but just to say that Madison College was founded amid dif- 
ficulties that would have appalled weaker hearts than those of the brave men who 
nurtured it in its infancy. Commencing its career in obscurity, without endowment 
and almost without patronage, it has struggled on, rising by slow degrees, until it has 
reached a position equal to that of its more favored sisters. It is but due to its patrons 
to sa}^ they have contributed largely to its success. But the first honor belongs to 
its president. I know something of the embarrassments which surrounded him 
when, without money and almost without friends, he undertook the difficult task of 
founding this college.^ His heart was in the work, and without pausing to count the 
obstacles in his way, like a true soldier, ho marked a point of victory, and then 
marched boldly to that point. The people of this community, the people of Missis- 
sippi, the friends of Southern education everywhere, owe him a debt of gratitude 
which they can never fully repay. The weight of accumulating years fast gathers 
upon him. In a little while the places that know him now shall know him no more 
forever. When he passes away no storied urn may receive his ashes, no stately 

1 The Senator here probably alludes to the continuous history of the institution. 
He was the governor and living in Jackson when Dr. Thornton opened the college 
there, and was one of the trustees of the institution. It is of this period that these 
expressions could be u^ed most appositely. See chapter on Centenary College. 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 63 

obelisk may rise to mark liis resting place, but he will live in the affections of this 
people, and the children of parents yet unborn will bring the offering of their tender 
hearts, lay them on a common pile, and thus rear a monument to his memory more 
enduring than brass and more solid than marble, for he is and has been the friend 
of Southern education. 

All honor to President Thornton. He blends in beautiful harmony the double 
characters of a teacher of youth and a disciple of Christ. In the schoolroom he has 
taught your children how to live, and in the sacred desk he has taught them how to 
die. May the evening of his days be gilded with a little of that resplendent glory 
which awaits him in another and a better world. 

It would almost seem as if the Senator's tribute were moved by a 
prevision of coming fate. That was th^ last commencement tbe vener- 
able and honored doctor ever saw. On the 22d of March, 1860, he 
passed away, being then in the sixty-sixth year of his age. A sketch 
of his life will be found as an addendum to the chapter on Centenary 
College. 

When Dr. Thornton died, Professor Pugh became president of the 
college, but held the office only during a few months. In the Decem- 
ber following he resigned to accept the chair of mathematics in Cen- 
tenary College. Prof. H. W. Pierce succeeded him as president. 

After the interruption of the civil war, the college was reopened. 
In 1866, Kev. Harvey W. Johnson was elected president. This gentle- 
man was, in 1867, called to the presidency of Whitworth College (q. v.), 
and in 1868 was succeeded at Madison by Eev. W. L. 0. Hunnicutt. 
At this time, C. B. Galloway, now bishop in the Methodist Church 
South, was a professor there. 

In the year 1870, President Hunnicutt was succeeded by Eev. J. M. 
Pugh. In 1872 the institution ceased to exist, perishing for want of 
endowment and patronage. The buildings still stand. By the terms 
of the charter they are property of the State. They are used for 
common-school purposes. 

OAKLAND COLLEGE. 

Oakland College was located in Claiborne County, 35 miles north of the city of 
Natchez, and 5 miles east of the Mississippi River. Rodney is the nearest landing. 
Bruinsburg, 3 miles north, is 'the spot where General Grant crossed the river and 
gained possession of the rear of the city of Vicksburg, and soon that city fell. Oak- 
land is situated in a region of country rendered interesting from many reminiscences 
of early times. Here was the scene of some characteristic incidents in the life of Gen. 
Andrew Jackson. A few miles from the college was the residence of Blennerhassett. 
Here was the place of the capture of Aaron Burr. In this vicinity was the planta- 
tion of the amiable, patriotic, and lamented Gen. Zachary Taylor. This region also 
derives much interest from the visits and labors of some of the earliest pioneers of 
Presbyterianism in the Southwest. Rickhow and Smiley and Montgomery * * * 
here came when the dew of their youth was upon them and laid the foundation of * 
our [Presbyterian] churches. Here visited and preached Schermerhorn, and S. J. 
Mills, and Lamed, and BuUen, and many others whose praise is in our [Presbyte- 
rian] Southern Zion. The eccentric Lorenzo Dow here rode his mule and blew his 
horn, and attracted crowds of the first settlers, preaching on house tops and hay- 
stacks, resembling Peter the Hermit, who once marshaled all Europe under the Cru- 
sader's banner. ^ 



^ Reminiscences, Sketches and Addresses, Rev. J. R. Hutchinson, 1852. 



64 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The origin of Oakland College may be traced to Eev. Dr. Jeremiah 
Chamberlain. 

Jeremiah Chamberlain was born in Gettysburg, Pa., in the year 1795, 
of pious Presbyterian parents. At an early age he entered Dickinson 
College, at Carlisle, and received from that institution his degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. Here he is supposed to have experienced that change 
which led to his dedication of himself to the ministry. He pursued his 
theological studies at the seminary at Princeton, where he graduated 
in the spring of 1817. He was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of 
I^^^ew Brunswick, and accepted a commission from the General Assem- 
bly'^ Board of Domestic Missions in 1817. Choosing the Southwest as 
the field of his labor, he proceeded, early in 1818, to Mobile, where, it 
is said, no Protestant minister had ever before preached. In the sum- 
mer of 1818 he returned to his native State, having accepted a call to 
the church in Bedford, where he also conducted an academy. In 1822, 
at the early age of 27, he was elected president of Center College, and 
removed to Danville, Ky. In December, 1826, he assumed the presi- 
dency of the College of Louisiana, at Jackson, but the attempt was 
made to lay unacceptable restrictions on him in the exercise of his 
ministerial functions, and in the spring of 1829 he resigned. He then 
devoted himself, for a short time, to teaching pupils in a private acad- 
emy established by himself. 

At this period it was tliat he was led to reflect upon the importance and practica- 
bility of establishing a college which should be under the care and supervision of 
the Presbyterian Church. The primary motive that directed him to the framing 
of this project was the hope that, could the opportunity of obtaining an adequate 
education be furnishe'd upon their own soil, many pious youth in the Southwest 
would be induced to avail themselves of it, and thus a native ministry be provided 
for this destitute and neglected field. At that time no college commencement had 
ever been held, nor had a single scholar ever been graduated, southwest of Ten^es- 
see, nor had a single educated native of Mississippi ever entered the ministry. [Nor 
was there then] a single college prepared to give a regular collegiate education 
within the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, and the Territory of Arkansas— contain- 
ing a population at that time of more than 300,000 souls, and a tract of country of 
more than 145,000 square miles, embracing the growing city of New Orleans, and 
other cities, with a soil capable of sustaining a vast population. Efforts had been 
made by the legislature of Louisiana, with princely liberality, to establish several 
institutions of learning, all of which had virtually failed. In the State of Missis- 
sippi exertions had been made for nearly thirty years * * * and yet not one 
individual was known to have been graduated. The religious community had done 
nothing.^ 

Dr. Chamberlain submitted his plan to the consideration of the Presbytery of 
Mississippi first at a meeting held in the town of Baton Rouge, La., in April, 1829. 
It was at once approved of.^ A committee was accordingly appointed, who, after 
an extensive correspondence continued through several months, called a meeting of 
the friends of education at Bethel Church, 2 miles from the subsequent location of 
the college, on the 14th of January, 1830. This meeting was composed of gentlemen 
from the parishes of East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, and West Feliciana, in 
Louisiana, and from the counties of Claiborne, Amite, Wilkinson, Adams, Jefferson, 



1 Reminiscences, Hutchinson. 

2 Memorial sermon by Dr. Stratton, 1851. 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPL 65 

Warren, Hinds, and Madison, in Mississippi, and continued six days The following 
resolution was presented by Rev. Benjamin Chase, chairman of the committee: 

Eesolved, That it is expedient to establish and endow an institution of learning 
within our bounds which when complete shall embrace the usual branches of 
science and literature taught in the colleges of our country, together with a pre- 
paratory English and grammar school and theological professorship or seminary. 

This resolution was sustained by gentlemen from every part of the country repre- 
sented in the meeting, and after considering it for three days it was unanimously 
adopted. A subscription was immediately opened to supply the requisite funds. 
Twelve thousand dollars were contributed for the purchase of a site and the erection 
of necessary buildings. Committees were appointed to prepare a constitution, to 
view the various locations which had been spoljen of, and to make all necessary 
arrangements for opening the school. 

The Presbytery of Mississippi, embracing at that time all the Presbyterian minis- 
ters in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas, received the proposed seminary under 
its care, adopted a constitution, appointed a board of trustees and the president of 
the college, and fixed the location within 3 miles of Bethel Church, in Claiborne 
County, Miss. The reason why the college was located in so retired a spot was this : 
At that time no town or city in the Southwest was deemed suflSciently healthy or 
sufficiently moral to be the seat of a college. 

On the 14th of May the school opened with three pupils (''as a mere grammar 
school,^' says Dr. Chamberlain i) who had accompanied the president, the Rev. Jere- 
miah Chamberlain, D. D., from Jackson, La., where he had been presiding for some 
time over the College of Louisiana. On the 2d of July, 1830, the first clearing was 
begun on the magnificent Oak Ridge, now occupied by the college buildings. 

Br. Chamberlain's own "sturdy arm" felled tlie first tree. 

At the end of the session, March 28, the school consisted of 65 pupils. The two 
more advanced formed a sophomore class, and there were five in the freshman class ; 
the remainder were in the English and classical schools. The president instructed 
the two college classes and the classical school in the languages, and his brother, 
Mr. John Chamberlain, afterwards professor of chemistry and natural philosophy, 
instructed the classes in mathematics and in the English school. In the winter of 
1831 a charter was received from the legislature of the State. In this charter it is 
designated as "The Institution of Learning, under the care of the Mississippi 
Presbytery.^' In 1833 the first commencement was held, and Mr. James M. Smiley, 
recent vice-chancellor of the State' of Mississippi, was the first graduate of Oak- 
land College. His classmate, William Montgomery, son of Rev. William Montgom- 
ery, one of our oldest pPresbyterian] ministers, who expected to receive his degree 
at the same time, was removed by death about three weeks before the commence- 
ment. This is believed to be the first commencement [at a male college] south of 
Tennessee, and Judge Smiley is the first native Mississippian who received the 
degree of A. B. in his own State [in fact, the first man to receive a degree from any 
institution in this State]. 

The leading and primary object of »the founders of Oakland College was to raise 
up in the Southwest a native ministry. An unknown donor contributed $25,000 to 
endow a theological professorship. In 1837 the presbytery of Mississippi, who at 
that time controlled the college, elected Rev. Zebulon Butler, D. D., temporary pro- 
fessor until a permanent arrangement could be made. In a short time the Rev. S. 
Beach Jones, of New Jersey, was elected professor. The theological professorship 
continued until the year 1841, and many young men, not merely of the Presbyterian, 
but of other churches, entered the ministry.^ 

1 House Journal, 1840, p. 309. 

2 Reminiscences, Sketches, and Addresses; Hutchinson, pp. 21, 33, 244. 

- 21785— No. 24: 5 



66 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSIkSSIPPI. 

In the year 1839 the college was transferred to the care of the synod 
of Mississippi; under this management it remained until 1871. 

To Governor McNutt, Dr. Chamberlain made a report in 1840 in 
reference to Oakland College from which these extracts are taken : 

We have 250 acres of land (given by Mr. Robert Cochran, now deceased), and sub- 
scriptions to above $100,000, near one-half of which is due in the form of a permanent 
fund. Our buildings are a president's house, a professor's house, a steward's house, 
and fifteen cottages for lodging students, calculated to contain from six to eight 
students each. The first story of a main building, 100 by 65 feet, is now raised, and 
the house shall be finished three stories high so soon as funds will warrant it. 

No attempts have been made to procure a library. About 1,000 volumes have 
been contributed, and about $1,500 for philosophical apparatus. About 3,000 vol- 
umes belong to the literary societies belonging to the college. 

The names of the founders of the college are too numerous to be all given in a 
letter of this kind. They are from $1 to $20,000. Nothing has been received from the 
State or any public fund. Besides the board of trustees, who were the principal original 
contributors, several of whom have given $5,000 and upward, I will mention a few 
others who have given $5,000 and upwards, viz, Alvarez Fisk, Dr. Stephen Duncan, 
Dr. John Ker, Dr. Metcalf, Mr. John Routh, Mr. Thomas Henderson, Mr. Alex. 
Henderson, Mr. Francis Surget, Mr. Alexander Ross, Mrs. Priscilla McGill, and a 
few others. Those who have given smaller sums have, generally, been not less 
liberal in proportion to their means. * * * The college consists of an English 
school, a classical school, and college proper. In the college we have a theological 
professorship, which is intended to lay the foundation of a theological seminary. 

Six young men have been licensed to preach the gospel in the Baptist and Presby- 
terian churches. Young men are nowhere preparing for the Baptist, Methodist, and 
Presbyterian churches. The great mass, however, are preparing for planters, pliy- 
sicians, and lawyers. Ever since our commencement in 1830 we have sustain ed, 
entirely, from two to twelve indigent young men annually for the various depart- 
ments of professional life. ^ 

The gentleman who made i3he magnificent donation of $20,000 allnded 
to by President Chamberlain was Dr. John Ker, son of the Dr. 
Ker whose life was noticed in a previous chapter. This liberal and 
public-spirited son of a noble sire would never consent that his name 
should be disclosed as the generous donor. Now, however, that death 
has rendered it impossible to offend his modesty, it has been deemed 
proper that his generosity should be remembered. ^ 

To take up again the narrative of Professor Hutchinson, of date 1852 : 

Such was the origin of Oakland College, an institution which has aided in the 
education of nearly 1,000 native youth, and which now has on the roll of its gradu- 
ates 120 alumni, who are scattered throughout the Southwest, and occupied in the 
cultivation of the soil or in the learned professions. And the writer believes that there 
is not on the list of the graduates of Oakland College a single name upon which 
rests a blemish of dishonor or immorality. And the large number of those educated 
young men who assemble annually in the groves and halls of their alma mater is a 
pleasing token of their interest and affection and guaranty of what the institution 
may hereafter expect from the influence and character of her own sons. 

The necessary buildings and accommodations for students and teachers have been 
provided as the wants of the institution have required. There are at this time 
(1852) about thirty cottages for the occupancy of the pupils, residences for the presi- 



i House Journal, 1840, p. 309. ^ Letter from Dr. Stratton, Dr. Ker's pastor. . 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISSIPPL 67 

dent and professors, two handsome halls for the literary societies, with libraries 
attached ; a college library of upward of 4,000 volumes ; a philosophical, chemical, 
and astronomical apparatus, which cost nearly $4,000; a main college of brick, 112 
by 60 feet, containing a college chapel, prayer hall, lecture rooms, and other requi- 
site accommodations. The institution has never received any aid from the State or 
General Government. Its funds have been provided entirely from private liberality. 
And these funds would now be sufficient to sustain the college were it not for some 
unfortunate investments a few years since in the banks of the State. ^ 

On the 5th of September, 1851, Dr. Chamberlain was stabbed and 
slain by a resident of the vicinity. He died in the fifty-seventh year of 
his age. On the 18th of December following the Eev. Joseph B. 
Stratton, now of ^N^atchez, delivered- at the college a discourse on his 
life and character, from which the following extract is taken : 

That his character was no ordinary one the history of his achievements suffi- 
ciently indicates. His intellectual endowments and ac,quirement8, without being 
brilliant or profound, were such as qualified him to be a ready and clear-sighted 
student, and an able and perspicuous instructor. His life was too crowded with 
extraneous duties to allow him the opportunity to seek the scholastic eminence 
which otherwise would have been easily accessible to him. It was rather as the 
man of practical energy, of high-toned loyalty to principle, of self possessed sobriety, 
of forethought and foresightedness, of fertility of invention and aptness in execu- 
tion, of firmness tempered by suavity, of strict uprightness and disinterested 
devotion to whatever his heart and conscience approved; it is rather as the paternal 
counselor, the warm-hearted friend, the cheerful companion, the sincere and simple 
preacher with the clear doctrine of Scripture ever on his lip, and the tear of 
emotion often in his eye, as the comforter in sorrow, and the helping brother to all 
who asked his sympathy or his aid — it is in such characters as these that Dr. Cham- 
berlain won distinction, and merited all he won. 

To resume again the broken thread of Professor Hutchinson's narra- 
tive, as of the date 1852 : 

Although President Chamberlain thus fell, so cruelly, so suddenly, yet Oakland 
College did not fall with him. It still lives, and shall live, a monument of his 
fame, and a blessing to the present and future generations. And as it is the ordain- 
ment of Heaven that martyr blood becomes precious seed whence springs undying 
truth, we doubt not that the great principle in this instance, as in others, will be 
fully developed. No sooner was Oakland's chief founder and first president cut 
down than the true and firm friends of the institution began to rally. Precisely 
one year has elapsed since the sad event occurred, and in that year much has been 
done to place the college upon a firm and permanent basis. Upward of $60,000 
has been contributed to pay its debts and meet its more immediate wants. The 
name of its first president is to be perpetuated by the investment of a permanent 
fund, to be called the '^ Chamberlain Fund,'' the interest of which is to pay the sal- 
ary of his successor. Overtures have been made from a distant source to found a 
professorship of natural sciencfSe, and from various other sources are cheering indi- 
cations that this infant seat of learning, which has struggled so long and done so 
much, will yet become the glory of the South and a rich blessing to the. future 
generations. 

The present faculty are: Rev. R. L. Stanton, D. D., president and professor of 
moral sciences; Rev. J. R. Hutchinson, D. D., professor of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew 
languages; T. Newton Wilson, A. M., professor of mathematics ; W. Le Roy Broun, 
A. M., professor of chemistry and natural philosophy; H. B. Underbill, A. M., prin- 
cipal of the preparatory department; James Collier, esq., steward. - 



^Reminiscences, Hutchinson, p. 24. '^Ibid. p. 27. 



68 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

President Stanton, who was still living in 1883, was unquestionably 
a man of rare mental acumen and vigor. Dr. Hutchinson, from whose 
Eeminiscences such liberal quotation has been made, was the most 
conspicuous among the professors. He was called from the pastoral 
charge of the church in Yicksburg, in 1842, to the chair of ancient 
languages, and continued in that position until 1854. His natural 
capacities were good, his scholarship respectable, and in his earlier 
years he was regarded as a preacher of unusual power. 

President Stanton was succeeded by the Eev. James Purviance, D.D., 
who combined with an almost chivalric nobleness of character a sound 
common sense and a well-cultivated intellect. His influence upon the 
students was peculiarly happy. 

From an old catalogue of 1855-56 the following data are gleaned : 



Rev. James Purviance, D. D., president and professor of mental and moral phi- 
losophy, etc. 

Rev. J. E. C. Doremus, A. M., professor of the Latin and Greek languages aud 
literature. 

Rev. W. D. Moore, A. M., professor of natural science. 

Robert Patterson, A. M., professor of mathematics. 

F. M. Stevens, A. M., principal of the preparatory department. 

QUALIFICATIONS FOR ADMISSION. 

Applicants for admission to the freshman class are examined in Csesar^s Commen- 
taries (four books), Sallust, Virgil, ^neid (four books), Greek reader, Xenophon's 
Anabasis (three books), or an equal amount in other Latin and Greek authors; also 
in Bullion's, Crosby's, Andrews's, and Stoddard's, or Adams's grammars of the Latin 
and Greek languages, respectively ; in Davies' elementary algebra, and three books 
of Legendre's geometry, and in the usual elementary studies of the preparatory 
course. 

Applicants for admission to advanced classes are examined in the previous studies 
of the college course. 

PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT. 

The preparatory department supplies all the usual elementary instruction in two 
divisions, English and classical ; and also furnishes such higher branches as students 
wishing to pursue only a scientific course may require. 

STUDIES AND TEXT-BOOKS. 

English grammar (Bullion), geography (Mitchell), composition, natural, philos- 
ophy, chemistry, arithmetic, and mathematics of the scientific course (Davies), rhet- 
oric (Jamieson), and declamation. Bullion's Latin lessons, grammar, and reader; 
Ciesar (Bullion), Sallust (Butler and Sturgus), Cicero's Orations, Virgil, Greek reader 
(Bullion), Xenophon's Anabasis (Owen). 

LITERARY SOCIETIES. 

The Belles-Lettres Society and the Adelphic Institute have elegant and commo- 
dious halls, and furnish in their exercises and emulations valuable aid to intellectual 
improvement. 

THE SOCIETY OF INQUIRY. 

This society by its exercises and investigations, conducted by the students under 
the superintendence of the president of the college, gives much interest to the 
"monthly concert" and affords great incentives to moral improvement. 



DEAD COLLEGES OF MISSISBIPPI. 69 



It is a source of high gratification to be able to announce that the extensive and 
valuable cabinet of minerals, fossils, specimens of natural history, and curiosities, 
presented to the college by the Kev. B. Chase, of Natchez, will soon be arranged in 
the room appropriated to its use. 

APPARATUS AND LIBKARY. 

The facilities afforded for study and illustration in the department of natural 
science are such as to give the highest encouragement to students therein. 

The library of the college, like all libraries, needs additions; yet many rare and 
valuable books make it respectable. 

GOUBSE OF STUDIES. 

FRESHMAN CLASS. 

Virgil; Latin composition (Arnold); Roman antiquities. 

Horace's Odes (Lincoln) ; prosody. 

Xenophon's Cyropedia (Owen); Greek composition (Arnold). 

Homer's Iliad, begun (Owen). 

Algebra (Davies' Bourdon). 

Geometry, six books (Legendre). 

SOPHOMORE CLASS. 

Rhetoric (Jamieson); history; Jewish antiquities. 

Constitution of the United States. 

Horace (Lincoln); Livy (Lincoln); Homer's Iliad (Owen). 

Xenophon's Memorabilia (Robbins); Grecian antiquities; Greek composition. 

Botany (Darby and Gray). 

Geometry completed ; trigonometry, plane and spherical (Davies). 

Mensuration; surveying and navigation (Davies). 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

Rhetoric (Blair) ; logic (Hedge) ; natural theology (Paley). 

Evidences of Christianity (Alexander). 

Tacitus (Tyler); Latin comedy; Thucydides (Owen). 

CEdypus Tyrannus (Crosby); or Antigone (Woolsey). 

Natural philosophy (Olmsted). 

Mechanics (Olmsted) ; astronomy (Olmsted). 

Conic sections (Bridge). 

SENIOR CLASS. 

Cicero (de Offlciis, etc.) ; Demosthenes on the Crown (Champlin). 

Greek tragedy (optional). 

Mental philosophy (Upham); moral philosophy (Alexander). 

Political economy (Wayland or Say). 

Astronomy, concluded (Olmsted); inorganic chemistry (Silliman), 

Geology (lectures); organic chemistry (lectures). 

Analytical geometry (Loom is). 

Differential and integral calculus (Loomis). 

President Purviance was succeeded by the Eev. William L.Brecken- 
ridge, who assumed the office in 1860. He brought with him a reputa- 
tion for personal force, pulpit power, and erudition which was almost 



70 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

national. The troubles incident to the war, which so soon followed his 
accession, made his term of service a short and, to a great extent, a 
fruitless one. 

The last president was the Eev. Joseph Oalvin, D. D, He was called, 
after the war ceased, to preside over the institution when it was almost 
in a state of dissolution. Though young in years, he was said to be 
one of the ripest scholars of his day. His career was cut short by an 
early death, and at his decease, the doors of Oakland College were 
virtually closed. 

The college remained a synodical institution until the year 1871, 
when, in consequence of the failure of its resources through the disas- 
trous effect of the recent war and under the overwhelming pressure of 
debt, the synod resolved to sell the college buildings to the State of 
Mississippi for the purpose of founding the Alcorn University for col- 
ored young men. The funds of all sorts remaining in the hands of the 
trustees, after the payment of all the debts of the institution, were 
conveyed by synod to the Presbytery of Mississippi in 1876, upon con- 
dition that the Presbytery should, establish at some eligible point within 
its bounds an " institution of liberal Christian learning." The gift was 
accepted, and in pursuance of the terms upon which it was made, a 
charter was obtained for the Chamberlain-Hunt Academy. 




CHAMBERLAIN-HUNT ACADEMY. 



Chapter V. 

CHAMBERLAIN-HUNT ACADEMY AND FRANKLIN ACADEMY. - 
OHAMBERLAIN-HUNT ACADEMY. 

Port Gibson was selected as tlie seat of this institution. Under 
tliis form the enterprise inaugurated forty-seven years before by the 
Presbytery of Mississippi returned to its care 5 and in this second stage 
of its history is giving evidence of a vitality which promises to realize 
in part, if not completely, all the ends projected by the founders of 
Oakland College.^ 

There was considerable competition among the towns of the State to 
secure for themselves the location of the new school. Port Gibson, a 
pretty and historic town of about 1,500 inhabitants (now situated on 
the Louisville, New Orleans and Texas Eailroad), offered the greatest 
inducements, and was accordingly chosen to be the site. 

In the year 1877 the new institution was chartered by the legisla- 
ture under the name of Chamberlain-Hunt, in honor of Dr. Chamber- 
lain, and of one of the most generous and zealous of the founders of 
Oakland College. This was David Hunt, a planter and a native of 'New 
Jersey. ''A man farseeing, sagacious, thrifty, and successful, and so 
dowered with the Midas touch, that with him all things prospered. 
Oakland was his foster child, and without stint he lavished on her of 
his great wealth. Coming from her commencements, he was wont ^o 
say, as he returned to his home, 12 miles distant, ' Oakland shall not be 
a failure.' He esteemed her his investments 5 and her graduates, the 
proceeds, the dividends of his favorite stock. Save John McDonough 
and Judah Touro, in his generation he doubtless gave more to educa- 
tion and to humane and philanthropic institutions than any man in the 
Southwest."^ 

The first session of Chamberlain-Hunt Academy was that of 1879. 
The buildings are mainly brick; large, commodious, well ventilated, 
and in good repair. The study hall and recitation room are supplied 
with patent furniture. A library room, containing about 2,000 volumes, 
is open to the students at all hours. The endowment is about $40,000. 

ORADUATION. 

When a pupil has successfully completed seven of the eleven schools, 
always including Latin and mathematics, he will be awarded a diploma, 
with the title of graduate. 

Expenses per year, for day scholars, are $25; for boarders, $155. 

^ Minutes of Mississippi Presbytery, 1882-83, pp. 40-42. 

2 Dr. Markham, in the Southern Presbyterian, of July 19, 1888. 

71 



72 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



COURSE OF STUDY. 

The whole course is divided into the eleven schools following: Eng- 
lish language, mathematics, history, English literature, natural sci- 
ences, Latin, Greek, German, French, bookkeeping and Bible history. 

TEXT-BOOKS USED. 
PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT. 

[Candidates for admission to this department must read well in the third book of 
any of the popular readers, and be able to solve examples under the four funda- 
mental rules of arithmetic] 

Swinton's Speller (the Word Primer and the Word Book), Lippinxjott's Readers, 
Sanford's Arithmetic, Swinton's History of the United States, Monteith's Primary 
Geography, Monteith's Manual, Butler's English Grammar. 

ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT. 

Spelling,— We8tlsbke'& 3,000 Practice Words, Webster's High School Dictionary. 

History. — Barnes's History of the United States, Swinton's Outlines. 

Mathematics. —SshnfoTd's Higher Arithmetic, Davies' Elementary Algebra, Ray's 
Higher Algebra, Brooks' Geometry, Wentworth's Geometry, Ray's Trigonometry and 
Surveying. 

Xa/itt.— Smith's Principia, Bingham's Grammar, Caesar, Chase's Virgil and Cicero's 
Select Orations, Gildersleeve's Grammar and Exercise Book. 

Greelc. — Harkness's Course, with Xenophon's Anabasis and Memorabilia. 

French. — Keetels's Collegiate Grammar, with notes and original exercises ; Keetels's 
Analytical Reader; Selections from Moli^re and.Racme. 

German. — Whitney's Brief Grammar; Grimm's Kinder- und Hausmiirchen, edited 
by W. H. van der Smissen ; Whitney's Reader. 

Natural science.— Steele's Physiology, Physics, Chemistry, and Astronomy ; Maury's 
Physical Geography. 

English.— Reed and Kellogg's Graded Lessons; Reed and Kellogg's Lessons in 
Higher English ; Hart's Rhetoric. 

English literature.— BhsbW^s Manual. 

Bookkeeping, — Groesbeck's. 

Faculty.— W. C. Guthrie, A. B. (Washington and Lee University, Virginia), prin- 
cipal; G. Hann, A. M. (Center College, Kentucky); J. M. Allen, A. B. (Washington 
and Lee University, Virginia) ; E. R. Leyburn, A. B. (Washington and Lee Uni- 
versity, Virginia) ; Rev. D. A. Planck (instructor in Bible history, Princeton, N. J.). 

The attendance of pupils is about 120 per annum, quite a number 
coming from Louisiana. 

EBANKLIN ACADEMY. 

All things considered, this is one of the most noteworthy schools in 
the State. Founded as a chartered institution in 1821, it has enjoyed 
an unbroken existence of, now, seventy years. It was founded almost 
in the wilderness, and was by twenty-four years the first free school of 
note and permanent establishment in the State. Its charter members 
were William Cocke, William Leech, David Kincaid, Gideon Lincecum, 
Eobert D. Haden, Eichard Barry, Thomas Townsend, Silas McBee, and 
John Deck. 



FRANKLIN ACADEMY. 73 

It is, and was in its origin, one of the sixteenth- section schools. 
Under its charter the lands of the section set apart for its support 
were plotted into streets and lots. The lots were leased for terms of 
ninety-nine years, and constitute now, at the least, two-thirds of the 
city of Columbus. 

At that time the county of Monroe, formed of such portion of the 
Chickasaw Cession of 1816 as lay within the boundaries of Mississippi, 
was isolated from the residue of the State by intervening lands of the 
Choctaws. 

However, that region was comparatively accessible from the fact that 
General Jackson, on his return from I^ew Orleans, had penetrated it, 
and opened the road known as the " Military Road." When, therefore, a 
United States land office was opened at Columbus it, and the excellence 
of that newly acquired territory, attracted a rapid influx of population. 
The country was quickly settled and the town grew rapidly in size and 
consequence. 

One of the first things done was the establishment of the Franklin 
Academy, which developed at a very early day into a first-class school. 
The town itself sprang into notice as an educational center. It attracted 
a class of citizens more like those of the long- settled communities of 
the original thirteen States than were the settlers of any other locality 
in the State except those of Natchez and its vicinity. This standard 
of citizenship and of educational culture has been steadily maintained. 

The academy was organized and established untter its charter, as 
already stated, in 1821. The fund arising from the leases of the six- 
teenth section steadily increased from that time until 1837, when it 
reached its maximum, near $8,000 per annum. During this period the 
academy was the most prominent school of that country. It was finely 
located on ample grounds j had distinct male and female departments, 
with substantial brick buildings for each, and was equipped with full 
geographical, astronomical, chemical, and philosophical apparatus. 
Under the guidance and care of a prudent board of trustees and of a 
competent corps of teachers for each department, an advanced collegiate 
course was offered to the pupils. 

In the spring of the year 1836 Prof. Robert Bruce Witter took charge 
of the male department. He was a teacher of experience and ability, 
having been for thirteen years devoted to that profession. His assist- 
ants were a Mr. Norris and a Mr. Archibald. In the early part of the 
year 1837 Mrs. M. A. Innes and a Mrs. Morris were at the head of the 
female department. About September a Mr. Swift was placed in 
charge. At this time the full corps of teachers for both departments 
was five, and the attendance ranged from 150 to 250 pupils per session. 
The teachers were elected every six months, while the trustees them- 
selves were held to a rigorous responsibility by annual election at the 
hands of the people of the town. The board included always some of 
the most prominent and influential citizens.^ 

1 The Southern Argus, Februarys 27, 1838, and June 24, 1837. 



74 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Mr. Swift's health was poor, and in June, 1838, he was succeeded by 
the Eev. H. Eied.^ 

At this time the great financial convulsion was in progress. The 
distress consequent upon it culminated in Mississippi in 1839 and 1840. 
In common with all other interests Franklin Academy suffered severely. 
A system was inaugurated of forfeiting the leases and of re-leasing the 
forfeited premises at greatly reduced rates. This was done by a com- 
mon consent, as it were. It was apologized for and excused by the 
argument and fact that the niost central and valuable lots of the town 
were leased at from 25 cents up to a few dollars, whereas those on the 
very border of the sixteenth section were leased at from $50 to $100. 
This system of forfeiture and re-lease was continued until the income of 
the academy from that source was reduced to the comparatively small 
amount of $2,398.56. 

Meanwhile, and during that period of depression, a sentiment sprung 
up as to the management of the academy. It was to the effect that 
the '^free schooP^ was intended to benefit the poorer classes, and that 
those able to educate their children should not crowd out this class, 
which was largely done by the high curriculum. This point was 
agitated until a revolution in the management was accomplished, and 
the grade of the institution reduced from that of a first-class collegiate 
school to that of a preparatory one. 

The following extracts, made from a report of the trustees dated 
July 29, 1839, will illustrate this phase of the academy^s history: 

The increasing number of pupils, which now amounts to more than 300, presents 
a Very serious consideration to the citizens of this township— whether, with the 
present means, all the children can be educated at this institution should the num- 
ber exceed the present only 100. And it is more than probable that this event a 
year or two hence will happen. To guard to some extent from the evil effect of 
thus overburdening the institution with scholars above the means to supply it with 
teachers, the trustees have been induced to attempt a reorganization of the system 
of instruction at the next session upon a different plan from that heretofore pur- 
sued, under the belief that* the one proposed combines greater advantages, both in 
point of discipline and in affording a larger amount of instruction with the same 
amount of labor. 

By reference to the course of study annexed below (which applies to the male 
department alone — the course for the female department is similar, except that it is 
not so full in its range of studies) it will be seen that it embraces a very extensive 
plan of English education, fully equal to that taught in most of the colleges in the 
United States, excepting the Latin and Greek languages. Those last-named branches 
are omitted in the regular studies under the belief that the wants of the community 
do not demand their introduction into the institution. But in order to obviate diffi- 
culty or disappointment on this subject, as the academy is public property and 
intended for the instruction of all, and some parents may wish to give their sons a 
collegiate education, we have determined, after the first three-years^ course in the 
school proper, that those who may desire it can be taught the Latin and Greek 
languages. Such, however, will not be able to pursue the studies of the higher 
classes, nor will they be necessary, for they can acquire them at college. * ^ * 
Past experience in conducting the academy has demonstrated the great difficulty, 

i The Southern Argus, June 26, 1838. 



FBANKLIN ACADEMY. 75 

and we might say almost impossibility, for three teachers to instruct nearly 200 
scholars, where each one was of necessity compelled to teach all the various studies 
to upward of 60 pupils in his separate department. He could not have less than 
eight classes in his school, and if each had three studies, he would have twenty-four 
recitations a day. Upon this plan, to conduct the school efficiently it would require 
twelve teachers instead of the six now employed. We have aimed to correct this 
evil by not permitting any two of the instructors to teach the same branches. Thus 
all pursuing the same studies throughout the whole school will be united into one 
class, who will recite to all the teachers instead of one alone. By this means we 
expect to reduce the number of classes more than one half, and of course more time 
can be devoted to instruction and illustration. 

The male and female departments will be kept entirely distinct, but the same 
plan of studies will be used by both. 

The present income of the institution, arising from the leases of the lots, is 
$5,130.75. * * * We have elected as principal of the male department Mr. James 
T. Hoskins, and Messrs. J. Woodville Payne and J. H. Tracy assistant teachers ; in 
the female department Miss C. Mathieson as principal, and Mrs. Jordan and Mrs. 
Blackwood as assistant teachers. 

SCHOOL PBOPEB. 

Fifth year. — History, Tytler^s; geometry, Davies' Legendre; trigonometry, 
Daviies'; astronomy; chemistry, Jones's conversational; mental philosophy, Aber- 
crombie and Watts'; composition, and elocution. 

Sixth year. — History, surveying, engineering; calculus, Davies'; moral philoso- 
phy, Paley's; political economy, Wayland^s; government, Political Class Book; 
geology, Hitchcock's ; mineralogy, composition, forensic disputations. 

This reorganization considerably and immediately increased the 
attendance of pupils at the academy. For the session of 1839-40 there 
was an enrollment in the two departments of between 400 and 500 
pupils; but yet there was dissatisfaction. The change of administra- 
tion seems to have given offense to some. 

In July, 1841, a communication appeared in the Argus criticising 
*^the new experiment now being tried in Columbus (at the academy, 
evidently) of teaching our children to spell before they learn their 
alphabet." "Indeed,'' says the writer, "I am informed that in a few 
sessions they will know more than their trammeled sires have acquired 
in a lifetime." The argument, lengthily and elegantly presented, is 
the same old conservative one — opposition to novelties, the need 
for a progressive development, etc. ''The opponents of the old sys- 
tem contend that too much attention is paid to words to the neglect 
of ideas. We reply that too much attention can not be paid to words. 
Hence we are in favor of the ancient languages, because they give the 
habit of a nice discrimination in the use of words, and thus -afford 
copiousness of expression. Words suggest ideas, and are not only 
the vehicle of our thoughts, but the very body in which they appear 
to ourselves. We think in propositions, and in proportion to the 
propriety and definitions of our words will be those of our ideas." 

The institution was, in fact, entering on a sea of troubles. Besides 
the friction almost inseparable from the conduct of public schools on a 
basis of popular suffrage, there was the special and very serious obstacle 



76 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

of a collapsing treasury. The paralyzing influence of debt became per- 
ceptible. The following editorial extract from the Argus of January 4, 
1842, will be useful here: 

The male department has been under the charge of Mr. J. J. W. Payne, as princi- 
pal, and Mr. S. Norris, assistant, and the female department under the charge of Mr. 
McLean and lady. 

One hundred pupils have been connected with the male department of this insti- 
tution during the past session. 

The following are the classes in this department : Three Latin classes — text-books, 
Virgil, Caisar, and Historse Sacrae; one Greek class — text-book, Jacobs' Greek 
Reader; three English grammar classes; two classes in mental arithmetic; three 
classes in Smiley's Arithmetic; geography class; natural philosophy class; two 
reading and spelling classes; two history classes. 

The number of pupils in the female department during the past session was 95 ; 
number examined, 83; in spelling and definition, 10; in English grammar and pars- 
ing, 18; in algebra, 3; geometry, 3; rhetoric, 3; natural philosophy, 18; botany, 4; 
geology, 2; history, 3; mythology, 1; two geography classes; Latin grammar, 6; 
HistorsB Sacrse, 2; Virgil, 2; Csesar, 1, and many in arithmetic in various stages of 
advancement. 

This institution for several years past has been encumbered with a heavy indebt- 
edness, which has to a great degree paralyzed its efficiency. * * « 

Since, however, the present instructors and former and present board of trustees 
have had charge of the institution the indebtedness has been gradually lessened; 
* * * and the institution may now be considered equal to any in the country. 

In future the whole school will be divided into classes, and the number of branches 
which are to be studied by any pupil at the same time is not to exceed two. This 
arrangement will remedy one of the most threatening defects of the present fashion- 
able mode of instruction. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Columbus convened at the Franklin Academy on 
the night of the 4th of March, 1842, the Rev. James A. Lyon was called to the chair, 
and Sterling H. Lester was appointed secretary. Mr. James Whitfield explained 
the object of the meeting to be to take into consideration the proper method of 
using and appropriating the school fund arising from the lease of the sixteenth sec- 
tion of this township to the purposes contemplated by Congress in the donation of 
the sixteenth section of every township for the purpose of education ; and also to 
agree upon a ticket for the election of trustees favorable to the views that may be 
agreed upon by this meeting. 

The meeting was then addressed, at the call of sundry persons, by Messrs. Topp, 
Bibb, and Dr. Winter. The latter gentleman, after a few preliminary remarks, read 
the following plan for the management of the Franklin Academy and the appropri- 
ation of the school fund belonging to this township, to wit : 

** First. The Franklin Academy to be continued in operation. 

''Second. That every citizen of the township shall have the privilege of sending 
his children to this institution. 

' ' Third. That citizens residing in the township 2^ miles from the Franklin Academy, 
or having an impassable natural barrier between them and the Franklin Aqademy, 
shall have paid to them their proportion of the fund arising from the lease of the six- 
teenth section, by presenting a certificate of the neighboring teacher that the chil- 
dren or child have been to school the length of time specified in the certificate, and 
have been engaged in studying the branches which are taught free of charge in the 
Franklin Academy. 

''Fourth. That the students of the Franklin Academy shall be divided into five 
classes and be taught the following branches : 

"First class. Reading, writing, and arithmetic. 

" Second class. English grammar, rhetoric, geography, chemistry, natural, moral, 



FRANKLIN ACADEMY, 77 

and mental philosophy, history, and composition, with their correlative and kindred 
sciences. 

"Third class. Mathematics, astronomy, civil engineering, law of nations, belles- 
lettres, and elocution, with their correlative and kindred sciences. 

"Fourth class. French, Spanish, German, and Italian languages. 

"Fifth class. Ancient languages. 

"Fifth. The first class — ^reading, writing, and arithmetic — to be taught free of 
charge to the children of citizens residing in this township, and as many of the other 
classes as the public funds will pay for— observing the order of second, third, 
fourth, and fifth classes entirely if the fund be sufficient, and so of the third, fourth, 
and fifth classes successively. 

"Sixth. No teacher to have charge of more than 30 regular students, provided 
the public fund prove sufficient to employ a proper number of teachers to instruct 
all thB students in the first class without increasing the number to more than 30. 

"Seventh. Students not to engage in the study of more than two sciences at the 
same time, and to continue them until they are well learned or changed by the 
direction of the teacher. 

"Eighth. No child to be absent on days of general examination, and if absent 
without a satisfactory excuse to be subject to suspension for not less than one nor 
more than three months. 

"We should, if the public fund shall be increased by any means so as to authorize 
such a measure, be in favor of renting or purchasing some building conveniently 
situated and setting it apart for the exclusive accommodation of the female children, 
retaining the present buildings for the males.^' 

After this plan was read, Dr. Lipscomb being called on, addressed the meeting 
upon the propriety of discontinuing the Franklin Academy, renting out the build- 
ings, and distributing the lease fund to all the children in the township in an equal 
proportion. 

Dr. Owen was then called, and addressed the chair in favor of the union of the 
lease funds, for the support of the Franklin Academy, and in reply to the arguments 
from the opposition. 

At the conclusion of Dr. Owen's address, S. H. Lester introduced a resolution to 
induce the meeting to come to some definite action upon the subject; whereupon 
Colonel Graves made a motion to amend, which being agreed to by Mr. Lester, 
Colonel Graves proceeded to make some very forcible and relevant remarks upon 
the whole subject as discussed, and the various means by which the Franklin 
Academy might, in time, be increased to a college equal to William and Mary of 
Virginia. 

He was followed by Messrs Mitchell, O. P. Brown, and Colonel Holderness, who 
made some inquiries and remarks of explanation. 

The resolution as amended was then read by Mr. Lester, to the following purport : 

*^ Resolved, That this meeting will support for trustees such men as will sustain 
the Franklin Academy and observe in their administration the improvements intro- 
duced by Dr. Winter, so far as is practicable at the present time, and who will 
continue the whole of the lease fund in its support, except so much of said fund as 
shall be apportioned to the use of the children of this township living 2| miles 
from the Franklin Academy. '^ 

The question was then put by the chair upon the adoption of this resolution as 
amended, and decided in the affirmative by a unanimous vote, except one or two 
voices. 

On motion, the following gentlemen, to wit, Whitfield, Winter, Fields, Owen, 
Graves, Bartee, and Lester were appointed a comnuttee to agree upon a ticket for 
trustees who would carry into efl:ect the views of this meeting. 

James A. Lyon, Chairman. 
S. H. Lester, Secretary. 



78 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The committee met at 9 o'clock on the next day and nominated the following 
gentlemen to compose the Franklin Academy ticket, viz, John S. Topp, R. M. Talia- 
ferro, James Whitfield, James H. Tate, and P. B. Wade. The election on the same 
day resulted in the success of the entire ticket.^ 

The modified plan was immediately put into operation^ without, 
however, any change in the teachers. The first class was free 5 the 
second, third, and fourth classes were required to pay tuition fees of 
$4, $8, and $12, respectively, per session of four months. ^ 

Such were the forming processes through which this school passed. 
Space is wanting in which to follow the history step by step. Suffice 
it to say, that under the modified plan just given more attention was 
paid to elementary education and less to the higher, until a^ an 
incidental result there were established the celebrated Columbus 
Female Institute and the Odd Fellows' High Male School. 

The academy continued under this character of management until 
the destruction by fire of the Odd Fellows' school building, when it 
again began to attract strongly the public attention, and gradually ' 
reattained its former high grade, and that grade it now maintains. 

From the organization of Franklin Academy, in 1821, to the present 
time (1891), its doors have been open and its forms filled for a period 
of nine months in each year. In the winter of 1875-76, and by the white 
legislature, a change was made in the charter, by which a branch of the 
academy was created for the use and benefit of the colored people of the 
township. For the accommodation of that branch the buildings used by 
a school established under the auspices of the Freedman's Bureau were 
purchased. This branch has also been uniformly kept open for nine 
months in each year, thus largely exceeding the period required by the 
general law. 

Since the adoption of the constitution of 1869, in which there is provi- 
sion for public schools, the revenue of the academy has been increased 
by its pro rata of the State school funds, its annual receipts from this 
source being about $1,800, the amount varying with the receipts from 
liquor licenses throughout the State. From the county school tax 
under the general law of the State the academy derives as its pro rata 
about $10,000 per annum. For several years past this income has not 
been wholly expended, and the accumulated surplus of about $12,000 
is now being used in the erection of an additional school building of 
brick, three stories high, with fine architectural proportions and with 
all the conditions of improved sanitation. This building is now just 
completed, and there is a promised addition to the already liberal cur- 
riculum of the Franklin Academy, a department of physical culture and 
industrial training. It is a public school, and the directors are chosen 
by popular election every two years 5 and in a community of even 
advanced intelligence, such as Columbus is, much is still needed to 
instruct the masses as to the importance of scientific physical culture 

1 Southern Argus, March 29, 1842. 2 i^ici.^ July 6, 1842. 



FRANKLIN ACADEMY. 79 

and industrial training in any school. Thanks, however, to the agita- 
tion of the subject by some better informed citizens, these needs will 
soon receive recognition, and the already great usefulness of the acad- 
emy will be further increased. 

The school is under the presidency of Prof. Pope Barrow, a graduate 
of Eandolph-Macon. 

The aggregate attendance per annum of both branches is about 800 
pupils. 



Chapter VI. 



MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE. 

The Hampstead Academy was^ incorporated in 1826. It was to be 
located at Mount Salus (now Clinton), in Hinds County. F. G. Hopkins 
was president of the school ; Gideon Fitz was president of the trustees. 
Here is found the scion from which grew what is now one of the most 
useful and flourishing colleges of the State. The village in which 
it is situated is 10 miles west of Jackson, and on the railroad to Yicks- 
burg. In that day it was of far greater importance than now. The 
first United States land office located in the State was established in 
Clinton, and many of the most prominent men of the State had resi- 
dences there. 

The school at the first was the outcome of private enterprise,* dona- 
tions were made by individual subscribers. When incorporated it was 
not in existence. Its active work began in January, 1827. On the 5th 
of February of that year an act of the legislature was passed by which 
the name of the institution was changed to " The Mississippi Academy,'' 
and to it was donated for a term of five years from the 25th of Feb- 
ruary, 1825, the rents of such portions as had then been leased of the 
36 sections of land granted by Congress in 1819 for the aid of an insti- 
tution of learning. 

In April, 1827, the trustees published this announcement: 

MISSISSIPPI ACADEMY. 

Notice is hereby given that Mr. F. G. Hopkins has opened a school in the above- 
mentioned institution under the control and influence of the trustees. 

Mr. Hopkins, having taught school last year in this neighborhood, is known to be 
a young gentleman of moral, genteel deportment, well qualified as a teacher, and 
particularly attentive to the morals and manners of his students, and to the promo- 
tion of their literary pursuits. 

The school has been in operation about three months and now contains upward 
of 30 students. One assistant is employed, and others will be procured should the 
number of students require. Both male and female students are admitted, and a 
lady will be employed to take the particular control of the females as soon as the 
prospects of the school will authorize it. The house is so constructed that the males 
and females can have rooms entirely unconnected when it shall be necessary. The 
edifice now erected will probably be completed this year, and when finished will 
accommodate from 150 to 200 students. It is pleasantly situated on a dehghtful 
eminence, near Mount Salus. The neighborhood has hitherto been remarkably 
healthy, and it abounds in springs aifording water of the best quality. 

The course of education and the principles of discipline are such as have been 
established in the best seminaries of our country, both being conducted according to 

80 




MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE— MAIN BUILDING, CLINTON. 



MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE. 81 

the enlightened views of the present day. In the English department will be 
taught the rudiments of common education, together with the English grammar, 
geography, the use of the globes, the projection of maps, and history. In the clas- 
sical, the Latin and Greek languages, the various branches of mathematics, with 
their practical application, natural philosophy and astrononay, chemistrj^ and rhet- 
oric. Young gentlemen who contemplate taking a collegiate course of education 
may here be prepared to enter, or take an advanced standing, in any of the colleges 
of our country; and in conducting their preparatory studies a particular regard will 
be had to the course pursued in the colleges at which they design graduating. 
Price of tuition per quarter, $7.50 for an English student and $10 for a classical one, 
payable at the end of each quarter ; the quarter to consist of twelve weeks. * * >* 

Gideon Fitz, 
President of the Trustees. 

Under such conditions did the Mississippi Academy get under way. 
It had been fortunate in securing some State patronage. Naturally 
enough, that success excited in the patrons and friends of the institu- 
tion higher aspirations than had before been entertained. There yet 
remains a letter which shows the existence, long before its present 
excellent connection was formed, of a strong effort to get this academy 
established as the State University. The writer was a gentleman of 
prominence in that day, a lawyer and a partner in practice of Governor 
Poindexter. It is hardly necessary to state who John A. Quitman was; 
afterwards general, chancellor, and governor. The letter is as follows : 



Mount Salus, April lly . 

Dear Sir ; The trustees of the Mississippi Academy have adopted a course which I 
believe was suggested by yourself to some of them during last winter, of appealing to 
the liberality of the citizens of our State for such assistance in the way of donations as 
will enable them, in aid of their present means, to give to this institution a capacity 
and standing worthy of the name which it bears — at which the Mississippians may 
in a short time find a home market for the attainment of the most liberal education. 
We can not expect by private funds only, in this small State, to furnish everything 
that would become necessary for the establishment and accomplishment of an acad- 
emy or college of the first order. But our object is to lay the foundation of such a 
school, and to advance it as far as practicable from such resources, and then to yield 
it up in its attractive dress entirely to the State. Our State possesses a valuable 
parcel of lands, granted by the General Government for the use of '^a seminary of 
learning,^' which were judiciously located by Governor Leake, and which would, if 
devoted to one institution, as designed by the act of Congress, yield an ample fund 
for its liberal endowment. Some efforts have been made in oar legislature (but so 
far without success) to partition the proceeds of these lands among the several 
counties, and thereby effectually squander them, as the 3 per cent fund has already 
been. The power of the legislature under the phraseology of the grant of the Gen- 
eral Government to make such distribution was all that prevented its being made. 
Provided the trustees of this academy coald speedily advance it to a promising con- 
dition, I think the legislature would be willing to accept a donation of the academy's 
improvements and property, and that as a child of the State it would stand a fair 
chance to inherit those school lands. This is the state of things to which all the 
trustees look anxiously, and our chief object ia to place the academy in a dress the 
most attractive and acceptable to the State. 

I am informed that an address of the trustees, appended to a subscription paper, 
has been forwarded to you which will show our present prospects. Terms have been 
proposed, and partly acceded to, to engage Miss Johnston, of Port Gibson, as a 
female teacher at the academv. 

21785— Ifo. 24 6 



82 HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The trustees entertain a high, sense of your friendly disposition toward this school, 
and you will lay them under increased obligations by your friendly exertions in 
obtaining such engagements under the subscription forwarded you as the liberality 
of your friends may incline them to make. I think Captain Cook, who displays 
great liberality and patriotism in these matters, -would say something for our acad- 
emy in the Ariel, as to its situation, advantages, present prospects, etc., if furnished 
with such facts as you will be able to supply him with. Such a notice would have 
a happy effect. Let me hear from you. 
Your friend, 

Isaac Caldwell. 

Capt. John A. Quitman, Natohez. 

(Indorsed:) No answer; a personal interview intervened.^ 

The generous ambition disclosed by this letter was not destined to 
be crowned witli the highest success. Yet still it met a measure of 
success. 

In the annual message to the next legislature Governor Brandon 

says : 

The Mississippi Academy during the past year has been in a most flourishing 
condition. From 80 to 100 students have rewarded the labors of their professors 
and the liberality of those who have patronized the institution. A small pecuniary 
assistance would place it in a position to insure future prosi)erity.^ 

Thereupon the legislature passed an act whereby the sum of $5,000 
was loaned to the academy, to be expended in the erection and 
completion of the necessary buildings.^ 

At this time the college was under the control of Daniel Comfort as 
its president, a man of great mind and strong heart, a scholar and a 
gentleman in every sense of the word. He so impressed on his pupils 
a sense of affectionate reverence that the sentiment followed them 
through life. In an address delivered at Madison College, thirty years 
later, Governor A. G. Brown took occasion to pay an eloquent and 
moving tribute to his memory. 

To the legislature of 1830, a committee of the trustees of the acad- 
emy, presented a communication dated February 2, 1830. The legisla- 
ture is thanked for the loan of $5,000, as well as for the donation of 
the seminary land rents; and a framed list of names of donors to the 
academy, ispresented. The situation is then described. The academic 
edifice (erected chiefly by individual munificence) was completed. It 
contained four handsome rooms, was 39 by 50 feet, and of two stories. 
Seats and tables were furnished for two of the rooms; but instruments, 
books, maps, etc., had not been obtained. The brick work of a neat 
one-story house, 24 by 40 feet, intended for a female department, was 
completed; and the body of the teachers' house, two stories high, 32 
by 36 feet, also of brick, was nearly completed.* 

The next step taken was to obtain on December 30, 1830, an amend- 
ment to the charter of the institution whereby its name and grade were 



1 Claiborne Papers. •'^ Acts of 1829, p. 54. 

2 House Journal, 1829, pp. 14, 15. ^ House Journal, 1830, p. 194. 



MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE. 83 

changed to that of ^* Mississippi College." The implication of the name, 
however, did not exist. It was not adopted as a State institution. It 
was under a board of management nominated by the citizens of the 
town. 

The following account of a commencement in June, 1832, will be 
interesting: 

MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE. 

Male departmental—The examination of the pupils of this institution closed on 
Friday, the 15th instant. On Monday (forenoon), Thursday, and Friday the 
students inthis department were rigidly examined in their various studies. The 
young gentlemen in the classics distinguished themselves in a manner highly credit- 
able; such was the spirit of emulation among them that it would he difficult to dis- 
tinguish anyone in particular. The oratorical society exhibited on Tuesday 
and Thursday nights. This society elicited the most unbounded applause, and 
promises a high degree of usefulness and to become a valuable auxiliary in the 
school. The composition (original) was elegant, and the elocution superior. 

Female department — This department is divided into four classes, and the studies 
of each class prescribed. The first class is distinguished by a red badge; second 
class, pink; third class, blue; fourth class, white. 

On Monday forenoon those studying music were examined, and it would be 
ungenerous to withhold the meed of the praise; their performance met the admira- 
tion of a large and respectable audience. On Tuesday and Wednesday the young 
ladies were examined by classes. Each class, stimulated by a laudable emulation 
to excel, afforded a triumphant refutation of their supposed incapacity of high 
scientific attainments. 

On Wednesday morning two young ladies graduated. The ceremony of gradu- 
ating and conferring the degrees was truly imposing, and "excited the most lively 
interest. After conferring the degrees the young ladies were presented with a gold 
medal, with suitable inscriptions, and a diploma. 

The president delivered a valedictory address, pointing out in a clear and com- 
prehensive manner the duty and delicate case of females, and concluded by pathetic- 
ally admonishing them never to lose sight of the high destiny which awaits the 
female of a refined and virtuous education. ^ 

The institution was organized, in 1834, in two departments, a male 
and a female. Each was entirely distinct from the other, being pro- 
vided with separate buildings, as has been shown, and Had its own 
faculty. 

In 1835 and 1836 the male ^academy was in the hands of I. K. Shep- 
herd and E. W. F. Sloane. The school was thriving. The teachers 
claimed their course of study to be as extensive as that pursued at any 
IsTorthern institution of similar grade, and sought to give their scholars 
a thorough knowledge of the branches studied. It was their custom 
to deliver public lectures on chemistry and natural philosophy every 
Friday evening, and the lectures were illustrated by experiments made 
in the presence of the audience.^ 

At the same period the female department was in the hands of Mrs. 
Caroline M. Thayer as principal, and an associate, a Miss Parker. 
Mrs. Thayer was a distinguished authoress, from New York originally. 

^ From the Constitutional Flag. 

2 Clinton Gazette, November 28, 1835; January 4, 1836. 



84 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

She had served for several years as superintendent at the Elizabeth 
Female Academy with great credit for herself and success for the 
institution. 

There was, however, no head, no common president. The board of 
trustees, Eobert H. Buckner, president, were in treaty with gentlemen 
of high reputation and attainments, hoping to secure an acceptable 
one. In October, 1836, those negotiations jesulted in the making of 
Prof. E. K. Elliott, A. M., of the Indiana University, president. There 
was then a complete change of faculties. In the male department, 
President Elliott took the professorship of mental and moral sciences, 
with J. W. Maxwell as professor of languages and literature, and D. M. 
Elliott as professor of mathematics and natural sciences. In the female 
department, ]\Irs. Thayer having left, Professors Henry Strong and 
George P. Strong, and Mrs. Sarah K, P. Eailes were made associate 
principals, with three assistants, and instruction was promised in every 
branch of science, polite literature, and ornamental education — Latin 
and Greek being classed under the last head, along with music, draw- 
ing, embroidery, etc.^ 

During this period the college seems to have achieved some reputa- 
tion. It is noticed, together with Jefferson College and Oakland Col- 
lege, in the Mississippi and Louisiana Almanac for 1837, published at 
Katchez. But it was in financial trouble. The expenses amounted to 
$6,000 per term; its gross earnings were less than $580. And, while 
$8,000 was subscribed, only $2,000 was in fact available. The institu- 
tion became so much in debt to President Elliott and his associates 
that in November, 1837, they resigned. The trustees then tried to 
arrange with the trustees of the sixteenth section school fund a union 
to establish a '^ respectable school in Clinton," but no good result was 
reached.^ 

Toward the end of the year 1839 Prof. George P. Strong gave up the 
charge of the female department. Both departments were then placed 
under the charge of Prof. H. Dwight, A. M. (lately from the college of 
Louisiana), and his wife, assisted by Miss H. Potter, an experienced 
teacher of instrumental music. 

The trustees, finding that they could not enlist the sympathies of the 
people nor open their i)urses to the extent deemed desirable, and per- 
haps discouraged by such frequent changes in the faculty, determined 
to establish the college as a denominational institution. It was thought 
that the confidence of the people of the State would be more certainly 
commanded if that were done. 

The Mississippi Conference of the Methodist Church was at that time 
projecting a college, and overtures were made to that body in 1811 to 
accept the Mississippi College, with all its improvements and appa-ratus, 



I Clinton Gazette, April 22, 1837; April 10, 1838, March 19, 1839; February 19, 1840. 
Woodville Eepublican, March 4, 1837. Natchez Free Trader, December, 1837. 
2Rowe's History of Mississippi College, pp. 7, 8. 



MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE. 85 

and a bonus of $20,000. The offer was declined by a vote of one major- 
ity of the locating committee in favor of another proposition, which 
came from Brandon Springs. Had this one vote gone the other way 
this institution would now be the Centenary College of the Methodists. 
After this miscarriage the college was, in 1842, placed under the con- 
trol of the Clinton Presbytery. It was then given a new start, with a 
strong faculty. Eev. Alexander Campbell, formerly president of Sharon 
Academy, was president; Eev. Robert McLain, professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy; Edward Pickett, M. D., professor of 
chemistry; Rev. C. Parish (formerly president of the Holly Springs 
Female Institute), professor of ancient languages; U. W, Mof&t, prin- 
cipal of the preparatory department. The female department was 
under the superintendence of the president, assisted by Miss H, E. 
Gillespie. 

Under the new management the institution made more solid advancement. It 
became necessary to talk in the board meetings of the form of diplomas to be used 
in time to come. The honorary degree of D. D. was conferred on Kev. A. Newton, 
Rev. A. Converse, and Rev. Elias Converse, of Philadelphia. A theological pro- 
fessorship was added and Dr. Newton called to till it.' 

At the commencement held on the 30th and 31st of July, 1845, Mr. 
M. A. Foute, of Jackson, received the degree of bachelor of arts, and 
is therefore entitled to the honor of being the first male graduate of 
Mississippi College. At this time (1845-4G) the female department had 
passed into the hands of Dr. Kewton, who was an educator of great 
experience. He was assisted by John P. Mapes, late a i)rofessor in the 
male department, and by Miss Eliza Warren, who was a lady of high 
literary attainments and of much experience in teaching. She had been 
educated in Europe, and was a linguist and musician. 

In 1846 Rev. P. Cotton was president of the college, and he seemed to inspire the 
liopes of success to such a degree that the trustees hecame individually respousihle 
for large sums of money, when, to their dismay, he offered his resignation, having 
been tempted hy a better offer elsewhere. The board immediately selected Rev. C. 
Parish, who became president in 1848. ^ * ^ There was yet no endowment and 
the president received his pay from the tuition and $200 besides. The affairs of the 
college began again to decline and an exhibit of their condition was made, showing 
that there was an indebtedness of $782.33 and no money to pay it, and but little 
patronage. In this state of things, believing that its failure was due in a great 
degree to its denominational character, the board asked the Clinton Presbytery to 
release them from any and all obligations in the matter, which was done in July 
27, 1850.1 

This severance of the relation between the presbytery and the college 
was immediately followed by a resolution of the board tendering the 
institution to the Clinton community, unencumbered by any claims of 
the board, and agreeing to elect as their successors any persons who 
should be nominated by the community. Thereupon ''a, public meet- 
ing of the citizens was called to meet at the Presbyterian Church in 
Clinton to suggest measures for building up a literary institution at 

1 History of Mississippi College, pamphlet by A. V. Rowe. 



86 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

this place. Eesolutions appointing a nominating committee and com- 
mittee for liquidating indebtedness were made, and one to procure a 
quitclaim from the presbytery. A new board was organized, which 
immediately began to canvass for president and teachers. The presi- 
dency was offered to Eev. William Gary Orane^' (later for many years 
rector of the Protestant Episcopal Church at Jackson), ^^the professor- 
ships of language to Eev, I. Comfort, and of mathematics to Eev. C. 
Parish. The last was the only one who showed a willingness to accept.'' 
However, nothing came of these negotiations; but a better fate 
awaited a negotiation begun in August, through the Eev. T. Ford, 
which resulted, in the following November, in a transfer of the entire 
buildings, grounds, and apparatus of the college to the Mississippi 
Baptist State Convention, on the condition that the property should be 
used for school or college purposes. In the late fall of 1850 the school 
opened its first session under the auspices of the convention. 

It was without endowment; grounds and buildings much out of repair, and a his- 
tory by no means inspiring. The trustees, however, had faith in what they were 
undertaking, and with high hopes pledged themselves individually for claims to 
the amount of $1,700, and contributed between $500 and $1,000 for the purchase of 
additional apparatus. It was deemed right to make only such advances as the 
institution itself made a demand for, and with this idea Mr. I. N. Urner was made 
principal of the preparatory department. The first session began with one teacher 
and closed with three. There were enrolled during this session 84 students. 

The Baptist State convention met in 1851 at Aberdeen, and resolved to raise 
$100,000 endowment ; and W. M. Farrar was employed as agent [to canvass for that 
purpose] for the college for the ensuing year. The session of 1851-52 opened with 
nearly as many students as the previous session had closed with. There were 
students prepared for college classes, but the trustees said it would be derogatory to 
a denomination numbering 30,000 to call an institution a college which had not a 
dollar of available endowment. ' 

In November, 1852, the sum of $20,430 had been subscribed toward 
the endowment, and Eev. E. C. Eager was then appointed agent. The 
following session, that of 1852-53, was marked by the issuance of the 
first catalogue, and its roll of students numbered 92. I. N. Urner was 
promoted to be principal and lecturer on physicial science; J. M. Ellis 
was teacher of ancient languages ; Sim. S. Granberry, principal of the 
preparatory department; and H. S. Bradford, teacher of mathematics. 

In the following session, 1853-54, college classes were organized. 
The buildings then were what are known as the middle building, the 
preparatory department, and the brick house destroyed by fire in 1877. 
The apparatus on hand was worth $2,000. 

In June, 1854, Mr. C. C. Granberry graduated— the first under the 
Baptist management. The undergraduate college classes consisted of 
2 juniors, 5 sophomores, and 9 freshmen. 

In the fall of 1855, at a meeting of the convention at Clinton, it was 
resolved that '^ the Mississippi College has reached a point when its 
success and future prosperity imperiously demand the immediate 
appointment of a suitable president." But the api)ointment was not 

1 History of Mississippi College, pamphlet by A. V. Rowe. 



MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE. 87 

made in fact, Mr. Uriier being enrolled as performing the duties of 
president pro tempore. 

In 1858 the subscription to the endowment had reached $102,800 
principal and $21,917.91 interest, of which $34,994.76 principal and 
$13,439.40 interest had been paid in. Three hundred and fifty names 
were on the roll that made up the amount, and the subscribers lived in 
different portions of the State. It was iiecessary to employ agents to 
collect the subscriptions; and from that necessity and failure to collect 
interest there was an annual loss to the college of $2,500. 

At this time a special subscription for the purpose of erecting a col- 
lege chapel, to be used as a church, was started. The building was 
contracted for and was completed in 1860 ; the total final cost being about 
$30,000. In that year, also, Mr. Urner was formally made president, 
and the session of 1860-61 witnessed an attendance of 11 candidates for 
graduation, and 217 students of lower classes. 

In the spring of 1861 some of the students and three of the teachers, 
under the command of one of the trustees, formed a military company, 
called the -^'Mississippi College Rifles," and joined the Confederate 
army. The trustees, however, resolved to continue the school in spite 
of the war. At the session of 1861-62 there were about 40 students. 
Two graduated in February. '^E"o catalogue was issued. The history 
of the college teachings during the war would be little more than that of 
an ordinary town school, with the single exception that the teacher 
wore the dignified title of president and professor of moral and intellec- 
tural philosophy and evidences of Christianity. The buildings had 
been yielded to the demands of war, and were used as hospitals for sick 
and wounded soldiers. The town of Clinton suffered much from the 
Federal army. Many houses were destroyed, and it was with difficulty 
that President Urner, aided by President Hillman, of Central Female 
Institute, preserved the college buildings from the general ruin which 
overtook the town, and the special threatened destruction which was 
made against the college buildings.'' ^ The buildings, library, and 
apparatus were all preserved, however, without any material injury. 

But the results of the war annihilated the endowment fund. Kor 
that only. The subscriptions had been mostly in the shape of the pur- 
chase of scholarships 5 and, while only 78 of the 185 scholarships had 
been paid for in full, yet the owners of the 78 were exercising their 
rights when they needed to do so. At the sessison of 1865-66 two- 
thirds of the students came on scholarships, and thus only one-third of 
the expenses were met. There was further trouble. About $7,000 was 
owed on unpaid salaries, and for five years this debt constituted a most 
embarrassing and menacing incumbrance. It was finally paid in 1872 
In September, 1867, Dr. Walter Hillman, a graduate of Brown 
University, and who has been mentioned already, was elected presi- 
dent. Beginning with one assistant and 11 students, and with a total 
enrollment for the session of 29, it was a gloomy prospect. 

1 Circular letter of President Webb, 1887. 



88 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The session of 1868-69 showed an attendance somewhat larger, with 
the freshman and sophomore classes organized. In the next, that of 
1869-70, the faculty was enlarged, including the president, one pro- 
fessor, the principal of the preparatory department, and two under- 
graduate instructors^ and there were 101 students, of whom 20 were 
in college classes. 

In 1870 a plan was conceived of associating with the Mississippi 
convention the Arkansas and Louisiana conventions in the support 
of the college, with the hope of building up a grand university that 
should reflect honor upon the three States. Eesolutions warmly 
approving the project were passed by the Arkansas convention, but 
that of Louisiana was rather indifferent. ]N^othing seems to have come 
from the movement, except that it attracted some patronage to the 
college from those States. The idea seems to have been finally aban- 
doned in 1879. 

In 1872 the convention resolved to engage in raising another endow- 
ment of $100,000, and this work was committed to M. T. Martin, 
professor of mathematics in the college. He succeeded, in about twelve 
months, in obtaining subscriptions to the amount of $37,000, which 
amount was increased to $40,000 by a recovery of some lost bonds. 
But the financial crash of 1873 rendered these subscriptions almost 
worthless. The money pledged could not be paid. 

In 1872 President Hillman resigned and the present incumbent, Rev. 
W. S. Webb, D. D., a graduate of Madison University, was elected. 
A change was made also in the course of study, by which the college 
was divided into six schools, in each of which a certificate of gradu- 
ation might be obtained, but a full diploma only on completion of the 
entire course. 

In 1873 and 1874 the surrender of many of the old scholarships 
which had embarrassed the institution by reducing its tuition receipts, 
was secured, and this was quite a relief. But the times did not 
improve. By the year 1876 "a considerable debt to the faculty had 
been contracted, the subscriptions were still unpaid and most of them 
uncollectible, and thus ruin seemed inevitable. Just here,'^ says Pres- 
ident Webb, ''our history reads like a romance. It was dire reality, 
however, and stern j)rose to those who made it. The faculty came to 
the rescue of the college and saved it. They proposed to dismiss one 
of their number, those remaining to do the work of all, and with their 
diminished force to carry on the college for what they could get — salary 
or no salary. They were all poor men and dependent upon their sal- 
aries for the support of their families. But they believed it could be 
done and were willing to attempt it. Since that time they have receipted 
for their salaries at the end of each year, whether they received them 
or not."^ 

In the year 1891 a third effort was made to raise an endowment fund, 
and the sum of $60,000 was secured for that purpose. 

1 Circular letter of President Webb, 1887. 



MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE. 89 

The convention furnishes, from year to year, a contribution to the 
running expenses of the college. The following financial statement, 
made in 1890, will give an idea of the financial workings of the institu- 
tion : ^ 

RECEIPTS. 

From tuition $5, 496. 78 

From rents 587. 30 

From contributions 1, 775. 73 

Total 7,859.81 

EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries of teachers 8, 000. 00 

Incidental expenses 975. 00 

Total 8,975.00 

Deficit 1, 115. 19 

PLAN OF ORGANIZATION. 

In this institution, except the preparatory department, there is no regular curric- 
ulum. Degrees are conferred when the prescribed studies have been mastered, 
not when the fixed course has been passed over. The organization, for the present, 
consists of a preparatory department and the following nine schools, viz : A school 
of mental and moral science, a school of Latin, a school of Greek, a school of math- 
ematics, a school of natural sciences, a school of English, a school of modern lan- 
guages, a commercial school, and a military school. 

PREPARATORY DEPARTMENT. 

Prof. O. M. Johnston, principal; R. IS. Hudnall, assistant. 

This department consists of a primary school of two years and a grammar school 
of four years. A student who completes the studies of this department will be 
thoroughly prepared to enter the higher schools of the college or the freshman class 
of any college or university in the country. 

COLLEGIATE DEPARTMENT. 

1. School op Mental and Moral Science. 

President W. S. Webb, D. D. 

One year (and the last year of the course) : Mental philosophy, logic, in the first 
term ; moral science, political economy, in the second term. 

2. School of Greek. 

Prof. S. C. Mitchell. 

Junior: Homer, Herodotus, Demosthenes, progressive exercises, Hadley's gram- 
mar, Liddell and Scott's lexicon. 

Intermediate: Euripides, Sophocles, Plato, original exercises, Kuhner's large 
grammar. Smith's History of Greece. 

Senior: JEschylus, Sophocles, Thucydides, Aristotle, Goodwin's Moods and Tenses, 
Brown's Classical Literature. 



' Proceedings Fifty-second Session Mississippi Baptist Convention, p. 58. 



90 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

GRADUATE COURSE. 

This class is designed for those graduates in Greek who wish to pursue a course of 
reading in such authors as are, either from their form or subjects^ less suited for the 
regular school. It comprises, therefore, a more extended course of studies, and also 
a brief course of lectures on philology, comparatis^e grammar, and the science of 
language. Text-books: Aristophanes, Aristotle, Plato, New Testament, Miiller's 
Science of Language. 

3. School of Latin. 
Frof. A. J. Aven, A. B. and A. M. {University of Mississippi) . 

Junior : Gildersleeve's Grammar, Latin composition (Allen and Greenough), Cicero's 
Orations (Chase and Stuart), Virgil (Chase and Stuart), Cicero de Senectute and de 
Amicitia (Chase and Stuart), history (LiddelFs Kome), Andrew's Vreund's, or Lid- 
delFs Lexicon. 

Intermediate : Gildersleeve's Grammar, Latin composition, Livy, Horace, Cicero ad 
Diversos, Agricola and Germania of Tacitus. 

Senior: Madvig's Grammar, original exercises, Cicero de Officiis, Tusculan Dispu- 
tations, Juvenal (Gildersleeve's), Annals of Tacitus, Browne's Literature. 

graduate course. 

Original exercises, critical reading of Ars Poetica, Perseus, Quintilian, Tacitus, 
lectures on philology and prosody. 

4. School of Mathematics. 
Prof. J. Q. Deupree, A. M. 

In addition to two preparatory years, this school comprises four years in the col- 
legiate department, as follows: 

First year: Wentworth's Complete Algebra, ten months. 

Second year: Wentworth's Geometry, plan and solid, six months; Wentworth's 
Trigonometry, plane and spherical, four months. 

Third year: Wentworth's Surveying and Navigation, four months; Wentworth's 
Analytical Geometry, six months. 

Fourth year: Olney's Calculus, five months; Loomis's Treatise on Astronomy, five 
months. 

5. School op Natural Science. 

Prof. James F. Sellers, B. A. {University of Mississippi). 

This school embraces a course of four years, one of which is considered preparatory. 
The following is the schedule of studies : 

First year: Maury's Physical Geography. 

Second year: Human anatomy (Cutter), geology (Dana); Ref., Lyell's Principles. 

Third year : Chemistry. 

Fourth year: Physics or mechanics. 

All these studies are taught by lectures as well as text-books. The means of 
illustration are ample in all departments, consisting of maps, charts, and plates ; col- 
lections of human bones, dried preparations of the difi'erent parts and organs of the 
human bodj , microscopic sections and skeletons and alcoholic preparations ; 'a large 
collection of mineral and geological specimens. Numerous experimen ts in chemistry 
are performed and geological excursions are often made in the surrounding coiintry. 
The laboratory is extensive, and well stocked with all the material necessary for the 
use of this department. 

graduate course. 

General chemistry, analytical chemistry, qualitative and quantiiative; mineralogy' 
and metallurgy. 



MISSISSIPPI COLLEGE. 91 

6. School of English Language and Literatuue. 
Prof. Richard M. Leavell, B. A. mid M. A. {University of Mississippi). 

Junior: Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Reader (March), History of English Language 
(Lounsbury), Supplee's Trench on Words. 

Intermediate: Anglo-Saxon continued (Harrison^s Beowulf), Carpenter's English 
of the Fourteenth Century, Shaw's New English Literature. 

Senior : Hale's Longer English Poems ; Hudson's Life, Art, and Character of Shake- 
speare; Hudson's and Rolfe's Select Plays; prose selections from Bacon, Milton, 
Addison, De Quincy, Carlyle, etc. 

7. School of Modern Language. 
Professors Aven and Deupree. 

German. — Junior class: Otto's Grammar and Reader, history of Germany. 

Senior class: Selections from Goethe, Schiller, Schlegel, and current German 
periodicals; Whitney's Grammar, Evans's Literature (in German), Grieb's or Adler's 
Dictionary. 

French, — Junior class: Otto's Grammar and Reader, Tel^maque. 

Senior class : Picciola, selections from Scribe, Racine, Corneille, Moli^re, and mod- 
ern works; Deayere's Grammar, French literature. Spiers and Surrenne's Lexicon. 

8. School op General History and of Historical T^ible Study. 

Professor Mitchell. 

9. Commercial School. 

Pro/. O. M. Johnston, B. A. (Mississippi College). 

The course of study embraces, in brief, theoretical and practical bookkeeping, 
commercial arithmetic, spelling, essentials of English, business writing, business 
correspondence, business law for business men. 

Time to complete the course.~By entering at the opening of the session the com- 
mercial course can be iinished by the close of the first half-session, since the whole 
afternoon will be devoted to work in this department. 

stenography and typewriting. 

Facilities are provided for instruction in these two important branches of busi- 
ness education, 

9. Military School. 

The object of this school is to secure a proper development of the physical system, 
to promote habits of promptness, regularity, and obedience, and to encourage 
economy in dress. About one hour each day, when the weather is suitable, is 
devoted to drill. 

As in other schools, entrance is voluntary, but no student, having entered, can 
leave it except upon certificate of disability issued by the surgeon of the company. 

Arms are furnished by the State. Uniforms are furnished at New York prices, 
with freight added. During the present session suits have cost $16.50. 

DEGREES. 

Any student completing the first six schools of the college, as now organized, will 
be entitled to the degree of A. B. ; those completing the schools of moral science, 
mathematics, natural sciences, English, and Latin will receive the degree of B. S. ; 
those completing the schools of moral science, Greek, Latin, English, and chemistry 
of the natural science school, will be entitled to the degree of B L. Those com- 
pleting one school will be entitled to a certificate setting forth their special 
attainments. 



92 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Those who have taken the degree of A. B. will he entitled to that of A. M., In 
course, when they have pursued a course of study, either in the college or after 
they have left the institution, which shall he adjudged hy the faculty as heing equal 
to two years of college work. 

APPARATUS, ETC. 

The extensive apparatus and libraries and other appliances formerly belonging to 
the college were all preserved during the war. To these valuable additions have 
bee9 made, and others will be made each year to meet the necessities that may arise. 

Besides the cabinet of geology and mineralogy belonging to the college, the 
students have the use of a cabinet formerly belonging to the professor of geology, 
now the property of Dr. Hillman. 

The college library and those of the two literary societies contain about 6,000 
volumes. 

In 1889 Dr. Eobert Kells bequeathed a sum of money to the college for the pur- 
pose of erecting a brick cottage as a memorial of his wife and himself, the rents to 
be used in educating at the institution a candidate for the ministry. The chancery 
court has fixed the amount to be devoted to this purpose from Dr. Kells's estate 
at $8,000. 

THE ATTENDANCE AND EXPENSES. 

The patronage of the institution for the eight years last passed (1891) 
has averaged 227 students. In that period the largest attendance of 
any one year was that of 1882-83, being 2M,- the smallest, that of 
1883-84 and 1885-86, being 210 each. 

1^0 statement can be made of the relative numbers in the preparatory 
and collegiate departments. The institution is organized into schools, 
as stated, and each school includes both classes of students^ so that 
records are not kept on the basis of a classification into preparatory 
and collegiate members. ^ 

Expenses of attendance vary from $130 per year, the lowest estimate 
for primary students, to $220, the highest estimate for college students. 
Chemistry, French and German, and typewriting are extras. 

i Dr. Webb's letter of October 13, 1888. 




UNION FEMALE COLLEGE. 



Chapter VII. 

FEMALE COLLEGES IN MISSISSIPPI. 
OXFORD FEMALE ACADEMY AND UNION FEMALE COLLEGE. 

The Oxford Female Academy was incorporated in 1838, two years 
after the organization of the Chickasaw cession into counties, and was 
the second institution of learning chartered within that extensive and 
fertile territory, the Hernando Academy being the first. 

The academy was ably conducted for sixteen years by several prin- 
cipals, first in order among whom was Miss Charlotte. Paine, a 
northern lady, who was formerly teacher of botany and physics in the 
Holly Springs Female Institute. Her first session closed December 3, 
1839, with 34 students. On this occasion she delivered to her pupils 
a closing address, which is still extant, and is of remarkable elegance 
and force. 

Miss Paine was succeeded by the Eev. James Weatherby, A. M., who 
had a corps of three assistants, including the two teachers of ornamen- 
tal work and of music. The literary school was divided into three 
departments, the primary, the middle, and the advanced. The follow- 
ing was the course of study for the advanced department: 

ComstocVs Natural Philosophy ; Comstock's Chemistry ; Lincoln's Botany ; Play- 
fair's Euclid; Day's Algebra; Newman's Ehetoric; Alexander's Evidences; Good- 
rich's Ecclesiastical Plistory; History of England; History of France ; Abercrombie's 
Intellectual Powers : Abercrombie's Moral Feelings; Watts on the Mind; jBurrett's 
Geography of the Heavens; logic; Roman and Grecian antiquities; political 
economy; composition. 

In 1842, as shown by an ohl catalogue, there were 84 jjupils, drawn 
from three States, and from seven counties in Mississippi. The build- 
ing was a two-story brick structure, presenting very much the appear- 
ance of an ordinary dwelling house. The institute was furnished with 
'' a complete philosophical, chemical, and astronomical apparatus, and 
globes," and a library was forming. 

Some interest may be found in the following programme of an exhi- 
bition of the musical department under a Miss Murphy, from Philadel- 
phia. The item is taken from an old copy of the Dollar Democrat. 
The special interest which attaches to this occasion is mainly to be 
found in the fact that the territory -had been delivered from the sav- 
ages only eight years before : 

OXFORD FEMALE INSTITUTE — ORDER OF EXERCISES. 

At the exhihition of the classes in vocal and iDstrumental music, to he given in 
the court-house of Oxford, Thursday evening, Decemher 22, 1842. 

93 



94 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Exercises to commence at lialf past 6 o^clock p. m. 

Part 1. 

Welcome to scliool Class. 

Overture, Caliph de Bagdad Piano. 

I remember Solo. 

EoryO'More Piano. 

Hall ! all hail Class. 

Di tanti palpiti Piano. 

One day while working at my plough , Duet. 

TiA^olian waltz ^ , Piano. 

The sweet birds are singing Class. 

Hunter\s chorus „ Piano. 

Yankee Doodle, var Piano. 

There's no home like my own Solo. 

Children go Class. 

Cinderella waltz Piano. 

ABC Duet. 

United States march .^ Piano. 

Combination waltz Piano. 

Ave Sanctissima Duet. 

Rejoice, rejoice Class. 

Non, Piu, Mesta Piano. 

Wreath Trio. 

Tart 2. 

Away to school Class. 

Madam Son tag's waltz Piano. 

Long, long ago :... jSolo. 

Combination waltz Piano. 

Tea and turn out Duet. 

The sail Class. 

Beethoven's waltz Piano. 

Cracovian maid Solo. 

Swiss herdsman, var Piano. 

The mountain horn Class. 

Fall of Paris Piano. 

I have come from the happy land * Solo. 

Come, brothers, arouse Piano. 

A little farm well tilled Trio. 

The nightingale Piano. 

Ship-a-hoy Class. 

The chase . , Round. 

I see them on their winding way , Class. 

Parting song Class. 

Hunter's chorus, var Piano. 

In January, 1844, Dr. Weatherby was succeeded by S. Leak Slack, of 
Cincinnati, as principal. Mr. Slack was assisted by his wife, Mrs. E. 
J. Slack, music and drawing; Miss Ann 0, Smith, in advanced depart- 
ment; Miss E. B. Ware, in primary department; Eev. W. H. Wilkins, 
steward; and Mrs. E. 0. Wilkins, governess. 

Professor Slack, after a short period, was followed by a Mr. OoUins^ 
from Yermont. 

In 1854, not because of any weakness in the school (for it continued 



FEMALE COLLEGES IN MISSISSIPPL 95 

to prosper), but because of a laudable desire to rise even higher in the 
scale of usefulness, and moved by an impression very prevalent in the 
State at that period that a denominational connection was the only 
sure road to the achievement of a great career, an arrangement was 
made whereby the Female Academy was turned over to the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, and reincorporated by the name of ''The 
Union Female College,'' under the auspices of that denomination. 

Under this name and management the college is still (1891) a work- 
ing institution of high order. Its presidents have been Eev. Dr. S. G. 
Burney, afterwards professor of the English language and literature in 
the University of Mississippi, and now principal of the department of 
theology at Cumberland University; Eev. Dr. C. H. Bell, now of St. 
Louis, Mo. ; Prof. B. J. Gruthrie, A. B. (University of Mississippi) ; Eev. 
J. S. Howard; Prof. W. I. Davis, and Prof. H. N. Eobertson. 

This college, although the Fayette Academy was established earlier, 
enjoys the distinction of being the oldest female school in the State of 
unbroken history, and one of the oldest in the South. During the past 
half century hundreds of educated young women have gone from its 
halls to disseminate the principles of Christianity and morality. Its 
first class of alumnae, under its charter of 1854, graduated in 1856 and 
was six in number, and the twenty-nine classes (the war causing a 
suspension of live years) show a total of 231. The average attendance 
is about 150 pupils. Young boys are now admitted as day scholars. 
There are seven members of the faculty. The literary course embraces 
a preparatory and a collegiate department, the latter composed of the 
usual four years. For those who desire to qualify themselves to teach 
and have not time to take the regular collegiate course, a short course 
covering two years is offered; the first devoted to literary stud}", the 
second to strictly normal study. There is also a school of fine art and 
one of vocal and instrumental music. 

Expenses for day scholars range from $20 to $50 j)er annum; for 
boarders, $1G4. Music, art, and French are extras. 

The college is supplied with chemical and philosophical apparatus, 
and a collection of minerals and fossils sufficient to illustrate the 
natural and physical sciences. The library contains 400 volumes. 

The college camx)ns of 10 acres contains several hundred native 
forest trees and affords ample ground for exercise and amusement. 
The main building is a large three-story brick; the music hall is a 
two-story brick, being the old academic edifice, venerable by a half 
century's use, and the two are connected by a corridor. The buildings 
and grounds are valued at $50,000 and there is no debt. 

While the institution is under the care of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church and is conducted on a Christian basis, no sectarian test 
is made in selecting teachers, and it is patronized by all denomina- 
tions.^ 



1 Laws of 1838, p. 75 ; ibid., 1854, p. 371 ; U. )P. Col. Catalogue of 1884 ; ibid., 1888. 



96 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

THE PORT aiBSON FEMALE COLLEGE. 

This institution is located at the town of Port Gibson, the county 
seat of Claiborne County, on the Louisville, Kew Orleans and Texas 
Eailway. It was established in September, 1843, by the following gen- 
tlemen as proprietors: James H. Maury, Benjamin G. Humphreys, 
EUas Bridgers, Joseph Davenport, John S. Chambliss, Peter 0. Cham- 
bliss, T>. Gr. Humphreys, D. S. Humphreys, E. S. Jefferies, K. Jefferies, 
Samuel Cobun, H. T. Ellett, and G. W. Humphreys. 

The institution was opened for the reception of students in April, 
1844. It was fortunately exonerated from all need to do pioneer work. 
The way had been effectually prepared for it by a series of fine schools, 
the town of Port Gibson being one of the oldest in the State. The 
Madison Academy, under the charge of Henry O. Cox, was incorporated 
by the territorial legislature in 3809, and ran a successful career for a 
number of years. The Clinton Academy was incorporated in 1826, 
changed its name in 1829 to the Port Gibson Academy, and worked 
more or less successfully until about the year 1843. The earlier faculties 
are now unknown, but the principals in and about 1835 were E. A. and 
S. Eoycej from 1838 to 1840, a Mr. Smith, graduate of Brown Univer- 
sity, and his wife 5 and thenceforward, Prof. George P. Strong and his 
wife, late from Mississippi College. Mann Butler's Academy, also, a 
school of collegiate grade, had been in operation from 1836 to 1841, the 
principal being a teacher of exi)erience in some of the best Kentucky 
schools. 

When the academy the subject of this chapter was founded, there- 
fore, the material for it had bec^n already prepared. Kor even then did 
it stand without a rival,- a Mr. A. P. Merrill was conducting a female 
institute of high grade in the town, and held his* ground. 

When the i)roprietors organized the academy they placed Mr. John 
Harvie, A. M., in charge. He was assisted by his wife, Mrs. Mary A. 
Harvie, and by Mr. W. L. Whitney, A. M., Miss Mary J. Smyth and 
Miss Marcia Howe, and by Mr. L. G. Hartge as professor of music. The 
usual higher classes in the English branches and the classics were pro- 
vided for, besides instruction in modern languages, natural philosox)hy, 
chemistry, and music. An extensive apparatus for illustration of the 
studies in natural jihilosophy and chemistry was supplied. The acad- 
emy buildings and premises donated by the founders were valued at 
$15,000. 

The management of President Harvie was successful. 

Unfortunately the records of this institution were for a long iDcriod 
imperfectly kept, and it has proven impossible to obtain information as 
precise as is desired. 

On the 1st of February, 1854, a charter was granted by the legislature, 
under the name of the Port Gibson Collegiate Academy. 

In the year 1859 the Eev. Benjamin Jones, a minister of the Meth- 
odist Church South, was president, and again in 1871, 



FEMALE COLLEGES IN MISSISSIPPL 97 

In 1869 the institution was taken under the patronage of the Missis- 
sippi Conference of the Methodist Church, and the property conveyed 
to that body. 

The Eev. John A. B. Jones was president during the seven years, 
1875 to 1881. He was followed by the Eev. Thomas C. Bradford for 
the six years, 1882 to 1887. In 1888 the Rev. Edwin H. Mounger was 
chosen president, and the college is still under his charge (1891). 

From its foundation until this day the college has been in successful 
operation. The turmoil and disasters of the late war, even, did not 
cause any suspension; and it can thus claim the longest uninterrupted 
career of any female school in the State— one of forty-seven years. 

The degrees conferred are those of Mistress of English Literature 
(M. E. L.), A. B., and M. A. 

The attendance has ranged from 60 (the lowest) to 125 (the highest), 
about one-third being boarders. The school has been freely patronized 
by Alabama and Louisiana, with occasional students from other States. 

The expenses are $170 per annum for boarders; $45 for collegiate 
day scholars. Music and art are extras. 

The equipment consists of a full square of the town, inclosed. There 
are two large brick buildings, two stories high, with necessary out- 
buildings, all valued at $20,000. 

The faculty consists of Rev. E. H. Mounger, president, and professor 
of mathematics, mental and moral science, French, and Latin; Miss 
M. E. Compton, lady principal, and teacher of mathematics; Miss 
Belle M. Pierson, teacher of Latin, literature, elocution, and calisthenics ; 
iMiss A. M. C. Pearce, principal, and teacher of theory, solfege, and tech- 
nique in music; Miss Mary G. Dailey, instrumental music; Miss Ruth 
J. Drake, assistant instrumental music; Miss Mary G. Dailey, drawing, 
painting in oil and water colors, embroidery, etc.; Miss M. J. Austin, 
manager and principal of primary department. 

THE GRENADA COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE. 

This excellent college, exclusively for females, is located in the city 
and county of Grenada. It was established in the year 1882, but its 
history begins long anterior to that date. 

In the year 1851 the present county of Grenada was not in existence 
and its territory was mainly embraced in Yalobusha, Carroll, and Choc- 
taw counties. The Yalobusha Baptist Association was then an active 
denominational organization, whose circle included all of Yalobusha 
County, with parts of Carroll and Choctaw. That association founded 
a school of high grade, under the name of ''The Yalobusha Baptist 
Female Institute.'' For its accommodation they erected, at a cost of 
$30,000, the present edifice. There was no endowment. What money 
they commanded came from the voluntary and varying contributions 
of the people. 

21785-~No. 24 7 



98 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

At that time the Eev. Dr. W. S. Webb, now president of Mississippi 
College, was teaching school in Grenada, and he was elected to preside 
over the institute. He accepted, and his school was moved into the 
new building in September, 1851. Dr. Webb managed the school 
acceptably and quite successfully for six years, commanding a large 
patronage from the surrounding country. At the expiration of that 
period he was unanimously reelected for a term of three years, but, for 
personal reasons, declined to accept. Dr. Webb was, therefore, in 1857 
succeeded by Mr. George Granberry. At this period the institute was 
considered by those interested in it the largest and best equipped? 
female school in the State. It continued to prosper under the manage- 
ment of President Granberry until the outbreaking of the civil war, 
when it met the common fate — suspension. During that period the 
building was used as a hospital. 

In the general wreck, after the war terminated, the property passed 
out of the hands of the Baptists. It seems that they had not fully 
paid for the building, and the creditor procuring a sale, the property 
was purchased by one George W. Eagsdale, who overhauled it, repaired 
it thoroughly, and leased it in 1867 to a Mrs. Holcombe. 

This lady opened, in the property, a high grade school, under the 
name of The Emma Mercer Institute. After several years she failed, 
and was succeeded by Prof. E. A. Irwin. At this period, and in the 
autumn of 1873, the county superintendent of public education said in 
his annual report to the State superintendent: 

The Emma Mercer Institute [is] an institution of considerable renown as a female 
seminary; under tlie management of Prof. R. A. Irwin, a gentleman of higli moral 
character, a fine scholar, and a thoroagh educator, being assisted by his wife, a most 
estimable lady, who exercises a maternal supervision oyer the young ladies intrusted 
to their care; and with the above are associated three lady teachers of superior 
qualifications, making five in all, all of whom combined insure the advancement 
and best interest in every respect of the highest type of mental and moral training. 
The number of young ladies in attendance averages about 80. 

About this period the Episcopalians were negotiating for the pur- 
chase of the property at the price of $18,000, but some question arose 
as to the safety of the title, and the negotiation was abandoned. 
Shortly afterwards an execution for some $7,000 or $8,000 against tbe 
owner was levied on the property. At the sale which followed in 1875 
purchase was made by a joint stock company organized for that purpose 
among the citizens. 

The company changed the name of the institution to "The Grenada 
Female College.'' The Eev. D. D. Moore, of Tennessee, was elected its 
first president. For some reason his administration did not succeed. 
In the early part of the year 1878 the Eev. J. H. Armstrong was elected 
president; but before opening the school he fell a victim to the dreadful 
scourge of yellow fever which visited the town in the summer of that 
year. In 1879 Dr. K. T. Scruggs took charge, and with others taught 
a local school. He was followed by the Eev. Dr. T. 0. Weir, a Methodist 



FEMALE COLLEGES IN MISSISSIPPI. 99 

minister and an educator of long experience, who, however, remained 
only one year. The school failed to accomplish much good. 

In the year 1882, however, the property was purchased at a price 
hardly mare than nominal for the JSTorth Mississippi Conference of the 
Methodist Church South. The Eev. Thomas J. Newell, a member of 
that conference, was elected president, and has remained in that office 
until this time (1891). A charter of incorporation was obtained in 
1884, under the name of The Grenada Collegiate Institute. There is no 
endowment, and the institution has no income except its earnings. 



Upon those who shall have completed, to the satisfaction of the faculty, the col- 
legiate course, excepting ancient and modern languages, the degree of M. E. L. will 
be conferred. 

The completion of the English course, with Latin and one modern language, 
entitles one to the degree of A. M. 

EXAMINATIONS. 

Examinations of each class are held at the middle and close of each term. These 
examinations, except for the lower classes, are both oral and written. To each 
question is assigned a numerical value. The sum of these values is 100. If, upon 
compounding the term standing with the grade of the examination, the average is 
80 per cent the pupil passes to the next class; if not, the work must be done again. 

The expense of attendance is $170 per annum, music and painting 
being extras. 

The summary of pupils for 1887-88, showing also the distribution of 
their works, was as follows: Primary, 56; academic, cla^s 1, 11; aca- 
demic, class 2, 22; freshmen, 46; sophomores, 32; juniors, 14; seniors, 1; 
irregular, 1; total, 184. Music pupils, 54; art pupils, 25; elocution, 28. 

Faculty.— Rer. Thomas J. Kewell, A. M., president and professor of 
natural and moral sciences; Miss Ludie Williams, M. E. L., professor 
of mathematics and history; Miss Mary Y. Duval, M. E. L., professor 
of English language and literature; Miss Mary Lou Bledsoe, M. A., 
professor of Latin and modern languages ; Mrs. Kate F. Payne, M. E. L., 
teacher of preparatory school; Mrs. Beulah Kimbrough, assistant 
teacher; Mrs. L. A. Payne, music teacher; Miss Sallie Goodloe, music 
teacher; Mrs. Lizzie Fant, art and elocution.^ 

THE CENTRAL FEMALE INSTITUTE, NOW HILLMAN COLLEGE. 

This institution is located at Clinton, in Hinds County. It was 
founded in the year 1853, under the auspices of the Baptist Church 
(which relation it still sustains), and completed at the commencement 
in June, 1890, its thirty-sixth year of uninterrupted work, not having 
suspended its labors even during the stress of the civil war. 

A school building intended to cost $60,000 was begun a short time 
before the war, but was never finished. The property in use before 

^Authorities for this chapter are MSS. of Dr. Webb, Mr. Levin Lake, Dr, Newell, 
and catalogue of Grenada Collegiate Institute. 



100 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

that time was worth about $4,000. That Jiow used consists of two large 
dormitory buildings, with assembly room and recitation rooms in other 
buildings, detached. 

The institute was incorporated in 1853, and its first presi/lent was 
Prof. William Duncan. Established at Clinton, already the site of 
Mississippi College, and fostered by the Baptist Church, its success 
was assured from the beginning. 

The aggregate attendance of pupils from the foundation to the sum- 
mer of 1889 was about 4,080, being an average of about 120 per annum- 
The largest patronage of one year was that of 169, for 1859; the small- 
est was about 60, for 1865. The registration for the session of 1888-89 
was about 125. 

The pupils came largely from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas, as 
well as from Mississippi ; and occasionally from other States. About 
one-half usually are boarders. 

THE COURSE OF STUDY. 

The plan of instruction embraces a literary, a musical, an ornamental, 
and an industrial department. 

The literary department is immediately in charge of the president, 
and includes a primary, a preparatory, and a collegiate course. The 
primary and preparatory courses are designed to lead up to the col- 
legiate course, and embrace the usual studies. 

The collegiate course includes three distinct lines of study, each 
leading to graduation. The first or full course embraces all of the pre- 
scribed English branches, together with the Latin and Greek, or Latin 
and French languages, or Latin and German. The second course 
includes, with the English branches, one ancient or one modern lan- 
guage. The third course consists of the English branches alone. 

THE LIBRARY. 

The president's private library, which contains about 1,500 volumes, 
including many valuable books of reference, is accessible to the pupils. 
The library of the Lesbian Society, which contains a large number of 
volumes of choice standard works, is accessible to all who choose to join 
the society. Large additions are made to it yearly. 

THE MUSEUM. 

There is a museum which contains an extensive and well-selected 
collection of specimens in geology, mineralogy, natural history, includ- 
ing fossils, shells, and algae. It is, of course, a great aid in the educa- 
tional work. 

The expense of attendance is about $250 per annum. 

THE FACULTY. 

Eev. Walter Hillman, LL. D., president and professor of mental and 
moral philosophy, and of the Latin and French languages; Emil Men- 
ger, professor of vocal and instrumental music, and of German; Miss 




WHITWORTH FEMALE COLLEGE. 



FEMALE COLLEGES IN MISSISSIPPI. 101 

Cora B. Caldwell, teacher of elocution, English literature, Latin, and 
mathematics; Mrs. Carrie A. Butt and Miss Mollie A. Cranberry, Eng- 
lish branches; Miss Fannie T. Leigh, Englisli branches and assistant 
in music; Miss Alice L. Yeaton, German, French, painting, and drawing. 
At the commencement of 1891, the name of this institution was 
changed to Hillman College. 

WHITWOBTH PEMALE COLLEaE. 

This institution is located at Brookbaven, in Lincoln County. It was 
founded in the year 1859, mainly through the generosity of the Eev. 
M. J. Whitworth, a local i)reacher of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
South, who at that time resided 2 miles from the town. 

The original frame building (that now known as the ^- Old College") 
was erected at a cost of about $15,000. The institution was incorpo- 
rated under the general law of the State on the 1st of February, 1860, 
and opened in the spring following, under the presidency of the Rev. 
J. P. Lee, who had come to this State from Canada. 

The college met with an encouraging patronage from the outset. It 
continued in successful operation under the management of President 
Lee until the close of its second session, in June, 18G1. At this time 
the civil war was imminent, and Mr. Lee, yielding to the solicitations 
of his friends, resigned the x)residency and returned to his former 
home in Canada. 

After an interval the college was reopened in April, 18G2, with the 
Rev. G. L. Crosby as i)resident. It had a fair measure of prosperity 
until the close of the term in June. In July, however, Mr. Crosby 
died. The college buildings were occupied by the Confederate author- 
ities until the end of that year as a hospital. 

During the year 1864 a school was conducted in the building, but 
the college was not formally reorganized until 1865. In January of 
that year, the Rev. George F. Thompson, a minister of the Methodist 
Church South, was elected to the presidency. Under his administra- 
tion, which lasted until 1867, the success of the school was but 
moderate. 

In April, 1867, the board of trustees elected to the presidency the 
Rev. Harvey F. Johnson, a member of the Mississippi Conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church South, and at that time president of 
Madison College, at Sharon, Miss. It was a most fortunate choice. 

The success of the college under his administration has been fitly termed phenom- 
enal. On taking charge he found the property greatly in need of repairs and encum- 
bered with a debt of $2,800, the settlement of which he assumed as a personal obliga- 
tion. So rapidly did the school increase in patronage and public favor, that additional 
buildings were demanded, and the old chapel, now called Calisthenic Hall, and the 
music and art halls were built at the personal charge of the president, amounting to 
about $8,500. In 1878, the patronage of the college continuing to increase, called for 
larger and more permanent buildings, and in August of that year ground was 
broken for Margaret Hall, named by the board of trustees in honor of Mrs. Margaret 



102 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

E. Johnson, the wife of the president, who, by her motherly care of the .young 
ladies, night and day for fourteen years, contributed so very largely to the growth 
and prosperity of the college. This building, 144 feet by 48 feet, built of the best 
brick^ two stories high, heated with steam, is well furnished as a dormitory. In 
June, 1879, this building, worth $15,000, was donated to the Mississippi Conference 
by the president, who built it at his own cost and on his own ground. At the same 
time Col. W. L. Nugent gave $l,pOO and Maj. R. W. Millsaps $2,000 on the building. 
The corner stone of the institute was laid June 19, 1883. This structure was finished 
in October, 1884, and is 144 feet by 68 feet, two stories high, and furnishes ample 
room for all school purposes, including art hall, music rooms, recitation rooms, and 
chapel. There are in all forty-five rooms, heated with steam and furnished in 
approved modern style, special reference being had to light and ventilation. At a 
meeting of the board of trustees in June, 1884, this building, worth $20,000 (some 
say $30,000), with the ground on which it stands, all being the private property of 
Dr. Johnson, was given by him to the Mississippi Conference. At the same time a 
donation of $1,000 was made by Maj. R. W. Millsaps. 

The site of a proposed center buildiDg is now occupied by a low, one- 
story frame cottage, after a most charming Southern style, which is 
used as a residence by the president. 

On the 4th of August, 1886, Dr. Johnson died. His decease was 
justly regarded as a great calamity to Whitworth College. The boai;;d 
of trustees, however, forthwith cast about for his successor, and 
selected Prof. Lewis T. Fitzhugh, then and for several years before a 
professor in the University of Mississippi. This also was a wise selec- 
tion. Professor Fitzhugh was a lay member of the Methodist Church, 
and had many years' experience as a teacher. His appointment went 
far to cause a suspension of the popular judgment that in the death of 
Dr. Johnson the college had virtually perished. His vigorous and wise 
management has restored full confidence in the future of the institution, 
and it is now (1891) as x>rosperous as ever it was. 

It may be well to say here that in 1867 the college opened with 57 
pupils, of whom 5 were boarders ; while for several years past the num- 
ber of pupils had ranged from 179 to 291, of whom from 100 to 180 had 
been boarders.^ 

LIBRARY AND READING ROOM. 

The college library is yet small, containing only about 600 volumes, but among 
these are valuable scientific, philological, historical, and literary works. Constant 
additions, however, are being made to it, and a reading room has been opened in 
connection therewith, well supplied with the best reviews, magazines, and news- 
papers of the country. 

APPARATUS, CHARTS, ETC. 

The college iS well supplied with apparatus, which is constantly used, consisting, 
in part, of' air pumps, electrical machines, condensers, lenses, galvanic batteries, 
gasometers, compound blow pipes, and tellurian ; also Pelton's Outline Maps, globes, 
physiological charts, anatomical preparations — representing the whole process of the 
circulation of the blood, the digestive organs, the nervous system, the respiratory 
organs, etc. 

1 For the three sessions last passed and passing the attendance has been as follows : 
1886-87, boarders, 85; music pupils, 83; total matriculates, 162; 1887-88, boarders, 
99; music pupils, 121; total matriculates, 179; 1888-89, boarders, 165 ; music pupils, 
200; total matriculates, 235, 



FEMALE COLLEGES IN MISSISSIPPI. 103 

CABINET. 

The collection of minerals and fossils is gradually increasing. There are speci- 
mens from California, Utah, Georgia, North Carolina, Louisiana, and Mississippi- 
many of them rare and valuable. ^ 

THE FACULTY. 

Lewis T. Fitzhugh, A. M., president, and professor of ancient lan- 
guages and English; Eev. William B. Murrah, D. D., vice president 
and professor of metaphysics, natural sciences, English literature, and 
Christian evidences; E. S. Eicketts, A. M., professor of mathematics; 
Miss Marion Brown, mathematics, physiology, botany, and modern 
languages; Mrs. M. E. Shelburne, elocution, history, and reading; Miss 
Allie Dashiel, typewriting and stenography; Miss Belle Piker, English, 
history, and geography ; Miss Willie Galloway, English. Music depart- 
ment: Prof. William Hennings, director and teacher in piano, voice, 
harmony and theory, and chorus singing; Miss L. May Alden, piano, 
violin, harmony and theory; Mme. Dayny Eolland, piano, voice, and 
theory; Mrs. W. B. Murrah, voice; Mrs. A. O. McKair, piano; Mrs. E. 
Willoughby, piano and voice. Art department: Miss E. Mulford. 

BLUE MOUNTAIN FEMALE COLLEaE. 

This is a celebrated school located in Tippah County, in the village 
of Blue Mountain, on the Gulf and Ship Island Eailroad. It was 
founded by private enterprise alone and, although a chartered institu- 
tion, is private property. 

After the close of the late war Gen. M. P. Lowrey, a prominent and 
influential member of the Baptist Church, conceived the idea of estab- 
lishing in north Mississippi a boarding school for girls. The idea did 
not take shape at once. In the year 1860, however, he purchased for 
that purpose an attractively situated country home, 6 miles southwest 
of Eipley, the county seat, and known as "the Brougher place.*' ISTo 
sooner had he announced his intention than several of the large towns 
of the State began to bid for the location of the school, some of them 
offering large inducements. General Lowrey, however, had his own 
idea, and would not relinquish the plan of founding "a home school in 
the country.'' 

The school was opened in September, 1873-- General Lowrey, princi- 
pal; IMiss Modena Lowrey as lady principal, and Miss Maggie Lowrey 
as assistant. There was a frame building for school purposes, another 
for the boarding house (the whole worth about $3,000), a library worth 
about $300, and one piano. Fifty students were enrolled during the 
first session, of whom 27 were boarders. ^ The curriculum at this time 
was not extensive, but the teachers aimed at thorough work. 

From this humble but hopeful beginning the school has steadily 
grown in popularity and usefulness. The second and third sessions 

i Catalogue of 1890. 



104 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

showed a flattering increase of patronage. In 1S76 Miss Modena Low- 
rey was married to the Eev. W. E. Berry, A. M.; and that gentleman 
purchased a half interest in the school, becoming professor of Greek 
and Latin at the opening of the fourth session. 

In 1877 the institution was chartered under the name of *'^Blue 
Mountain Female College.'' Drawn by its attractions, a village had 
gathered about the college, which also was incorporated as the town 
of Blue Mountain. 

In 1878, the yellow-fever epidemic, which so terribly scourged many 
portions of the State, greatly interfered with the boarding patronage, 
all travel having been suspended under the rigid quarantines. The 
usual ten months' session was held, notwithstanding. From that time 
to the present (1891) each year's boarding patronage has been an 
increase over that of the years preceding. 

In the year 1885 a great calamity befell the college. It had reached, 
then, a patronage of 150 pupils, with 82 boarders. On the 27th of 
February, General Lowrey, with a party of his teachers and students, 
started to ISTew Orleans for the purpose of visiting the World's Expo- 
sition. While in the depot at Middleton, Tenn., purchasing tickets, he 
fell suddenly to the floor, dead. 

His eldest son, the Eev. W. T. Lowrey, A. M., who was then in 
charge of a church in Kentucky, was at once chosen to fill the vacant 
presidency. This gentleman had just completed his course of lectures 
at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville. He 
entered immediately on the discharge of his duties, and the school 
moved forward with still increasing prosperity. 

In 1889 the sixteenth annual session closed with an enrollment of 
220 students, of whom 157 were boarders. The pupils came from 
almost every section of Mississippi and from several of the surround- 
ing States. Since the proprietors are Baptists, they are most liberally 
patronized by that denomination, yet they have enjoyed a liberal share 
of the patronage of other churches. 

The school property has been extended, enlarged, and improved. 
The remodeled building is a large frame structure, with brick base- 
ment. It contains an attractive study hall, with capacity for 150 
pupils 5 also a preparatory hall, with capacity for 50 pupils, and twenty- 
two other rooms used for recitations, art, mtisic, elocution, library, etc. 
There are also four large boarding houses, the property of the college. 

In beauty and heathfulness the location of the institution is perhaps 
not surpassed in the State. It is on the slope of a large hill known 
as Blue Mountain, from the side of which burst forth springs of pure 
freestone water. The campus of 20 acres, and the spring and mountain 
lots of 50 acres, overgrown with grass, cedars, and deciduous forest 
trees, present a charming whole and afford abundant space for recrea- 
tion in the open air. The entire property is now valued at $25,000, 
and the owners are improving it every year. 



FEMALE COLLEGES IN MISSISSIPPL 105 

In the sumraer of 1889 Prof. B. G. Lowrey, a brother of the princi- 
pal, purchased an interest in the college and became associated with 
the former owners as one of the proprietors and managers. He grad- 
uated at Mississippi College in 1887, taught school one year, and then 
went to Tulane University for a course in the English language and 
literature. 

DEGREES. 

Pupils who complete the regular course are given the degree of A. B. ; 
those who complete that course, omitting the Latin, are given the degree 
of mistress of the English language; one who completes the regular 
course, with the addition Qf either Greek or modern languages, is given 
the degree of M. A. 

The library contains about 600 volumes of carefully selected works, 
is well supplied with current periodicals, and a competent librarian is 
employed. 

There is a small laboratory, supplied with a limited chemical and philo- 
sophical apparatus. The collection of geological specimens, maps, 
charts, globes, etc., is good. 

THE FACULTY. 

Eev. W. T. Lowrey, A. M., president and professor of mental and 
moral philosophy and evidences of Christianity; Kev. W. E. Berry, 
A. M., professor of higher mathematics; Mrs. Modena L. Berry, lady 
principal and teacher of English; Miss Mabel Hutchins, English liter- 
ature and mathematics; Mrs. Theodosia S. Lowrey, assistant in mathe- 
matics and natural science; Miss Fannie Thornhill, teacher of Latin; 
Miss Mary Lee Booth, natural sciences and French; Miss Lilian Tate, 
principal of primary department; Prof. F. D. Baars, principal of music 
department and teacher of German; Miss Linnie L. Eay, assistant in 
music; Mrs. Pattie Lowrey, assistant in music; Miss Lucy Dunaway, 
vocal teacher; Miss Jennie Jarman, elocution; Miss Etta Berry, art; 
Miss Maggie Buchanan, assistant in art; Mrs. Drusilla Haynie, dress- 
making; Miss Bora Harris, stenography and typewriting. 



Chapter VIII. 



THE CENTENARY COLLEGE. 

This institution, now and for many years past located at Jackson, 
La., originated in Mississippi. It is a denominational college, belong- 
ing to the Mississippi and Louisiana conferences of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church South. 

The origin of the college is fully shown in the following extract from 
the minutes of a convention of ministers and lay members of the Mis- 
sissippi Annual Conference, commenced at Jackson, Miss., according 
to previous appointment, on Wednesday, the 7th of August, 1839 : 

The convention was organized by calling the Rev. John Lane to the chair, and 
the Rev. Samuel L. L. Scott was appointed secretary. 

The convention was composed of the following members, viz : Rev. John Lane, 
Rev. Benjamin M. Drake, Rev. John G. Jones, Rev. Greon M. Rogers, Rev. Samuel 
L. L. Scott, Rev. Enoch K. Talley, Rev. Thomas Owen, Rev. Reuben B. Rickets, 
Rev. William G. Gold, Rev. Bradford Frazee, Rev. S. W. Hawkins, Rev. Ellas R. 
Porter, Rev. Horace M. Booth, Hon. John L. Irwin, Hon. Frederick W. Huling, Hon. 
John W. King, Maj. W. J. Austin, Maj. David Gorden, Mr. Alexander C. McGruder, 
Mr. W. B. Pitman, Mr. Joshua E. Heard, Mr. George Finucane, Mr. H. H. Smith, 
and Mr. W. Blaike. . 

Whereas the usages of the church, both ancient and modern, and even Divine 
appointments, indicate to us the propriety of celebrating great and interesting events ; 
and as the 25th day of next October will be the centenary of Methodism ; and as the 
Providence of God has been so distinctly manifested in blessings to the church and 
the world in the rise and unexampled success of the Methodist societies in Europe 
and America, in their efforts to spread spiritual holiness over the earth, and as the 
Wesley an Methodists in England have engaged with entire unanimity in the cele- 
bration of that day, and have with unexampled liberality presented to the Lord a 
thank-offering of their substance; and whereas the bishops of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church have commenced a similar course in this country^ and as many of the 
annual conferences have already made the necessary arrangements for a suitable 
celebration of said day : Therefore 

Besolved, That we unite with our brethren in Europe and America in the celebra- 
tion of the day. 

On motion, 

Eesolved, That Reuben B. Rickets, Thomas Owen, and Benjamin M. Drake be 
appointed a committee to devise and report the order of the religious exercises of 
the day. 

On motion, 

Resolved, That JohnG. Jones, Samuel L. L. Scott, and Enoch N. Talley be appointed 
a committee to draft a suitable form of subscription to be presented for the purpose 
of raising centenary funds. 

On motion, 

Besolved, That Benjamin M. Drake, John Lane, Green M. Rogers, John L. Irwin, 
and John W. King be appointed a committee to inquire into the objects and appor- 
tionment of the centenary funds. 

On motion convention adjourned to meet at sunrise to-morrow. 
106 



THE CENTENAKY COLLEGE. 107 

August 5.— Convention met according to adjournment. 

The committee on the order of divine service reported as follows, which report 
was adopted : 

''The committee to whom was referred the duty of directing the order of divine 
service in the Methodist Episcopal Church throughout the Mississippi Conference 
during the day of the centennial celehration, ask leave to report the following reso- 
lutions : 

^^Itesolvedy That the order of service recommended hy the Mississippi Annual Con- 
ference#at its last session be observed at each district meeting, to wit: Prayer 
meeting, beginning at sftnrise; at 10 o'clock reading of essays, to be followed by a 
missionary sermon, and conclude with love feast at early candle lighting. 

'^Eesolved, That in each circuit and station in this conference, wherever circum- 
stances will admit, the following religious exercises be observed: Prayer meeting at 
sunrise— love feast beginning at 9 o'clock— preaching or other appropriate services 
to begin at 11 o'clock, and evening services to be adapted to the circumstances of 
each congregation, as Divine Providence and a special reference to the honor of God 
and the advancement of the interests of llis church may seem to direct. 

''Besolved, That all of our service be characterized by a spirit of gratitude and 
thanksgiving to Almighty God for the institution of His church, and the peculiar 
manifestations of His divine favor to us as a people, and to the world through our 
instrumentality in all our trials, persecutions, and vicissitudes during the lapse of 
a hundred years, and that the day be celebrated throughout as the jubilee of Metho- 
dism, and be spent in acts of solemn devotion and demonstrations of joy and songs 
of praise, and that all the members of the Methodist Episcopal Church be requested 
to let all their slaves participate with us as far as practicable. 

**Besolved finally, That the Friday before the 25th day of October next be observed 
by all the members of our chnrch as a day of fasting and prayer for the blessing of 
God, to attend the centennial celebration of Methodism, and that the next centenary 
may be ushered in with circumstances auspicious of future glory and usefulness to 
the church, and tokens of a continuation of the divine favor that has attended us 
through every vicissitude during the past century.^' 

The committee on form of subscription, etc., reported as follows, which report 
was adopted : ' 

*'The committee appointed to prepare a form of subscription and to devise ways 
for efficient operation in our centenary collections, etc., have felt the difficulty of 
fixing upon the best plan, and with diffidence submit the following as the result of 
their deliberations : 

'' In view of the extensive and salutary influence exerted by Christianity through 
the instrumentality of the Methodist Episcopal Church upon society in general, and 
upon many of ourselves and families in particular, and in approbation of the eiforts 
now making suitably to celebrate the centenary of Methodism, we, the undersigned, 
subscribe the sums annexed to our names to the Methodist Episcopal Church within 
the bounds of the Mississippi Annual Conference, which sums we promise to pay to 

, or either of them, stewards of the Methodist Episcopal Church and their 

successors in office, as follows : All sums under $25 to be paid at the time of subscrib- 
ing or before the 25th of October next ; all sums of over $25 and under $50 in one 
year from the date of subscription ; all sums over $50 and not more than $100 in 
two annual installments from date of subscription ; all sums of $500 and under $1,000 
in four annual installments from date of subscription, and all sums of $1,000 and 
upward in five annual installments from date of subscription. 

'* For the more efficient direction of our fiscal operations, your committee would 
respectfully present the following resolutions for the adoption of the convention : 

^^ Resolved, That the preacher in charge be required as soon as practicable to bring 
the subject of the centenary collections before every society and congregation in his 
circuit or station and give them all an opportunity of subscribing. 



108 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

^^Eesolvedj That all moneys collected for the centenary be deposited in the hands 
of the recording steward of each circuit and station, to he sent by him to the next 
annual conference. 

*^Ee8olv€d, That the names of all donors and subscribers, with the amount donated 
or subscribed by them severally, be preserved by the stewards, to whom the money 
is paid or subscribed and recorded in a book prepared for that purpose, and that 
these books be placed at the disposal of the annual conference.^^ 

The committee on appropriations reported as follows, which report was adopted : 

^^Eesolved, That the amount which may be collected on the centenary subscrip- 
tions shall be divided as follows, to wit: One-tenth to the cause of missions; two- 
tenths to aid the preachers^ fund society ; seven-tenths for the establishment of a 
college to be under the direction of the Mississippi Conference, to be located as near 
the center of the conference as practicable. Two-sevenths of the amount set apart 
for said college shall be reserved as a special fund for the education of the children 
of traveling preachers, under the direction of the conference; except the literary 
fund raised in the Holly Springs district, which fund may be applied to the support 
of the UniA^ersity of Holly Springs. 

^'Resolved, That the Mississippi Conference be requested to publish a volume 
which shall contain a selection from the essays which shall be read on the centenary, 
the names of all the subscribers and the amounts subscribed and to be sold for the 
benefit of the preachers' fund society. '' 

On motion, 

Eesolvedj That the secretary furnish eacn presiding elder or his representative 
with a copy of the form of subscription, who shall communicate the same to the 
preachers within the bounds of their respective districts. 

On motion, 

Eesolvedy That the presiding elders of the Vicksburg, Brandon, and Sharon dis- 
tricts be recxuired to look out in their respective districts a suitable location for the 
conference college, receive propositions, and report at the next annual conference. 

On motion, 

Resolved, That the respectful thanks of this convention are hereby tendered to the 
kind friends of Jackson for their hospitality and kindness to the members of the 
same. 

John Lane, Chairman. 
Samuel L. L. Scott, Secretary. 

Jackson, August 8, 1839, 

Immediately on tlie publication of the foregoing action a friendly 
and very commendable rivalry arose between the towns of the central 
portion of the State for the location of the institution. Hinds County, 
however, it seemed to be admitted on all sides, was to enjoy the honor 
of having the college within its limits ; the real question appeared to 
be that between the two towns of Raymond and Clinton.^ 

The annual conference met at IsTatchez in December. I^o site was 
selected. The Eev. 0. K. Marshall was appointed canvassing agent 
for the college, and Messrs. Green M. Rogers, John Lane, Thomas 
Owen, John G, Jones, and Benjamin M. Drake were appointed a 
committee to select a site and put the institution into operation, the 
location within the limits of any incorporated town being expressly 
forbidden.^ 

Subscriptions were rapidly made in aid of the new enterprise. They 
took the shape of purchases of perpetual free scholarships, at from 

1 The Times (of Raymond), November 29, 1839. ^ i\yi(i,^ December 20, 1839. 



THE CENTENARY COLLEGE. 109 

$700 to $1,000 each. In a few months thej^. amounted to $76,000, 
besides some donations of lands. Most of the subscriptions, however, 
were payable in installments, and many of them were never paid. 

In 1841 the committee located the college in Clinton. Meanwhile a 
strong movement had been inaugurated to procure the adoption of a 
site at Brandon Springs. These "springs'' were in Rankin County, 
about 7 miles northeast of Brandon. They were medicmal waters, 
and a company had been formed, which had erected extensive improve- 
ments, with a view to the development of a large summer resort — a 
scheme then very common in this State. The experiment had not 
succeeded, and it was determined to offer the property to the college 
at the price of $30,000. This was done, and on terms so very favorable 
that a reconsideration of the location was determined upon, and when 
the committee met in Clinton later in the year for that purpose the 
result was very doubtful. Two members of the committee were citizens 
of Clinton. That community had been since 1826 trying to build up 
the Mississippi College, with varying success. It was now proposed 
to turn over that establishment to the Methodists, with a bonus of 
$20,000, for the Centenary Institution. On the meeting of the com- 
mittee the two members who lived in Clinton, thinking that the tide 
was against them and that it would be good tactics to stay away and 
thereby break the quorum, absented themselves. The remainder of the 
committee, however, proceeded in their absence, and the removal to 
Brandon Springs was carried by a majority of one vote over Clinton. 
Had the absentees attended, the result would have been reversed and 
the Mississippi College have been adopted, with the i)robable result 
that the Centenary College would now be in Clinton instead of Jack- 
son, La., and the further possibility that the Mississippi College, as 
now constituted, might never have been.^ 

The college opened in November, 1841. The following prospectus 
was published in reference to it : 

CENTENAKY COLLEGE. 

The trustees of the Centenary College have been Induced by important consid- 
erations, and such as they believe will be approved by the friends, patrons, and 
subscribers who have aided and are assisting in the establishment of this institution, 
to change its location from Clinton to the mineral springs 7 miles northeast from 
Brandon, in Rankin County. After a careful and extensive .investigation of the 
various claims of the several sites urged upon their attention, they are of opinion 
that more advantages combine at the present location than at any other. 

There are good wells and springs of the best freestone water, running streams, 
cisterns, besides the sulphur spring, furnishing an abundant supply of water at all 
seasons for every purpose. They have every reason to believe the location highly 
favorable to health, and its remoteness from every source of corruption, haunts of 
idleness, and occasions of diversions from the business of study commends the place 
in the highest degree to the favorable notice of the friends of education. For 
natural beauty no place in the State can surpass it, and the plan of the improve- 
ments is almost unrivaled. The order and style of the buildings were projected 

^MS. of Rev. J. G. Jones j Vicksburg Sentinel, November 23, 1841. 



110 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

upon a scale of taste and magnificence, at a cost of about $200,000, and will furnisli 
accommodation immediately for nearly 500 students, with residences for tlie faculty, 
lecture rooms, recitation rooms, steward^s liall, laboratory, etc. 

The vast importance of such an institution to the general interests of Southern 
education, hitherto too much neglected — ^the advantages to be derived from training 
our youths where they may imbibe the views of their fellow-citizens by being con- 
stantly identified with them, and become imbued with the spirit of these interests 
which they are destined to sustain and control — the uncongeniality in the climate, 
politics, and institutions of the North and Northwest; the evils resulting from 
estrangement from home, parental control and affection with their moral and reli- 
gious influences and early associations; the great probabilities of their receiving a 
superior education here ; besides keeping at home and saving annually to the State 
and to the immediate patrons of such schools thousands of dollars, with many other 
reasons, powerfully appeal to the citizens of the community at large in behalf of the 
present enterprise. 

The trustees have spared no pains to place in this institution a faculty fully com- 
petent to promote the best interests of the pupils who shall be placed under their 
charge. 

The Rev. T. C. Thornton, A. M., the president, is eminently qualified by scholar- 
ship and experience for the office he fills, and comes to the institutin with the 
highest commendations of his abilities to discharge the duties entrusted to him. 
He will also fill the professorship of ^' moral and intellectual science and sacred 
literature." No professor having been elected to the chair of ''ancient languages,'^ 
the president will fill that vacancy until the board shall be able to procure a teacher. 
[N. W. Magruder was elected to that chair in the same year.] 

James B. Dodd, A. M., fills the chair of '^ mathematics." The trustees doubt not 
but this accomplished gentleman will ably sustain the responsibilities of this 
department. 

The chair of "natural science" will be filled by James B. C. Thornton, M.D., a 
gentleman uniting various and important qualifications for teaching those sciences- 
long devoted to the profession of medicine, and a zealous and devoted student of the 
secrets of nature. 

As early as the patronage and endowments of the college will justify, arrangements 
will be made to increase the number of professorships and furnish all the necessary 
chemical, astronomical, and philosopical apparatus desirable for the complete prac- 
tical illustration of the natural sciences. The trustees believe that with the aid 
already pledged, and that which a generous and enlightened community are pre- 
pared to give, they will be able to make the Centenary College one of the first 
institutions of learning in the Southwest. 

The institution is divided into two departments— the collegiate department and 
preparatory department. 

There will be two sessions in each year of five months each; the first beginning 
hereafter on the first Monday of October and March, the last closing on the last 
Thursday in July. 

Charges, collegiate department. 

Tuition, per session, in advance $25.00 

Entrance fee ^- ^^ 

Boarding, etc. 

Boarding, per month, including food, fuel, lights, and attendance $12. 00 

Washing, per month ^'^^ 

Total :.-; ;- 13-5^ 

Bedding must be furnished by each boarder and may be had on the premises ; 

if found by the steward an additional charge will be made per month of,. 1. 50 
Washing fixtures for room always found by the student. 



THE CENTENARY COLLEGE. Ill 

When a student finds his own lights a deduction will be made. Bedsteads, chairs, 
tables, washstands, etc., furnished by the institution. 

The board to be paid each session in advance to a patron ; in case of necessary 
removal the money to be refunded for time not occupied. 

Students are only expected to pay from the time of entering; as there is choice of 
rooms, students had better come as soon as practicable. Selections are now making, 
at moderate rates, whatever parents or guardians may order for the lodging of the 
boarders afc the place. 

These are the only necessary expenses — the only incidental expenses will be for 
books, clothes, and pocket money. It may be deemed advisable to adopt a uniform 
dress for the students. This would remove the temptation of extravagant dressing, 
be highly economical, and go far to destroy those distinctions which engender and 
cherish pride on the one hand and inflict mortification on the other. 

Preparatory department. — This department is attached to the college and under 
the immediate control of the president. It is designed for the instruction of those 
students who are not sufficiently advanced to enter the collegiate department and 
for educating those who do not intend to take a complete course. The Rev. E. S. 
Robertson, A. M., formerly a teacher in the Jefferson College, is the principal of this 
department, and will be aided by Mr. Robert D. Howe, A. B., recently an associate 
principal in the classical academy in Vicksburg and extensively known as an intelli- 
gent scholar and successful teacher. 

Sessions. — The sessions of this department, will correspond with those of the 
collegiate department. 

Expenses, tuition per session, in advance $18. 00 

Primary high class 15.00 

Primary low class 12. 00 

Incidental expenses 50 

Boarding. — Rev. R. D. Smith, proprietor. It is the mutual determination of the 
steward and trustees that no just cause of complaint shall be permitted to exist in 
this department. 

By order of the board. 

J. Lane, President. 

October 30, 1841. 

The college opened well. Tbe opening day was a charming one. 
The faculty were present and the spectators were assembled by thou- 
sands. The president, however, was absent. A connection missed 
had thrown him off time, and the inaugural address, the great feature 
of the occasion, was to have been delivered by him. Waiting some 
time in the hope that Dr. Thornton might arrive by private conveyance, 
the trustees finally despaired, and they pressed into service for an 
extemporaneous address the agent, the Eev. 0. K. Marshall. The 
occasion and the emergency were just such as were calculated to excite 
the peculiar powers of that gifted man, and the mishap was more than 
redeemed by an oration of extraordinary brilliancy. 

The attendance of pupils amounted to 60 in the first month.^ 
At the session of the State legislature for this winter (1841-42) an 
attempt was made to obtain a charter for the college. A bill for that 
purpose passed both branches of that body, but the governor vetoed it 
on the very remarkable grounds that the tendency of such an institu- 
tion was to unite church and state and because of the dangers of 

' Woodville Republican, December 4, 1841. 



112 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

denominational influence in the State, Keedless to say this step 
created a profound sensation throughout the State, not only among the 
Methodists, but also amongst other denominations.^ 

On the 30th of April, 1842, President Thornton addressed an open 
letter to the people, from which are taken the following extracts : 

Professor Magruder, t^'Iio is at the head of the school of aucient languages, is a 
native Mississippi an, regularly educated, a scholar of no common order, not only per- 
fectly at home in the ancient languages, but in his element, deligliting in that part of 
our work assigned to him. To this I may add, with sincerity and truth, that he is 
among the most laborious and faithful instructors I have ever seen engaged in teach- 
ing the languages. 

Of iJr. Thornton, the professor of natural sciences, and the theory and practice of 
medicine, it does not become me to speak. He is my brother. Nor is it necessary, 
as he is known to gentlemen in Mississippi of exalted standing as a physician of 
twenty-five years' practice and experience in Virginia and Washington City. He 
has been constantly engaged in the instruction of young gentlemen in the science of 
medicine, several of whom are eminent physicians now in this and the adjoining 
States. * * * 

Our present prospects, in our estimation, are most cheering. * * » yi^TQ j^ave 
now about 100 students and our number is increasing daily. * * '^ Our labora- 
tory is nearly done. The college agents have thus far faithfully supplied the money 
necessary for the alteration and improvement of the buildings, and a very small 
sum, we think, will complete the whole. 

We have some valuable philosophical and chemical apparatus and mathematical 
instruments for practical as well as experimental purposes. Our professors have 
pretty good private libraries, and the college societies are commencing theirs. We 
shall have a small commencement of a college library, a present of books from sev- 
eral gentlemen of great liberality, and the promise of many friends to assist us in 
the formation of a library. We have also a small collection of geological and other 
specimens and curiosities. ^ ^ * When we get our anatomical and society halls, 
our museum and gallery of paintings finished and adorned with works of art and 
science, our botanical and other gardens supplied with the beauties of nature, our 
law as well as our medical and other schools in uniform and successful operation, 1 
trust we shall prove to the people of Mississippi that the Centenary College has not 
been commenced to pass off as ^^ a morning cloud or the early dew.^' * * ^ 

I am finally asked, ''What effect will the veto message of Governor Tucker have on 
the college f I answer, '' I am unable to say. I can not, however, think that this will 
do us much harm. I have ever said that our charter is in the education we give, in 
the discipline, order, and system in our school, and the progress and good conduct of 
our students. It is certainly convenient to have a corporate name, and this, as citi- 
zens, is doubtless our right, that we may transact our legal and constitutional busi- 
ness; but a refusal to grant us our rights and privileges will never put down our 
school. We are here, pleasantly situated, and are going on prospering and to prosper. 
Others may think that we are here to teach.sectarian dogmas and turn out 100 young 
men per annum to upturn the liberties of our country, but we think the people will 
not believe this. We think that we are giving a good, a solid, and practical Eng- 
lish, classical, and scientific education equal to any that can be obtained in the United 
States, and we are sure that we are training scores of young men by wholesome dis- 
cipline to habits of industry and study, who shall adorn our country when we slum- 
ber in the dust.'^ 

The first commencement celebration of the college took place on the 
the 28th of July, 1842. On that occasion Prof. James B. C. Thornton 

1 Address of A. C. Bain, esq., in the Presbyterian Church at Grenada.— Weekly 
Eegister, April 30, 1842. 



THE CENTENARY COLLEGE. 113 

delivered the inaugural address. In October following tlie college 
opened with 175 students. The course of study and general organiza- 
tion were as follows : 

COLLEGIATE DEPARTMENT. 
SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES. 

Latin,— hsbtin tutor (continued); Cicero^s Orations; Cooper's Virgil and Gould's 
Ovid, with striciv attention to prosody and mythology ; Cicero De Officiis ; Anthonys 
Horace; Folsom's Livy; Juvenal; Cicero De Oratore; Tacitus and Terence; Latin 
composition. 

Greeh, — GrgecaMajora, vol. 1; excerpta historica ; miscellanea; rhetorica; critica; 
risk's Greek Exercises; Grasca Majora, vol. 2; lyrics, etc., Sophocles, Euripides; 
Homer's Iliad (six hooks); ^schines, and Demosthenes De Corona; Eschenherg's 
Manual and Anthon's Classical Dictionary will be used for reference; examinations 
in ancient geography and Grecian and Roman history; Greek composition; select 
portions from the Greek of the New Testament and the Septuagint version of the 
Old will he assigned to all the regular college classes. 

SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS. 

Algebra; plane geometry and trigonometry; mensuration of planes; surveying; 
solid geometry; mensuration of solids; navigation; analytical geometry and conic 
sections; spherical trigonometry; differential and integral calculus; descriptive 
geometry and civil engineering (when required); the mathematical principles of 
natural philosophy and astronomy. 

Text-hoohs. — Davies' mathematical course (six volumes); Olmsted^s Natural Phi- 
losophy (2 volumes) ; Olmsted's Katural Astronomy. 

The practical application of mathematics will be taught in connection with theory, 
and occasional lectures will be given on the history of mathematical discovery. 

SCHOOL OF NATUEAL SCIENCES. 

Buffon's Natural History ; Good's Book of Nature ; Smellie's Philosophy of Natural 
History; Brown's Geology and Mineralogy; Eaton's Botany; Olmsted's Natural 
Philosophy; Turner's Chemistry and Gross's General Anatomy, translated from the 
French of Bayle and Hollard. 

SCHOOL OF MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL SCIENCES AND SACEBD LITBBATUEB. 

Ty tier's Universal History (large edition) ; Bancroft's History of the United States, 
and for students who desire a more extensive course Prideaux and Giesler ; Jameson's 
Rhetoric; Hedge's Logic; Upham^s Mental Philosophy; Say's Political Economy 
and Sullivan's Political Class Book ; Paley's Moral Science, Evidences of Christianity, 
and Natural Theology; Butler's Analogy; Jahn's Archseology. 

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE. 

Horner's Special Anatomy ; Richerand's Physiology ; Turner's Chemistry ; Materia 
Medica and United States Dispensatory, by Wood and Cache ; Dorsey and Gibson's 
Surgery; Dewee's Obstetrics; Cullen's Practice, Chapman's Therapeutics, and 
Good's Study of Medicine. The library for general reading in this department is 
extensive. 

SCHOOL OF LAW. 

Arrangements are now making to procure a suitable person as professor of law, 
who will prescribe to his classes the course of study for the law school, and will 

21785— No. 24 8 



114 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

deliver to the junior and senior classes a course of lectures on constitutional, inter- 
national, and municipal law. 

All the students in the institution will declaim publicly ; those of each section in 
the senior class will deliver their own compositions. The Hebrew and the modern 
languages will be taught when required, chiefly in the last year. 

All the students will be required to prepare regular recitations in those branches 
of study in which they are engaged; but the professors will deliver lectures in their 
respective departments for the benefit of all the classes. Those of the professor 
of natural science and medicine will be accompanied with experiments in natural 
philosophy and chemistry, and examinations from preparations in anatomy. 

Medical and law students will have the privilege of attending the other schools 
without charge. * * ^ 

To avoid unnecessary expense for clothing and induce economy in students the 
trustees have provided in their by-laws that a uniform, to be agreed on by the fac- 
ulty and students, shall be adopted. This has been done. The winter dress of 
a student consists of a single-breasted coat, with standing collar, made of light 
gray cloth, with three rows of black buttons in front. One or more stars will desig- 
nate the classes. Pantaloons of the same, with black stripes on the outside seam, a 
flat crowned blue cloth cap with broad band around it. White linen pantaloons for 
summer. 

The legislature of 1843 granted tlie institution a charter, which this 
time the governor did not veto. 

As time passed by^ however, and the college lost the charm of novelty, 
criticism of it arose. Much opposition became apparent, both to its 
tuitional and its business methods. Prejudice was excited against the 
president, who was even charged with perverting the college funds; 
and the spirit not only invaded the conference, but became so wide- 
spread and intense that when he resigned, as he did do, and at the 
conference of I^^ovember, 1844, asked for a transfer to the Alabama 
conference, he was located without his consent.^ 

On the resignation of President Thornton, the Eev. David O. Shattuck, 
of Carroll County, a mto of singular purity of character and force of 
intellect, and of great influence in the State, once the candidate of the 
Whig party for governor, was chosen president pro tern. The institu- 
tion was reorganized '^so far as to estabhsh an exclusively English 
(and classical) school, and to place the studies preparatory to the col- 
legiate course under the immediate direction of the professors, respec- 
tively.^^ ^ 

These changes seem to have allayed the troubles. The session of 
1844-45 opened well, and students were coming in almost daily in 
I^Tovember^ the college was able to meet all pecuniary demands, and 
good order reigned.^ 

During this session, however, the trustees came to the conclusion that 
it was a mistake ever to have located the institution at Brandon 
Springs. The surrounding country was poor, population sparse, and 
the people only of moderate means. Overtures were made from the 
State of Louisiana, and the result of all was a determination to change; 



1 Minutes of Annual Conferences, vol. 2, p. 230. 

2 Adv. in various State papers for September, 1844. 
=^The Constitution, November 23, 1844. 



THE CENTENARY COLLEGE. 115 

and that, although some part of the subscriptions made, and all of the 
lands donated, were thereby lost. 

In the month of July, 1845, the following editorial notice appeared 
in the Mississippi Democrat : 

. CENTENARY COLLEGE. 

We see it stated in the papers, we do not know upon wliat authority, that this insti- 
tution is about to be removed to Jackson, La. The Methodist conference, which 
founded and controls the Centenary College, extends over both States of Louisiana 
and Mississippi. We believe the larger portion of the fund for its endowment was 
contributed in the former State. There are already commodious and splendid 
coUege edifices at Jackson, lately occupied by the " College of Louisiana,^' now 
defunct. From these circumstances we have thought the report of the removal not 
improbable. 

Since writing the above we have seen a paragraph in the Bayou Sara (La.) 
Ledger^ stating that the college buildings at Jackson have been purchased by the 
Mississippi conference, with the intention of locating the Centenary College there. 

The failure at Brandon Springs discouraged the purchasers of the 
property of the late College of Louisiana; yet still they determined to try 
the experiment, and the purchase was concluded. The State sold on 
very liberal terms, requiring not more than one-fifth o^the true value 
of the property, but exacting a guaranty that it should be devoted to 
literary purposes. 

The preparatory department was first opened for active work, an 
existing school in the town being adopted and incorporated into the 
institution for that branch. By invitation of the purchasers, the 
faculty opened the collegiate department about the 1st of October, 1845. 
Matters were, however, in rather an undefined and disorganized condi- 
tion until the meeting of the conference in the winter. By that body 
the following persons were appointed trustees, viz : B. McGehee, J. H. 
Muse, J. Bowman, J. McOrea, J. W. Burruss, E. Perry, D. Thomas, 
William Winans, J. Bobson, and J. Oarmena. A board of visitors of 
thirteen persons, principally ministers, was also appointed. The two 
bodies combined constituted the joint board of trustees and visitors, 
and composed the corporation. 

The joint board met in January, 1846, and everything necessary was 
done. Steps were taken to secure a liberal charter from the legisla- 
ture of Louisiana, under the name of The Centenary College of Louisi- 
ana. It was determined to hold as members of the institution not only 
the former graduates of the old Centenary College, but also those of 
the late College of Louisiana. 

A remarkable feature of this reorganization of 1846, was, that antici- 
pating by about forty years a movement now attracting considerable 
attention in college circles, the plan, then unprecedented, was adopted 
of admitting the students to share in the management of the college. 
The faculty were charged with the executive and judicial functions of 
the institution. The legislative power was conferred on a body composed 
of two departments — one, called the senatorial department, consisted 



116 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

of the joint board of trustees and visitors 5 the other, called the lower 
house, was constituted of twenty-one members, chosen by ballot from 
those students who were over 17 years of age, by such students as 
were over 15. 

The results of this experiment, as indicated in the first session, held 
in December, 1845 (perhaps in January, 1846), were reported to be 
"eminently gratifying. The amendments proposed [by the student 
branch], the suggestions made, were all distinguished by good sense 
and forethought. Their amendments were urged respectfully, not 
obstinately ; their disagreements, with dignity submitted to a committee 
of conference." ^ 

Having now seen the Centenary safely over the Louisiana line, and its 
career there well begun, our connection with it as a Mississippi institu- 
tion ceases. The following forty-odd years of its history belongs to 
the State of Louisiana. 

This chapter can not properly be closed, however, without some 
account of its able first president. 

Thomas C. Thornton, D. D., was the son of Dr. Thomas Thornton, and was born 
in Dumfries, Prince William County, Va., October 12, 1794. His grandfather, Thomas 
Thornton, acted tis surgeon in the British Navy for several years, but afterwards 
entered the ministry of the Established Church of England. He came to America 
previous to the Revolutionary War, and in that straggle was the firm friend of 
Washington and the cause of American Independence— selling all his plate to the 
last spoon, and his stock to the last cow, and giving the money to the commander to 
help defray the expenses of his suffering soldiers, urging them to fight for their 
liberties, and not falter. 

Young Thornton graduated at an institution in his, native town under the Rev. 
Charles O'Neil, in his sixteenth year. He then began the study of medicine ; but soon 
the Rev. Richard Ty dings began to preach in the town, and young Thornton in a short 
time became serious and anxious for his soul's salvation. His father was a High- 
Church Episcopalian, and discouraged his course. He joined the church; and soon 
after, ^ ^ ^ nearStaffordCourt-House, preached his first sermon to an astonished 
people, from the text, *^ Ye must be born again.'' He was then in his sixteenth or 
seventeenth year. He continued on the circuit the remainder of the year. Being 
persuaded that on account of his youth the conference would not receive him, he 
engaged in teaching until in his nineteenth year, preaching as opportunities offered. In 
March, 1813, he was admitted on trial in the Baltimore Conference, and appointed to 
Winchester circuit; in 1814 and 1815 to Prince George's circuit. He was ordained 
deacon by Bishop Asbury, March 24, 1815, at Baltimore. In 1816, he was sent to Stafford 
and Fredericksburg. He was ordained elder by Bishop McKendree, March 1 6, 1817, at 
Baltimore. In 1817, he was appointed to Severn circuit; 1818, Lancaster; 1819, Lan- 
caster and Westmoreland; 1820 and 1821, Fredericksburg station. In March, 1822, 
he located, to wind up the business of the father's estate. In 1823 he took charge of 
the Menokin Academy in Virginia, where he remained until called to take charge of 
a collegiate institute in Northumberland, Va., where he remained until 1831, when 
his health forced him to seek a more active life on a farm. His health being restored, 
he reentered the Baltimore Conference March, 1833, and was appointed to Prince 
William circuit ; 1834 and 1835, Baltimore city ; 1836, 1837, agent for Dickerson Col- 
lege; 1838, 1839, Carlisle station and teacher in Dickerson College; 1840, 1841, 
Foundry Chapel, Washington City. In 1841 he was elected president of Centenary 



The Republican, Woodville, January 24, 1846. 



THE CENTENARY COLLEGE. 117 

College, and in the autumn of the year came to Mississippi Conference. He was 
president of Old Centenary College, 1842, 1843, and 1844. He asked to he transferred 
to the Alahama Conference at the conference of 1844, hut, through the prejudice 
gotten up against him, he was located without his consent. This irritated him ; and 
feeling assured of the determination of certain men to persecute him as long as he 
remained in the Methodist Church, he gave up his credentials June 6, 1845, to the 
Rev. J. N. Hamil, and withdrew from the Church. Soon after this he united with the 
Protestant Episcopal Church and hecame connected with a college in Jackson, Miss., 
where he taught for some years. He next was connected with a college in Brandon, 
Miss., for some years. While in the Protestant Episcopal Church he exercised as a 
preacher, hut did not take orders in that Church, hecause he could not suhscribe to 
their doctrine of apostolical succession. In 1850 he returned to the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, and at the conference held in Yazoo City, December, 1850, his 
credentials were restored to him. In 1851 ho was elected president of Madison Col- 
lege, which office he filled until his labors and sufferings ceased on the 22d of March, 
1860. In November, 1853, he was readmitted into this conference. In 1854 he was 
on a mission to the colored people in connection with his labors in the college. He 
had regular pastoral work seventeen years ; was college agent two years ; was con- 
nected with institutions of learning thirty years — in eight different institutions — in 
all of which he was successful and popular as a teacher. As a professor or instruc- 
tor, he stood preeminent. As a minister of the New Testament, he was a workman 
that needed not to be ashamed, as he gave to each his portion in season, and brought 
forth from his vast treasury things new and old, and thousands were converted to 
God under his ministry. As an expounder of the Scriptures, but few equaled him — 
perhaps none in this country excelled him. While in Baltimore he wrote his '' Theo- 
logical Colloquies;'^ and when stationed in Washington City, at the solicitations of 
distinguished gentlemen, he wrote and published his " Slavery as it is in the United 
States,'' in reply to Dr. Channing. His end was peaceful and triumphant.^ 

1 Minutes Annual Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for 1860. 



Chapter IX. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 
FOUNDINa AND ENDOWMENT OF THE INSTITUTION. 

The University of Mississippi was, in effect, founded by the Con- 
gress of the United States, by the acts of March 3, 1815, and February 
20, 1819. The former act, that which provided for the survey of the 
boundary line fixed by the treaty with the Creek Indians, donated 36 
sections of the public lands for the use of a seminary of learning in 
the (then) Mississippi Territory. When the State was organized in 
1817, all of the Creek lands were left within the Alabama Territory, 
and that fact led to the act of 1819. By this act a similar quantity of 
land in lieu of the Creek lands was granted and the title vested in the 
legislature of the State, in trust, for the support of a seminary' of 
learning therein, the lands to be located whenever an extinguishment 
of the Indian title should be made. 

On the 20th of November, 1821, the State legislature passed an act 
authorizing the governor ^'to obtain the best information that can be 
procured as to the most suitable lands in the Choctaw cession," and to 
correspond with the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States so 
that the location might be made prior to the sales of public lands 
in the said ceded territory; also, with the assent of the Secretary, to 
appoint a person to explore the territory and make report where the 
most valuable lands were situated, and where it would be advisable to 
locate the seminary lands so as best to promote the interests of the 
institution. 

On the 23d of December, 1823, Governor Leake, in his annual mes- 
sage to the legislature, stated that the exploration had been made, and 
28 sections selected and reported to the Secretary for location (the 
residue being located shortly afterwards); and he said, "I would 
respectfully suggest to the general assembly the propriety of a 
memorial to Congress requesting an authority to sell such portions 
of the aforesaid lands as may be deemed expedient by the legislature; 
this measure would seem to be necessary, as it is believed that some of 
the tracts selected for location afford eligible sites for towns and ferries, 
and the purchasers of town lots would much prefer a fee-simple estate 
in their lots to a term of years, however long such term might be made, 
and such purchasers would, of course, give a better price for their 
lots.'^ Six days later a select committee, to whom was referred that 
118 




THE LYCEUM NO. 1— UNIVERSITY OF MiSSiSSiPPi. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 119 

part of the governor's message, reported that '' they deem it inexpedient 
to memorialize Congress on the subject;'' and there the matter seems 
to have stopped. 

Again, in his message of January 4, 1825, Governor Leake, insisting 
on the necessity for making the seminary lands produce something for 
the purpose of the donation, and on the fact that the act of Congress 
did " not authorize the sale of any of those lands," urged the memorial. 
The legislature, however, seems to have taken a different view of the 
case. Its response to the governor's message was the act of January 
29, by which the auditor of public accounts was authorized to lease the 
lands for terms not exceeding four years. Other acts were passed on 
the 7th of February, 1827, and the 16th of December, 1830, by which 
the leasing system was continued. 

In the year 1830 the State established the Planters' Bank. In its 
preamble the charter recites that the bank was established for the pur- 
pose of creating a public revenue. By the charter and a supple- 
mentary act passed in February, 1833, the State reserved to itself one- 
half of the capital stock and 6 of the 13 directors. 

To the legislature of the latter year (1833) the auditor reported that 
the seminary lands had so far yielded only $8,328.50 gross; that the 
leased portions were deteriorating; and that, in his opinion, the ends 
contemplated by the framers of the law were not reached. 

This [said he] is, indeed, an inconsiderable sum, when compared with the dividends 
that would be declared on the amount for which they can be sold vested in bank 
stock. * * * I am warranted in the opinion that one-fourth, or nine sections, of 
them can be sold at an average price of $15 per acre; fche remaining three-fourths 
at an average of $10, $5, and $3 per acre, which will make the sum of $191,080. 
* * * If the policy now suggested for the future disposition of the seminary 
lands would produce the pecuniary result above exhibited, the political advantage 
the State would derive from bringing so much inert capital into useful and active 
employment would claim its adoption at the hands of the legislature. But higher 
considerations than this add their claim. The permanency of the political institu- 
tions of our State rests upon the virtue and intelligence of its citizens. Many of 
them are poor and look to this grant of lands as the means of assisting them to 
educate and direct their.children in the paths of usefulness, virtue, and religion. 
From the interest alone arising from the sale of these lands a seminary of learning 
might be supported, which could annually receive from the lap of penury 200 of 
those children^ and as often return a like number to the bosom of society, prepared 
for the useful occupations of life. 

In accordance with this suggestion, the act of March 2, 1833, was 
passed. That statute directed the seminary lands to be sold at auction 
on one, two, and three years' time, Avith 10 per cent interest. The 
notes were to be on approved security, payable to the governor and his 
successors in office, and payable and negotiable in the Planters' Bank. 
As they should fall due the auditor was to collect them and invest the 
proceeds, from time to time, in stock of tbe bank. Tbe question of 
want of power to sell without the consent of Congress seems to have 
been wholly lost sight of. 



120 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

On the third Monday of the following JSTovember the lands were sold. 
The sum of the various bids, and for which notes were taken, as 
directed, was $277,332.52. The notes were placed in the Planters' 
Bank for collection and investment, as ordered. The collections began 
on the 16th of October, 1834, with a payment of $200 by one S. S. Fox, 
and thenceforward various sums were received at irregular intervals, 
aggregating — 

On the 24tli of December, 1839, the sum of $139,089.54 

Add dividends from the hank stock 12, 235. 00 

Total collected to 24th of December, 1839 151, 324. 54 

Amount of notes uncollected, principal 165, 141. 25 

Amount embezzled by auditor, principal and interest 6, 896. 45 

One half section of land still unsold. 

Of the moneys collected the total sum of $129,300 was invested in 
stock of the Planters' Bank, and the residue, with the stock itself, was 
irretrievably lost by the breaking of the bank in th year 1840 

The uncollected notes shown in the foregoing statement" were neg- 
lected. On the 30th of January, 1841, the standing committee on the 
seminary made the following report to the house of representatives: 

There is yet due to the seminary fund upon the notes in the office of the auditor a 
sum amounting to $168,518.92, some of which has been due more than six years, and 
all of which has been due more than two years. Your committee have not been 
informed of any great exertion having been made in order to collect this large 
amount of debt, and from the best information they have on the subject a great 
portion of it is in very bad condition on account of the insolvency of the debtors. 
They are constrained to believe that if due diligeuce had been used in the collec- 
tion more than three-fourths of this large outstanding debt could have been collected 
before this time. 

Notwithstanding this urgent report of the committee, no action was 
taken by the legislature 5 and it was not until the 26th of July, 1843, 
that an act was passed *^for the collection and investment of the semi- 
nar}'^ fund.'^ The act provided, first, that all moneys which had accrued, 
or should accrue, from the sales of the 36 sections, and all bank stock 
in which any of such moneys had been invested, should constitute the 
seminary fund; secondly, that a commissioner should be appointed to 
collect said fund in currency or State warrants, and to pay over the 
same into the State treasury; and, thirdly, that the State treasurer 
should keep a separate account of all moneys theretofore or thereafter 
paid into the State treasury on account of the seminary fund, and also 
immediately after the passage of the act to credit the fund with interest 
at the rate of 5 per cent per annum on all moneys theretofore paid into 
the treasury for that fund, and thereafter annually to credit said fund 
with interest at the rate of 8 per cent. 

This action was in the right direction, but it was too late. It was 
almost ten years after the sale, and the notes uncollected were mostly 
barred by the statute of limitation, and their makers were mostly 



THE UNIVERSITY OP MISSISSIPPI. 121 

insolvent or removed from the State. To the legislature of 1844, 
Governor Brown said, in his annual message : 

Where is the seminary fund, is a question often asked, but never yet satisfactorily 
answered. To members of the legislature let me say, our common constituency will 
expect of us some account of this munificent fund, and a speedy application of it to 
tlie great purpose for which it has been set apart. 

On the 30th of December, 1845, the commissioner of the seminary 
fund reported to Governor Brown, and a summary of his report is as 
follows : 

Aimilahle assets. 

Amount collected into treasury, principal $79, 519. 76 

Interest accrued on the same 23, 519. 64 

Amount secure and certain of collection 38, 287. 93 

Section 32, valued at $10 per acre 6, 400. 00 

304 acres of land, valued at $5 per acre 1, 520. 00 

480 acres, valued at $1.25.. 600.00 

Due for seminary land rentjs 200. 00 

Total \ 150,076.33 

Unavailable assets. 

Due on judgments, decrees, and notes in suit, and from the Planter's 

Bank ^ $117,172.29 

849 shares of Planter's Ban|t stock 84, 900. 00 

202, 072. 29 
In fact, however, there were additional shares of Planter's Bank stock, 
overlooked by the commissioner, as shown by the records, amounting to 44, 400. 00 

Making a total of unavailable assets 246, 472. 29 

The moneys shown by the foregoing statement to have been collected 
into the State treasury^ and such further sums as were afterwards col- 
lected, aggregating no^ far from $90,000, were used by the State about 
its ordinary expenses. 

At different times, notably by Governor Brown in 1846 and by Gov- 
ernor McEae in 1856, efforts were made to obtain from the legislature a 
recognition of liability for the seminary fund, on the ground of mis- 
management as trustee. Such efforts, however, proved unavailing 
until the year 1880. fThe legislature of that year appointed a com- 
mittee to investigate the account between the State and the seminary 
fund, and it appearing that there was a balance of $544,061.23 due, the 
act of March 5, 1880, was passed. By that act the debt as stated was 
recognized, and the payment quarterly of interest at the rate of 6 per 
cent per annum was ordered. The interest revenue of the university 
was thereby fixed at $32,643 per annum, and it is promptly paid. 

The only other sources of revenue are the matriculation fees of stu- 
dents in the department of arts and the tuition fees of the law students, 
which add about $3,000 per annum. 



122 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

THE LOCATION AND INCORPORATION OF THE INSTITUTION. 

To the legislature of 1835 Grovernor EunnelJs said in his aunual 
message : 

The 36 sections of land granted to this State by the United States for a seminary 
of learning have been sold for the sum of $277,282.53, a sum quite sufficient to j as- 
tify the State to go into the establishment of a university, and with a view to its 
location I would recommend the appointment of commissioners * * * whose duty 
it shall be to select the spot for its location. 

So Governor Quitman, in his message to the next legislature, that of 
1836, said: 

By a former communication fromiihe executive department of this State it will be 
perceived that the lauds granted to this State by Congress for a seminary of learn- 
ing have been sold for the sum of $277,282.53. The specific direction of this fund 
can not be diverted by the legislature. It will, therefore, be proper that some plan 
for carrying out the purposes of the grant should be adopted. 

Again, Governor Lynch, in his message to the legislature of 1837, 
said: 

The bonds or notes given for the seminary lands, and which amount to $270,000, 
are now all due ; and the original sales, together with the interest that has accrued, 
now exceed $310,000, which, at 10 per cent interest, the rate they bear, will create 
an annual revenue of more than $30,000. With such an ample endowment, your 
immediate attention should be directed to the establishment of a seminary of 
learning upon a large and liberal scale, in which both sexes may receive a finished 
education. The annual receipts of the interests on this fund, with, perhaps, some 
little aid drawn from the principal or some other source, would probably be suffi- 
cient to construct the buildings, and after their completion the interest may enable 
the State to defray all the expenses of such an institution. * * * I would suggest 
that five or more commissioners be appointed, whose duty it shall be to select a 
proper site. 

In his message of January 8, J839, Governor McNutt warned the 
legislature of the critical condition of the fund; and, as one means of 
securing it from loss, urged the immediate establishment of the semi- 
nary. He said : 

The terras of the grant seem to forbid a division of the fund, and the best interests 
of the State require the immediate establishment of the seminary. It should be 
located in a salubrious and healthy situation, where living is cheap. A sufficient 
amount could be realized the present year to erect suitable buildings. Two hun- 
dred thousand dollars might be retained, and the interest used to pay the professors 
and other incidental expenses. In a few years the university would furnish an 
ample supply of good teachers for our free schools. Unless the university is speedily 
established, or the law providing for the collection of the fund changed, a large 
portion of it may be lost. * ^ * Sectarian and party influence should be guarded 
against, and the benefits of the institution forever secured to every portion of the 
people of the State. The immense sums annually expended abroad by our citizens 
in the education of their children take away much of our means and operate 
injuriously on our welfare. Situations as healthy can be found in our own borders 
as elsewhere and education can be as cheaply obtained. Our youths should never 
be far removed from parental supervision. Patriotism, no less than economy, urges 
upon us the duty of educating our children at home. In early life the strongest 
impressions are made. Those opposed to us in principle and alienated in interest, 
cannot safely be entrusted with the education of our sons and daughters. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 123 

In his message of January, 1840, Governor McNutt said, further: 

The discordant views of the members of the legislature, in relation to the loca- 
tion of our State seminary, have heretofore prevented the passage of a law provid- 
ing for the final disposition of the fund. All will admit that it should he fixed at a 
healthy place; of convenient access to the people of the State; where the expenses 
of living would he cheap. The preservation of the health and morals of the 
students are objects of the first magnitude, and in locating this great institution 
the interest of the whole State, rather than that of particular towns and sections 
of the country, should be consulted. 

On the 14:th of January this portion of the governor's message was 
referred to a select committee of the house, composed of Messrs. Yen- 
tress, Evans, Bradford, Talbert, Bell, Cook, and Binford. On the 5th 
of February Mr. Yentress, for the committee, made the following 
report: 

Mr. Speaker. The committee on the seminary fund, to whom was referred that 
portion of the governor's message in relation to the seminary fund and other memo- 
rials on the same subject, have had the same under consideration, and have instructed 
me to report the following bill, the bill to be entitled " An act to provide for the 
location of the State university.'^ 

The bill was read the first time, and, on motion of Mr. Yentress, the 
constitutional rule of the house requiring bills to be read upon three 
several days was dispensed with and the bill read a second time. On 
motion of Mr. Yentress the bill was then committed to a committee of 
the whole house and made the order of the day for Friday, the 6th, at 
11 o'clock. 

On the 8th of February, the hour of 11 o'clock having arrived, the 
house resolved itself into a committee of the whole house, and after 
some time spent therein the committee arose and reported progress 
through their chairman, Mr. Brake, that they had had under consider- 
ation a bill to be entitled '' An act to provide for the location of the 
State university," and had made an amendment thereto. On motion 
of Mr. Yentress the bill was read a second time, ordered to be engrossed, 
and made a special order of the day for Monday next, at 11 o'clock. 

On the Monday following the bill was duly passed. The senate con- 
curred in it, the governor approved it, and it became a law on the 20th 
of February. 

Of this act the first nine sections directed that seven possible sites 
should be selected by the legislature on joint ballot, and that three 
commissioners should be also elected to examine and report on the 
sites so selected and to secure conditionally, by purchase or donation, 
one section of land for the university location. The commissioners 
were required to report to the next succeeding legislature, at which the 
final site was to be chosen on like ballot. 

On the day following the approval of the act, on motion of Mr. 
Yentress, 

The clerk was instructed to inform the senate that the house of representatives 
were now ready to receive them, to proceed to the selection of seven sites for the 



124 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



location of tlie State university and the election of three commissioners to report 
thereon to the next legislature. 

The clerk notified the senate accordingly, and on the same day, the hour having 
arrived for the assemblage of the two houses to proceed to the selection of seven 
sites for the location of the State university and the election of three commissioners 
to report thereon, the senate and its officers, preceded by the sergeant-at-arms, 
came into the representatives' hall and took the seats assigned them. The presi- 
dent of the senate and of the joint meeting then announced the object of the joint 
assemblage. 

Mr. Humphreys, of the senate, and Mr. Durham, of the house of representatives, 
were appointed tellers to receive and count the votes. 

The two houses then proceeded to make their several nominations of sites for the 
location of the university. 

After six baUots the president decided that LouisviUe, Kosciusko, 
Mississippi City, Brandon, Oxford, Middleton, and Monroe Missionary 
Station were selected as possible sites from which to make choice. 

The three commissioners were theii balloted for and the result on 
first ballot was the choice of Hon. William L. Sharkey, Hon. William 
L. Brandon, and Hon. Thomas H, Williams. 

Mr. Brandon and Mr. Sharkey declined to serve, and the governor 
appointed in their stead Messrs. Joshua T. Russell and J. A. Yan 
Hoesen. 

The commissioners discharged their duty punctually and faithfully. 
They visited all of the seven places nominated, and presented to the 
next legislature a full report.^ 

Whereupon, on the 26th of January, 1841, the two houses in joint 
session proceeded to ballot for the selection of the site, with the follow- 
ing result: 



Place voted for. 


First. 


Second. 


Third. 


Fourth. 

36 

27 
23 

27 


Fifth. 


Sixth. 




33 
15 
15 
14 
12 
12 
9 


33 
17 
1.8 
16 
10 
16 


31 
22 
19 
22 


49 
38 


57 


Oxford 


58 








28 










18 








Middleton 





















Whereupon the president announced that Oxford was selected as the 
site for the State University.^ The citizens of Oxford and of Lafayette 
County had already purchased and conditionally donated to the uni- 
versity a fine section of land, adjoining the town, for the site. 

On the 10th of January, 1844, the governor- elect, A. G. Brown, was 
installed, and delivered to the legislature an inaugural address, in 
which he said : 

The day which witnesses the completion of this magnificent temple of learning 
will be a brilliant one in the annals of Mississippi. It will be regarded as the 
dawning of a new era in the history of letters, and as such will be hailed with joy 
by the friends of science throughout the nation. 



i House Journal, 1841, p. 267. 



2Ibid.,p. 311. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 125 

Our State will not be appreciated at home nor sufficiently honored abroad until 
her educated youth shall acknowledge as their alma mater this or some other reputa- 
ble college within our own limits. The practice of sending the youth of the country 
abroad to be educated ought to be discouraged. The only effectual means of doing 
so is to rear up colleges and academies at home, which may successfully compete 
with those of other States. The enterprising founders of Centenary College have 
set a noble example, and one which deserves imitation. Let such institutions be 
encouraged by all proper means in our power, and instead of sending our youth 
ai)road to be educated, where they sometimes contract unfortunate habits, and grow 
up with false prejudices against home institutions and laws, they may be kept at 
home comparatively under the supervisory care of their parents, surrounded by 
those institutions and protected by those laws which it is proper they should be 
early brought to love and reverence. ^ 

Responding to this message, the legislature granted a charter for the 
university on the 24th of February, 1844. The reader has probably 
been struck by the conckiding expressions used in the governor's mes- 
sage, quoted above. They contain an allusion to a subject which must 
be treated for a full comprehension of the motives to the final estab- 
lishment of the university, so long delayed. We must therefore indulge 
in an excursus on 

A KETARDINa INFLUENCE, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SENTI- 
MENT. 

By referring to the introductory chapter on ^' The early social and 
political history of Mississippi," it will be seen that the conditions 
under which this State was occupied by the English-speaking people 
were remarkable. 

The lands were fertile, and were granted in large tracts on very easy 
terms. The immigrants were people of means and of culture. They 
came from a comparatively old and an absolutely refined civilization, 
where, amongst other institutions, educational establishments of a high 
order flourished. Many of the immigrants were from the New Eng- 
land States; many from the Middle States, and nearly all the remain- . 
der from Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Georgia, and the Oarolinas. 
They brought with them full knowledge of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, 
University of Virginia, Transylvania, the University of North Carolina, 
et id omne genus, and long preserved pleasant and loving remem- 
brances of the old colleges of their youth. 

Knowing these facts it would be a natural inference that they should 
incline to send their sons back to those colleges to be educated. Such 
was the fact. In the biographies of all the elderly men whose youth 
overreaches the decades between 1810 and 1840, the statement that he 
was educated at one or other of those institutions is invariable, pro- 
vided the youth received any college training. The first man to take 
a college degree in Mississippi was James M. Smiley, in 1833, and even ^ 
he had had a preliminary course at Jefferson College in Pennsylvania. 
Yet Jefferson College in Mississippi had been incorporated and 
endowed ten years before he was born. 

1 House Journal, 1844, p. 207. 



126 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IK MISSISSIPPI. 

In respect to the girls, the conditions were different. The greater 
tendency of the females to find their interests in domestic life; the 
greater inclination of parents to keep their daughters under their wings;, 
the slow and difficult means of travel used exclusively in those days- 
all conspired to keep the girls at home. Consequently greater honest 
effort was made to build up and encourage female schools at home. 
The first public school of which we have any record was the female 
school of Dr. Ker, in Katchez, in 1801. While Jefferson College was 
incorporated in 1802, yet it did not open its doors for nine years, and 
led but the most feeble and languishing existence as an academy 
until 1830; but, on the other hand, Elizabeth Female Academy, estab- 
lished in 1818, sprang at once into lusty and fruitful life. 

We are not, however, left to infer the causes of the practical indif- 
ference felt by the people of that period to the support of high grade 
male colleges in this State. There is plenty of direct testimony on the 
point. For instance, a committee was appointed by the trustees of 
Jefferson College in 1837 to inquire into the causes of the ill success 
of that institution ; and in their report, made in October of that year, 
they attributed the unsatisfactory condition: 

Chiefly to the prevalent feeling of partiality and veneration for the time-honored 
and distingnished institutions of the North, which impelled most parents to resort 
to them for the education of their sons, attaching a high value to the honors derived 
from those venerated shrines, from which have issued so many distinguished men 
whose names have shed a luster upon the history of their country. ^ 

Again, in an address delivered at Madison College in 1859, ex-Gov- 
ernor A. G. Brown said : 

Let Southern parents cease to send their sons and daughters to the North, and 
resolve to build up schools and colleges at home. I know that experiments have 
failed in our own State, and I know the cause. Jefferson College was the first 
endowed in Mississippi. Mr. Jefferson, the great friend of home instruction, was its 
patron. It was incorporated in 1802 hy the then territorial legislature of Mississippi, 
and in the following year Congress made to it a grant of one township, or about 
23,0p0 acres of land. Had the resources of this coUege been husbanded, and its 
usefulness recognized and encouraged, it might have dispensed a vast amount of 
learning, and boasted to-day of an endowment equal to half a million of dollars. 
Instead of this it has languished for half a century — starved amidst teeming wealth 
and gorgeous luxury. Its funds have been squandered, and to-day it almost gasps 
for breath. Why has this been? Those who lived under the very shadow of the 
college refused to succor it, allowed its money to be wasted, and sent their sons and 
daughters to the North to be educate^d. In the thirty-eight y^ars, from 1802 to 1840, 
there were incorporated no less than 110 academies and colleges in Mississippi, male 
and female. Most of them had a fitful existence, and then went down to that gen- 
eral receptacle of odd and useless things, '*the tomb of the Capulets.^' The cause 
is obvious — the children of Mississippi could only be educated at Northern schools. 

It is impossible to tell to wliat extent the prepossession in favor of 
the IsTorthern and Eastern colleges so strongly insisted on and objected 
to in the foregoing quotations would have affected educational interests 
in this State had nothing intervened to combat it; but something did 
intervene. The question of slavery arose, and became the all-absorbing 

1 Charter and St. of Jefferson College, 1840, p. 89. 



THE UNIVERSITY OP MISSISSIPPI. 127 

issue of the day. It deeply stirred tlie matter of education; indeed, 
what interest did it not stir*? 

Until 1829-30 the abolition idea was representative of a sentiment 
only. In 1831 and 1 832, The Liberator, an '' immediate abolition " news- 
paper, and the New England Anti-Slavery Society were established. 
In December, 1833, the American Anti-Slavery Society was formed, and 
began to assume national importance. In 1839 was organized the 
American and Foreign Anti- Slavery Society. In the election of 1844 
this society was strong enough to poll 62,300 votes; which being drawn 
mostly from the supporters of Mr. Clay, gave Polk the electoral vote 
of ISTew York by a plurality, and made him President. 

The assaults of this party on the South were deeply felt there; the 
'^ gradual abolition " theory, which had largely prevailed in the South 
itself up to this time, was swept away in the tide of resentment, and 
the new and aggressive phase of the antislavery feeling was regarded 
as insulting to the South and dangerous to the continuance of the 
Union. 

This development in the Northern States of the Union soon began to 
affect the question of Southern education. Many of the leading men in 
the South strenuously urged the expediency of abandoning the practice 
of sending Southern boys North to school, and by consequence to 
advocate the using of every effort to build up colleges in the South. 

It is not well, as a general rule, to rake over the embers of dying 
hatreds. But these questions have now so completely fallen into the 
stage of lifeless ashes that we may venture, in the interest of historical 
truth, to recall somewhat of their living fierceness. 

The new phase of sentiment found early expression through Governor 
McNutt. In his message of the 8th of January, 1839, he said: 

Patriotism, no less than economy, urges upon us the duty of educating our children 
at home. In early life the strongest impressions are made. Those opposed to us in 
principle, and alienated in interest, can not safely be entrusted with the education 
of our sons and daughters.' 

On the 9th of May, 1839, a discussion was held in the Eaymond 
Debating Club upon the following question : 

Is it more advisable to have the youth of Mississippi educated at the literary 
institutions within the State than to send them abroad ? ^ 

In his message of January 10, 1844 (the message that brought about 
the incorporation of the State University), Governor Brown said, as 
quoted above : 

The practice of sending the youth of the country abroad to be educated ought to 
be discouraged. * * * Instead of sending our youth abroad to be educated, where 
they sometimes contract unfortunate habits, and grow up with false prejudices 
against home institutions and laws, they may be kept at home, comparatively under 
the supervisory care of their parents, surrounded by those institutions and protected 
by those laws which it is proper they should be early brought to love and reverence.^ 

1 House Journal, 1839, p. 9. ^xhe Southern Sun, July 9, 1839. 

3 House Journal, 1844, 207. 



128 HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

These were mild utterances, and reflected the nature of the growing 
opposition to Ii^orthern education. The tendency of such a system to 
inspire Southern youth with antislavery proclivities was felt to be 
objectionable. Heretofore, however, the antislavery idea had been 
mainly a sentiment. It had not been sufficiently aggressive to excite 
apprehension. The objection to coming into contact with it through 
the young students was also sentimental and sought reen for cements 
from other considerations. Thus, Governor McT^utt invokes economy 
and Governor Brown the point of a stricter paternal supervision. 
Another argument advanced was that of the supposed injury to the 
constitution by the loss, through a protracted residence in a strange 
climate, of the acclimation given by Southern birth. 

After this period, however, abolitionism gathered strength with 
magical rapidity. The Southern iieople Avere filled at once with alarm 
and indignation, and those who considered the question of education at 
all, rapidly came to regard the danger of abolition propagandism as an 
all-sufficient argument for home education, needing no reenforcements. 

When the university was incorporated, in February, 1844, this feeling 
had not reached its height. That was the year in which the Anti- 
Slavery Society practically defeated Mr. Clay, but it had not yet been 
done. But while the tidal wave of passion had not yet come in, the 
swell was on, and its strength was sufficient to overcome the obstruction 
of an infra- state sectional difference, of which account will be given a 
few pages further on, and largely contributed to bring the university 
into being. 

THE OHAHTER. 

The act of incorporation which finally called into being the institu- 
tion so long hoped for is as follows: 

AN ACT to incorporate the TJiiiversity of Mississippi. 

1. J. Alexander Ventress, John A. Quitman, William L. Sharkey, Alexander M. 
Clayton, W^illiam Y. Gholson, Jacob Thompson, Pry or Lea, Edward C. Wilkinson, 
James M. Howry, John J. McCaughan, Rev. Francis L. Hawks, J. N. Waddel, A. H. 
Pegues are hereby appointed trustees of the University of Mississippi, in Lafayette 
County, and they and their successors in office are hereby declared and constituted 
a body politic and corporate, by the name and style of the '^University of Missis- 
sippi," a majority of whom shall form a quorum to do business, but a committee of 
less number may be appointed to transact necessary business in the interim of a 
regular session of said trustees. 

2. Said corporation shall be possessed of all the general powers, privileges, and 
emoluments now secured to similar corporations by the constitution and laws of 
this State, and to adopt such by-laws and rules as they may deem expedient, for the 
accomplishment of the trust reposed in them, not repugnant to the constitution and 
laws of^ this State. 

3. The said board of trustees shall have full power and entire control over the 
funds belonging to the '^University of Mississippi," or the ''seminary fund," after 
it shall have been collected, to be by them applied toward the consummation of the 
plan of the "University of Mississippi;" and said trustees shall have power to 
devise and adopt such a system of learning as in their judgment they may deem 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 129 

most advisable to be pursued in the course of education in the university; to 
employ a competent person to draft a j)lan of the same, and appoint commissioners 
to contract for the erection of the university building, so soon as they may think 
advisable. 

4. Said board of trustees shall have power to fill all vacancies that may occur in 
l^eir body. 

5. This act shall be repealed at the will of the legislature, and shall be in force 
from and after its passage. 

James Alexander Yentress, of Wilkinson County, whose name first 
appears in the enumeration of trustees above, was the same Mr. Yen- 
tress who in 1840 was chairman of the committee on the seminary fund 
and, as such, introduced the bill to locate the university, and conducted 
it to the fortunate conclusion. He was a gentleman of scholarly 
attainments and had been educated in Germany. 

FIRST MEETINa OF THE TRUSTEES. 

The first meeting of the board took place in Jackson, on the 15th of 
January, 1845. A temporary organization was efiected by calling Mr. 
Quitman to the chair, with Mr. Lea as secretary. The first motion 
made was by Mr. Clayton, on which it was — 

Ordered, That a committee of three be appointed by tbe cbair to report, as early 
as practicable, a system of by-laws for the government of the board. 

Messrs. Clayton, Howry, and Lea were appointed; and on motion of 
Mr. Sharkey the chairman was added. 

On the 17th the committee reported a code in nineteen articles, the 
first of which declared that the officers of the corporation should be a 
president, secretary, and treasurer, and an executive committee of the 
trustees. 

The board then proceeded to the election of president of the board 
of trustees. Hon. Alexander M. Clayton was chosen and took the 
chair. 

The board then inaugurated proceedings to obtain information in 
regard to the seminary fund, to procure plans and specifications for the 
proposed buildings, and adjourned after transacting further business of 
minor importance.^ 

SECOND MEETINa OF THE TRUSTEES. 

The next meeting of the board was at Oxford on the 14:th of July 
following (1845). At the very first they were met by the president 
with the disheartening information that the auditor declined to issue 
any warrants in favor of the university until further legislation was 
had on the subject, and nearly all their deliberations at this meeting 
were directed to this complication and to the question of the condition 
of the seminary fund. 

Notwithstanding the embarrassment, they considered their scheme 
of financial policy. The conclusion reached was this: That inasmuch 

^ Minutes of the board, Vol. I, pp. 1-8. 
21785— Ko, 24 9 



130 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

as the commissioner of the seminary fund had stated the probable 
amount, collected and collectible, at from $150,000 to $160,000, the 
sum of $100,000 thereof should be reserved for permanent investment, 
and the remainder (not, however, to exceed $50,000) used for buildings 
and outfit. However, should in any event the total fund not exceed 
$100,000, then at least $75,000 should be invested and only the excess 
be used for buildings and furnishings. It was not designed to set 
apart for present use either of those sums, however. All that could be 
safely done at the time was to set apart $15,000 for the purpose of 
construction. 

.On this basis the executive committee was empowered, not to make 
contracts, but to receive ])roposals for building contracts.^ 

THIRD MEETINGS OF THE TRUSTEES. 

The next and third meeting of the board was in Jackson on the 
12th of January, 1846. 

The trouble in regard to obtaining funds was still in the way. The 
building committee appointed at the last meeting reported that they 
had not been able to accomplish anything, and were discharged. 

An architect was elected and a plan submitted by him for a building 
accepted, with some modifications. The sum of $15,000 was ordered 
to be placed in the hands of the treasurer (when it could be got) for 
building purposes, and the executive committee authorized to make 
contracts not to exceed $20,000 after the legislature should have passed 
an 'appropriation bill. 

THE BASIS OF SCHOLARSHIP SETTLED. 

A question of paramount importance settled at this meeting was that 
of the scholastic principle of the institution. The question was raised 
by a resolution offered by Mr. Quitman, to the effect that ^^the act of 
the legislature constituting the University of Mississippi contemplates 
the establishment of a seminary of learning upon the usual plan of an 
American university, or college, for instruction in the higher branches 
of learning." The vote on this proposition was by yeas and nays— 7 
for, 1 against, and 1 not voting. It is noteworthy that the gentleman 
who voted against the resolution was Mr. Yentress.=^ 

However, that settled the question that the seminary was to be a 
university in fact as well as in name. 

GOVERNOR brown's SCHEME FOR AUXILIARY SCHOOLS. 

To the legislature then in session Governor Brown had said in his 
message : 

This institution (the university) has been located at Oxford, in Lafayette County, 
where a suitable site has been procured for the buildings. The trustees held a meet- 

1 Minutes of the trustees, Vol. 1, pp. 8, 12, 14. 
2lbid, pp. 16-21. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 131 

ing in July, 1845, and subsequently furnished me with printed copies of their pro- 
ceedings, which I herewith transmit to the legislature. An appropriation will he 
necessary to enable them to erect their buildings. Economy should be observed in 
their construction; convenience and durability being consulted, rather than beauty 
and ornament. I recommend that the sum set apart be limited to $50,000. * * * 
The State ought to assume the $110,000 lost in the Planters' Bank and place it at 
once on the same footing with the $103,287 now in the treasury. The fund would 
then amount in round numbers to $250,000. Two hundred thousand dollars of this 
should be retained as a permanent fund, and the residue appropriated to the erection 
of college buildings at Oxford, as heretofore suggested. 

This permanent fund should be kept in the treasury and an annual interest of 8 
per cent paid on it. This interest ($16,000) should be set apart in the treasury at the 
beginning of every year and kept sacred and inviolable for the purposes hereafter 
to be named ; and here let me remark that the vexation and expense Which has 
attended a first collection of this fund, and the heavy and ruinous losses which it 
has sustained in the hands from which it has been slowly ^vrung, should admonish 
the legislature to take charge of and keep it secure in future. 

Of the $16,000 interest I recommend that $8,000 be appropriated to the annual 
pui^poses of the college. There should be then established ten academies or high 
schools at as many different points in the State, to be designated by the legislature, 
having reference to geographical divisions. To each of these there should be an 
annual payment of $800 out of the remaining $8,000. Nothing is clearer to my mind 
than that the college will not succeed without the aid of auxiliary schools. These 
schools need not, and indeed should not be in the immediate vicinity of the college, 
but at such points to give it the most efficient aid, and at the same time to diffuse 
the greatest amount of intelligence among the people. The language of the act of 
Congress in making the grant of land from which we derive this fund is that "it 
shall be vested in the legislature of the State in trust for the support of a seminary 
of learning. '' This language, *' a seminary of learning,^' has been thought to limit 
the legislature to the establishment of one school, and to negative the idea that that 
school should have auxiliary departments. It has seemed to me so palpable that the 
trustees could so act as to carry out the great object of the trust, which was the dif- 
fusion of knowledge, that I have not fallen into what is, to my mmd, a constrained 
idea of the law of Congress. It does not necessarily follow that because the act of 
Congress said " a seminary'^ that it meant there should be one school under one roofj 
or that the " seminary '^ and all its auxiliary departments should be in the same 
inclosure, or even in the same city or town. The spirit of the act of Congress is 
carried out by the establishment of one seminary, university, or college, with such 
auxiliary departments as are necessary to its success. These should be under the 
same general supervision and control, and be located at such points as to be of the 
greatest advantage to the main college and to the cause of education. ^ 

ATTEMPT TO REPEAL THE CHARTER. 

This message brought on a notable and important struggle. In 
order to understand the following episode it is necessary to recall a 
controversy in the political history of the State, now long since passed 
away, and the memory of which is only preserved in the time-stained 
files of the contemporary newspapers. ' 

The Mississippi Territory was organized in 1801. The State was 
received into the Union in 1817; but at that time only the southern 
third of the present State was occupied by the whites; the Indians 
held the residue. From 1830 to 1834 the Ohoctaws and Ohickasaws 



1 Senate Journal, 1846, pp. 13, 14, and 23-25. 



132 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

made their cessions, thereby rendering available for white occupancy 
the northern two-thirds of the State. There was a great inrush of 
population, and of a population largely felt by the people of the south- 
ern part (the old State, if such a term can be applied to a country only 
about a half century occupied) to be newcomers and strangers. In 
December, 1833, the Dancing Eabbit Creek territory was organized 
into 16 counties, and in February, 1836, the Chickasaw cession into 12. 
South Mississippi felt that the scepter had departed from Judah. In 
the organization of the legislatures great acrimony was displayed. 
Korth and central Mississippi sprung into power in almost a day, and 
practically took control of the State. 

The lapse of ten years had not quieted these passions; nay, it had 
inflamed them rathej?. The following editorials of the day will indi- 
cate the situation, and after nearly a half century we may read them 
with a smile instead of a scowl; 

Apportionment Mil.— This bUl which makes a cipher of the southern portion of the 
State, ^'Old Mississippi/' is perhaps as true a specimen of the tyranny of local 
majorities as we could find in a summer's day. We do not think it a party hut a 
local vote that carried it. We are credibly informed that '' logrolling" had a hand 
in it, without which it could not have passed, so repugnant was it to every sense of 
honor and justice. 

The south was outgeneraled. North Mississippi had the whole matter like a 
farmer's wife's pumpkins, all cut out and dried long ago. While our counties were 
returning a thousand or more less inhabitants than they claimed, there not one 
escaped the census— not one, visible or invisible— and it is said that the future was 
drawn upon to the extent of several months in numerous cases, in order to swell the 
total of white population in Tippah and such counties. Power they had, more they 
craved, and they now have acquired all. We go in now for a division of the State. 
Give us half a dozen counties in this section of the State, give us the franchises of a 
State and a respectable name; set us off from northern oppression, patronage, and 
repudiation, and our few counties will pay the bonds, and be glad of the opportunity 
and riddance. South Mississippi is now only a serf to the north, its voice unheard, 
its prayers rejected, its interests scorned. The Boones, the Mileses, the Labauves, 
the Briscoes are the gods of Mississippi, the penates and the idols. What then 
must the worship be? ^ 

The foregoing demand for disunion was a sufficiently plain indication 
of a hot discontent, but it was not the plainest. Even annexation to a 
different State was declared better than the existing relations. On the 
27th of June following, the same paper said, editorially: 

The Natchez Courier is advocating the policy of annexing the southwestern part 
of Mississippi to Louisiana. We go in for it heart, hand, and soul, and have done 
so for some time past, through our paper and privately. There is scarcely a reason 
why we should remain linked (like the living to the dead among the Romans) to 
the dead carcass of northern Mississippi. There is little sympathy between us, 
few principles in common, but trifiing intercourse between us, and no benefit 
derived by us from the State government, unless to pay the chief taxes and to have 
little or no representation in the legislature, and to be cursed with all the evils of 
local legislation made exclusively for the northern part of the State's benefit— be 
considered a benefit. ^ ^ * We say go ahead-let us off-off from Brownism, 
demagogism, toadyism, repudiation, taxation without representation. 

1 Woodville Republican, March 14, 1846. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 133 

This sectional spirit had already figured in the university's history. 
To it Governor McNutt referred in his message of 1840 when, urging 
the location of the university, he said, as already quoted: '^The dis- 
cordant views of the members of the legislature, in relation to the loca- 
tion of our State seminary, have heretofore prevented the passage of a 
law providing for the final disposition of the fund;'- and on the occa- 
sion, in January, 1841, when the institution was located, the final contest 
was between Oxford, in the far northern portion of the State, and Mis- 
sissippi City, in the extreme southern part. 

The reader is now prepared to understand the following debate 
which nearly made shipwreck of the university at the very outset of 
its career. 

On the 15th of January, 1846, the legislature was in session. Mr. 
Oushman, a member from the county of Lafayette (in which county the 
university had been located), as chairman of a select committee, 
reported back to the house a bill explanatory of the act incorporating 
the university, with amendments. 

Mr. Simrall, a member from Wilkinson County, rose and said lie was opposed to 
tlie money of the seminary fund being used for any one portion of the State ; he 
desired to see this fund disposed of for the greatest good to the greatest number; 
that the State should be divided into four collegiate districts, and appropriate 
$60,000 to each, with colleges or universities to be located at the most prominent 
points in each district; to retrace all legislation upon this subject by repealing the 
original charter, and begin anew. If we could not use this fund for the diffusion of 
schools or colleges in different parts of the State to memorialize Congress upon the 
subject. This university, situated as it is, resembles the corruscations of the north 
pole, which are the most brilliant known, but are not seen or enjoyed by near one- 
fourth of the globe; so will it be with this great "northern light '^ of Mississippi; 
the greater portion of the State will never derive any benefit from it. 

Mr. Cushman [from Lafayette] replied with warmth and energy, manifesting his 
great zeal for the welfare of the bill. 

On motion of Mr. Smiley the house resolved itself into committee of the whole 
upon the bill. 

Mr, Allen opposed the bill, briefly giving his views in opposition to the measure. 

Mr. Simrall offered a resolution that the bill be referred to the committee on edu- 
cation, and to inquire into the expediency of dividing the State into four collegiate 
districts, and the propriety of memorializing Congress to grant the use of this fund 
for the establishment of common schools throughout the State. 

Messrs. Totten and Fountaine advocated the passage of the bill with fervor and 
energy. 

Mr. Green opposed the bill, and called for the reading of that portion of the gov- 
ernor's message which relates to this fund. 

Mr. Cushman said he was willing to commit the bill to its fate, but he would sug- 
gest to the gentlemen to be cautious how they divided this fund and the 500,000 
acres of land [granted by Congress for internal improvements], and if the same 
principle was carried out with them as was manifested toward this, there was no 
telling in what it would end. 

Mr. Farrer rose and made a very energetic appeal in behalf of the bill. 

Mr. Smiley said he was not surprised that the northern members should so une- 
quivocally manifest their zeal in this measure, but that he deprecated the sectional 
feeling that existed in this house between the northern and southern portions of the 
State; he wished to see it abolished and hoped they would all do their utmost for 



134 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

each others' good, and not be so jealous of this or that place being more prosperous 
than their own. He regretted that the gentleman from Lafayette [Mr. Cushman] 
had made the remarks he did in relation to the 2-per-cent fund and the 500,000 acres 
of land, as he thought them out of place and uncalled for. He went on to give his 
opinion upon a system of education which he desired to be adopted for the whole 
State, making an eloquent appeal to the house to forget and bury all sectional 
differences. 

Mr. Emanuel said, at the hazard of appearing to disadvantage in following the 
gentleman from Amite, who had just favored the house with his views on the subject 
of the bill now under consideration, he would avail himself of this occasion to 
express his hearty concurrence with that gentleman in the course which he advo- 
cated, and he would commend to this house the liberal and conciliatory spirit of 
the well-expressed, well-timed, and high-toned sentiments of that gentleman. He 
contended that the law of Congress donating to this State a portion of the public 
lands to create a fund for the establishment of a State seminary left no discretion 
with this legislature as to the appropriation of that fund, and that honesty and 
good faith sanctioned the grant of the $50,000 which it is the object of the present 
bill to place under the control of the trustees of the Oxford University. It is but 
carrying out the provision of an existing law of the State in relation to that insti- 
tution. He would not hold back from that institution the funds to which it was 
justly entitled, merely because of its northern location. He was opposed to that 
kind of dog-in-the-manger legislation. He deprecated all narrow sectional preju- 
dices in legislating on a subject of such magnitude, involving the interest of so 
considerable a portion of this Commonwealth. He considered that education and 
internal improvement were the two great subjects which called for prompt and wise 
legislation. They were questions which should not be met with contracted and 
sectional feelings. The threat, or suggestion, as he termed it, of the gentleman from 
Lafayette [Mr. Cushman], intended for the special attention of the friends of the 
great Southern Railroad bill, should not drive him from his purpose of acting with 
that justice and liberality toward this northern university which he felt it his duty 
to do, because that gentleman had made a remark which evinced more zeal than 
discretion . 

He would go with the friends of education with hearty good will, as he would 
with those of internal improvement, and his advice to the friends of both those great 
objects would be to pull all together. He said he adopted the construction maintained 
by the governor in reference to the State seminary; he believed that a gradation 
of schools auxiliary to tjbat institution was the proper view of the subject, and in 
his opinion would certainly conduce in the highest degree to the public good. He 
said there was no one who would go farther than he to promote the cause of primary 
schools and elementary ediAation, and no State nor people needed them more than 
ours, but the claims of the university were none the less just and entitled to legis- 
lative liberality. The best interests of the people of Mississippi would be promoted 
by a liberal policy of this legislature with regard to education and internal improve- 
ment, and for one he should endeavor in his action as a member ofthatbody to 
satisfy their just expectations. 

On motion the committee rose and reported the bill back to the house without 

amendment. 

The question was called for on Mr. Simrall's resolution and pronounced out ot 

order. . ^ 

The question to recommit the bill, in order to refer it to the committee on educa- 
tion, was lost by yeas 39, nays 56. 
The question on the passage of the bill was decided affirmatively. ' 



I Special correspondence of Woodville Republican, January 31, 1846. 



rn^fi 












::^^:.'rm£^ 












THE LYCEUM NO. 2— UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 



THE UNIVERSITY OP MISSISSIPPI. 135 

FIRST APPKOPRIATION FOR BUILDINGS, ACT OF 1846. 

Thus the legislature passed the act following, which was approved 
on the 26th of January, 1846 : 

AN ACT supplementary to an act for the incorporation of the University of Mississippi. 

1. So mucli of the third section of ao act entitled "An act to incorporate the 
University of Mississippi/' approved February 24, 1844, as gives the trustees of the 
university full power and entire control over the funds belonging to the University 
of Mississippi or the seminary fund, is hereby repealed. 

2. The treasurer of the State is hereby authorized and required to pay to said 
board of trustees, or their order, upon warrant from the auditor of public accounts, 
during the present year, when demanded, the sum of $25,000 out of any money in 
the treasury not otherwise appropriated ; and the said treasurer is required to pay 
to the said board of trustees, or their order, upon warrant from the auditor, during 
the next year, commencing on the 1st of January, A. D. 1847, the further sum of 
$25,000, when demanded, out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropri- 
ated. 

Section 1 of the foregoing act must be specially noted. The result 
has been that the trustees have never had any other control over funds 
than the disbursement of income. 

BUILDINGS BEaUN. 

Hitherto the university had enjoyed "a local habitation and a name," 
indeed, but nothing more. This act, however, gave promise of better 
things. The work of building and furnishing could now begin actively. 
Consequently on an appointed day, the 14th of July, 1846, the corner 
stone of the principal edifice, the lyceum, was laid, with appropriate 
Masonic ceremonies, and an address was delivered by William F. 
Stearns, esq., a lawyer of Holly Springs, and subsequently the first 
law professor of the institution. 

For the next two years, 1846 and 1847, the attention of the board was 
almost wholly engrossed in architecture and builders' accounts. The 
trowel, tbe plane, and the ledger were the rulers of those hours. To a 
very considerable extent this was also true of the year 1848; but in 
that year much other important work was to be done, for in tbe autumn 
the institution was to be launched. 

INCOME PROVIDED — ACT OF 1848. 

At the session of the legislature in January, 1848, a memorial was 
laid before that body presenting the condition and necessities of the 
university. The legislature thereupon passed the act of February 25, 
1848, whereby the sum of $6,227.75 per annum was appropriated to the 
university, to be paid semiannually, and whereby it was ordered, fur- 
ther, that "the interest, at 6 per cent per annum upon the sum now 
standing on the books of the treasurer of this State, and upon all sums 
that may hereafter be paid into the treiasury of the State to the credit 
of the university, be paid semiannually." The sum so standing was 
variable to a slight extent, but it was about $90,000. The effect of this 



136 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

statute, therefore, was to give to the institution, aside from extraordi- 
nary appropriations and its own earnings, an annual income of about 
$11,000, It was ready to take up its work. 

ORaANIZATION OF FACULTY. 

An adjourned meeting ^ f the board was held in Jackson February 
21, 1848, at which— 

On motion of Mr. Sharkey it was resolved that the faculty of the University of 
Mississippi shall consist of a president, who shall discharge the duties of professor of 
mental and moral philosophy, rhetoric, evidences of Christianity, logic, and political 
economy. 

2. A professor of ancient and modern languages. 

3. A professor of mathematics, pure and mixed. 

4. A professor of natural philosophy and astronomy. 

5. A professor of chemistry, geology, and mineralogy. 

That the president shall receive an annual salary of $2,000, and each of the other 
professors $1,500, with the perquisites arising from tuition fees. 

Mr. Sharkey submitted the following resolution : 

Beaolvedy That the president shall cause notice to be given by publication in the 
public papers that five professors will be elected by the trustees of the University 
of Mississippi (one of whom shall be president) at their next meeting on the second 
Monday in July next, and that their services will be required about the 1st of Octo- 
ber next. 

PROHIBITION OF RETAILING IN VICINITY. 

On the 25th of February, 1848, was passed an act prohibiting the 
sale of intoxicants within 5 miles of the university. This prohibition, 
altered and made even more strict by numerous subsequent amend- 
ments, is yet in force. The law now forbids the selling or giving away 
within the defined limits of any vinous, spirituous, or malt liquors, 
except in the dispensation of private hospitality at the place of actual 
residence, or when administered medicinally in sickness. 

SCHEME OF EDUCATION ADOPTED. 

At the July meeting, 1848, the board adopted the following scheme 
of education: 

1. The sessions of the university shall comprise ten months. 

2. Each professor shall instruct two classes — a junior and a senior 
class. 

3. The president shall instruct his junior class in mental and moral 
philosophy, logic, and belles-lettres ^ his senior class, in political 
economy and international law. 

4. The professor of mathematics and astronomy shall assign the dif 
ferent branches of his department as may seem proper to him. 

5. The professor of natural sciences shall teach chemistry, geology, 
mineralogy, botany, and natural philosophy. 

6. The professor of ancient and modern languages shall teach Latin, 
Greek, Hebrew, French, Spanish, and German. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 137 

THE UNIVERSITY AND RELiaiON. 

But the great question considered at this meeting was that of the 
relation between the university and the religious sentiments of the peo- 
X>le of the State. The discussion and settlement of that vital point, 
and other interesting matter, was narrated by Dr. Waddel, an eye- 
witness, in an oration delivered by him at the university on the 25th of 
June, 1873, being the twenty-fifth anniversary. From that address the 
following extract is taken : 

In July, 1848, the board proceeded to the election of their first faculty. Extensive 
notice of the time of this election having been given through the public prints, the 
board on assembling found themselves in possession of the names and certificates of 
recommendation of about 180 candidates for office in the faculty, distributed about 
as follows : For the office of president 17 applicants sent in their names ; for the pro- 
fessorship of mathematics and astronomy there were 60 candidates; 30 applied for 
chemistry and natural philosophy, and for the chair of ancient languages from 60 to 
75 candidates laid their claims before the board. In the course of this election a 
discussion arose involving important principles of organization, and which had a 
material bearing upon the future of the university, and the influence of the discus- 
sion aifected the election in its results. An influential trustee planted himself upon 
the untenable ground that ^^no clergyman of any denomination should be elected to 
a chair," and the gentleman also protested earnestly against the introduction into 
the curriculum as a study of 'Hhe evidences of Christianity." In this latter posi- 
tion he was sustained by another trustee, who tendered his resignation upon the fact 
that this branch of study was to be introduced. The ground of opposition to these 
two ideas was stated to be that ^' the evidences could not be taught so as to avoid the 
inculcation of the tenets of some particular church or some theological dogma peculiar 
to some Christian sect. The institution being the property of the State, and not of any 
sect or party, the people of the State of all descriptions had a right to forbid any prop- 
agation of religion that would not be universally acceptable. It was manifestly 
improper therefore that such things should be permitted, and this would be inevi- 
table should ministers of the gospel be eligible to professorships, or should the evi- 
dences of Christianity form a part of the course of study." I have in my possession 
to this day a letter from one of the wisest and most devoted members of the board 
of trustees who participated in this election, which bears date July 19, 1848, and 
states the fact that ''one member of the board resigned because the evidences of 
Christianity formed papt of the curriculum, and in his letter of resignation made a 
long and heavy assault upon religion." Again he adds, '^Another trustee followed 
this letter wi fcli an assault upon the ministry." Such was one of the many difficulties 
which then pressed upon the university. Beginning with its infancy difficulties, 
have kept pace with its entire career in some shape or other. 

The assaults referred to were not, to the extent designed, successful, it is true. 
They were influential enough to prevent the election to tlie presidency of an eminent 
educator who was voted for and who was a clergyman ; yet the debate, which was 
held in public in the presence of many of the best citizens, members of the various 
churches of the country, created so strong a sensation of disapprobation and so 
much indignation was aroused against the action of the board as to cause a reaction 
before the close of the election. 

THE FIRST FACULTY. 

The balloting continued from Monday to Friday at intervals and resulted as 
follows : 

George Frederick Holmes, LL. D., was elected president. ^ "^ * At the time of 
his election Mr. Holmes was a professor in William and Mary College, Virginia; an 
Englishman by birth. 



138 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Albert Taylor Bledsoe, LL. D., was elected to the chair of mathematics and 
astronomy. At the time of his election he was a citizen of Springfield, 111.,* a 
native of Kentucky, and a graduate of the West Point Military Academy. 

John Millington, M. D,, was elected professor of natural philosophy and chemistry. 
Dr. Millington was at the time of his election a professor in William and Mary 
College, Virginia; by birth an Englishman. 

JohnN. Waddel, D. D., was elected to fill the chair of ancient and modern lan- 
guages. He w^as at the time a citizen of Jasper County, Miss, (where he was then 
conducting the celebrated Montrose Academy), and by birth a South Carolinian; a 
graduate of the University of Georgia. 

These four gentlemen were selected from about 175 or 180 applicants, and one of 
the four [Dr. Waddel] was a clergyman, the strong opposition ^'to the contrary 
notwithstanding.'' 

Still, the public discussions in relation to the evidences of Christianity exerted an 
unfavorable influence, and many persons abroad, throughout this State and the adjoin- 
ing States, received the impression that the university was a regularly organized 
infidel institution. It may, perhaps, be attributed to this, as an immediate result, 
that only 80 matriculates were enrolled during the first session, and very little 
religious influence was exerted over the student body. 

THE FIRST SESSION OPENED. 

The University of Mississippi was opened in regular form on the 6th of Novem- 
ber, 1848. Inauguration exercises were conducted in the lyceum in the chemical 
lecture room, the only public hall on the campus at that time which was capacious 
enough to accommodate an audience of any considerable size. A large and interested 
assembly were on^ that occasion addressed on behalf of the board of trustees by 
Hon. Jacob Thompson, then a member of Congress from Mississippi, and a man of 
extensive influence and widely extended popularity. This was followed by an 
elaborate and chaste oration by the president, George F. Holmes, who is now a pro- 
fessor in the University of Virginia. [The first student enrolled was Thomas 
Elliott Bugg, who graduated in 1851, and is now practicing law in Florida.] 

Thus organized, the faculty and students entered at onoe upon the practical dis- 
charge of their respective duties under many difficulties and inconveniences. In a 
town of the interior, remote from the great thoroughfares, and long before lines of 
railroads were established to any great extent, nO text-books were to be obtained at 
all, and great delay ensued before this want and that of other essentials could be 
supplied. In due time, however, the new machinery was fairly put into operation. 

FIRST STUDENT BODY. 

Fidelity to my office as historian on this occasion impels me to record that, in all 
probability, very rarely, if ever, was an institution attended by a body of students 
so disorderly and turbulent as the first students of the university, in mass, proved 
to be. It is true that among those early students there were some of the first 
young men of the country; but in point of morals and intellectual advancement, 
the large body of the students were idle, uncultivated, and ungovernable. 

PRESIDENT HOLMES LEAVES— PROFESSOR BLEDSOE ACTS. 

The health of the child of the president required its return to Virginia, and the 
failing health of the president himself rendering it necessary, he returned to Virginia ; 
and at the close of the first term of the first session the university was found without 
a president. Professor Bledsoe was requested by the board to act as president, and, 
aided by the two remaining professors, the affairs of the university were successfully 
managed by him, and the scholastic year closed with an exhibition of the students 
in elocution and composition. Previous to the close of the session, however, the 
office of professor was by no means a sinecure— no child's play. 




LIBRARY BUILDING-UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 139 

The difl&culties in the management of the students arose from the assembling 
together of so many untrained young men and hoys, many of whom had never 
before attended such an institution^ and whose imaginations had been allured with 
the traditional belief that a college life was only a scene of fun and frolic. I may 
dismiss this subject with the remark that, in my opinion, nothing saved the infant 
university from utter ruin, under God^s blessing, but the sternest and most rigid 
exercise of discipline. 

The institution, as has already been remarked, did not pass unscathed through 
the fiery ordeal. The confidence of the citizens of the State had received a shock 
so violent, in consequence of the disorders of the first session, coupled with the 
still lingering apprehensions awakened at the outset in regard to the infidel ten- 
dencies of the university, that it was very slow in returning. 

PRESIBENT LONGSTREET. 

The institution, however, began its career from the auspicious period of the 
accession to office of the second president, the eminent and beloved Loiigstreet. 
For, although the number in attendance during the second session was small, yet 
in all the elements of true prosperity, in orderly deportment, diligent application, 
and mental progress on the part of the students, in fidelity and success on the part 
of the faculty, the institution was far in advance of its status during the first ses- 
sion. The statistics of its patronage, year by year, enjoyed by the university dur- 
ing the twenty sessions of its actual operation, show that, with the usual slight 
variation in number common to nil institutions, which may be readily and satis- 
factorily accounted for, the confidence of the people in the university has been 
steadily growing. 

FIRST CODE OF BY-LAWS. 

The narrative of Dr. Waddel has carried us a little ahead of time. 
To go back to the 7th of E^ovember, 1848: On that day the first code 
of by-laws to regulate the workings of the university as an institution 
of learning was Mopted. The most noticeable feature was that 
respecting free students. The tuition fee having been fixed at $30 per 
annum, three classes of students were exonerated from its payment. 
First, sons of ministers j secondly, poor young men not able to pay; 
thirdly, one student from each senatorial district in the State, to be 
selected by the boards of police on competitive examinations. ^ 

LIBRARY POUNDED. 

In July, 1849, Hon. Jacob Thompson laid the foundation for the 
university library by a valuable donation of books, for which a special 
case was ordered by the board, to be labeled with his name. To this 
nucleus the board added a purchase to the extent of $500 two days 
afterwards.'^ In 1854 the university library and those of the two literary 
societies aggregated about 3,000 volumes. In 1856 they had increased 
to about 4,000 volumes,- in 1858 to over 5,000 volumes. In 1870 the 
sum of $5,000 was appropriated for the purchase of books, and a read- 
ing room was established in connection with the library, to be fur- 
nished with the leading American and foreign journals, for the benefit 
of the faculty and the students. The $5,000 appropriation seems not 
to have been expended, for in 1875 it is still mentioned as having been 

^ Minutes of the Trustees, vol. 1, pp. 87-99. ^i^ji^j,^ pp^ 103^ ^qq^ 



140 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

made and the number of volumes in the libraries had only reached 
"over 6,000." Of that number 2,500 were reported as in the libraries 
of the two societies. Several hundred volumes were added to the 
university library during the year 1878. The addition of new volumes 
every year, and especially of a large number in 1885-86, brought the 
university library to about 12,000 volumes. In the meanwhile, the 
societies, being indisposed to keep up their libraries, had sold them. 

In 1886 the library facilities were much enlarged. Up to that time 
the library had been opened once a week, and then for two hours only, 
for the issuance and the return of books; but at that time a librarian 
was provided for, and the library required to be kept open for three 
hours daily. Miss Julia A. Wilcox was elected librarian. In 1887 
Miss Wilcox was succeeded by Mrs. Alice M. Beynes. 

In 1888 the trustees appropriated $10,000 for the erection of a library 
building, the library having been to this time kept in a large room in 
the third story of the lyceum. The building was completed in 1890 at 
a final cost of $11,500. It has two principal stories and four rooms. 
A large room 45 by 35 feet on fche first floor is devoted to the miscella- 
neous and popular library. A similar room on the second story, divided 
into suitable alcoves, contains the scientific and technical library. The 
two other rooms, ovals, 20 by 24 feet, are set apart for studies in con- 
nection with the libraries. There are now about 13,000 volumes. The 
library is kept open five hours daily. 

THE FIRST GMiADUATma CLASS. 

The first class to graduate was that of 1851, all taking the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, then the only baccalaureate degree offered. The 
graduates were as follows : 

1. Thomas E. Bugg Chickasaw County. 

2. Joshua L. Halbert Aberdeen. Miss. 

3. John B. Herring Pontotoc County. 

4. JohnL. Hudson Marshall County. 

5. John W. Lambuth Missionary in China. 

6. John S. McRaven Marshall County. 

7. John T. Moseley Kemper County. 

8. Marlborough Pegues Marshall County. 

9. William C. Pegues Marshall County. 

10. Jordan M. Phipps Lafayette County. 

11. James J. Quarles Lafayette County. 

12. John L. Webb Lafayette County. 

13. William J.Webb Lafayette County. 

14. Beverly D.Young Lowndes County. 

15. Thomas E.Young Lowndes County. 

CLAYTON RESIGNS — THOMPSON ELECTED. 

On the 11th of July, 1853, Hon. A. M. Clayton, president of the board 
of trustees, resigned his trusteeship, and on the same day Hon. Jacob 
Thompson was elected president.^ 

1 Minutes of the Board, pp. 196, 197. 



THE TJNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 141 

AaUIOULTURAL AND aEOLOaiOAL SURVEY. 

The next step of interest iu tlie university's history was the direction 
by the legislature of the agricultural and geological survey, by the act 
of 5th of March, 1850. The importance of this subject has demanded 
a separate chapter, to which the reader is referred. Briefly stated, the 
effect of the act was fourfold : 

1, To place on the university the responsibility for the survey, and 
the labor of it. 

2. To organize by legislative enactment a professorship of agricul- 
tural and geological sciences, with an assistant. 

3, To add the sum of $3,000 to the college revenue to be devoted to 
the purposes of the act. 

4. To require the future proceeds of sales of seminary lands, not to 
exceed, however, the sum of $3,000 per annum, to be also devoted to 
those purposes, as if they were income. 

CHANGES IN FACULTY AND BOARD. 

On the 10th of July, 1850, two assistant i)rofessors were elected by 
the board, one an assistant in modern languages, Adolph Sadluski,- 
the other, in mathematics, Lucius Q. O. Lamar. On the same daj^ the 
sum of $1,700 was appropriated for a purchase of books and globes.^ 

CHEMICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL APPARATUS. 

On the 13th of July, 1853, Professor Millington resigned. ^ The 
executive committee were thereupon authorized to make arrangements 
for procuring a chemical, philosophical, and geological apparatus. To 
this period the university had enjoyed the use of the chemical and 
philosophical apparatus of Professor Millington. The committee pur- 
chased a portion of it, and in the purchase acquired a most interesting 
relic; this relic consisted of several troughs of galvanic battery which 
had formed parts of Sir Humphrey Davy's immense battery of 2,000 
plates, with which he made the astonishing discovery of the metals of 
the alkalies.^ 

^ Minutes of the Board, p. 131. 

2 John Millington, M. D., was an Englishman by birth and education. Reared in 
London, he was the associate and pupil of Farraday; was a member of the Royal 
Society. He was profoundly versed in the sciences of mathematics, natural philos- 
ophy, and chemistry, and an adept in civil engineering. He published a work on 
mechanics and one on civil engineering. A member of the Protestant Episcopal 
church, he was devout without bigotry. He was simple, honest, kind, and guileless. 
When he resigned he took the chair of chemistry and toxicology in the Medical 
College at Memphis. Died in Lagrange, Tenn., shortly after the close of the 
civil war. 

» Minutes of the Board, p. 203; letter from Dr. Barnard, in the University archives. 



142 HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

THE LAW SCHOOL; ACT OF 1854. 

A long step in advance was taken in January, 1854. The board of 
trustees met in that month at Jackson. The legislature was in session. 
The following memorial (a portion of which is omitted, however) was 
ordered to be transmitted to that body : 

To the senate and house of representatives of the State of Mississippi : 

Gentlemen : As trustees of the University of Mississippi we think it our duty to 
address the legislature of the State. ^- * * 

The professional chairs, from four, now number eight. The monetary affairs of the 
university, from a state of inadequacy extremely discouraging when the school 
began its operations, are now sufficient to meet the yearly expenditures of the board. 

The library is increased to 3,000 volumes. Additional buildings now adorn the 
grounds and serve to carry out the beautiful design of the architect. 

A cabinet of minerals is in the course of collection and arrangement, and a phil- 
osophical apparatus — simple, but of extraordinary beauty — has been placed before 
the chair of the professor of physics since the last communication of the board with 
the legislature. Everything indicates the steady progress and the ultimate pros- 
perity of the University of Mississippi; but there is one great want which the 
university seriously feels. The circle of the moral sciences, so far from being com- 
plete there, is scarcely begun. Rhetoric, metaphysics, political economy, moral 
philosophy, logic — the last of doubtful utility, perhaps — may all be thoroughly 
taught and well understood, but they do not prepare a man to begin the great busi- 
ness of life. 

Our graduated young men often aspire to act in the councils of their country, and 
history and observation both teach them to look to the bar as the place of prepara- 
tion and of trial to vindicate their fitness for the halls of legislation. It is well 
known that for a period of a thousand years the bar has been the great road to the 
dignities, the titles, the places and power of the politician, wheresoever the common 
law of England has been enforced. The university greatly needs a professorship of 
law; but not of law alone, in the opinion of the undersigned. The philosophy of 
government should be taught together with it, and history, which is philosophy 
teaching by example. 

Instruction in the science of government we think of high importance to Southern 
youth— to youth everywhere in a republic, but especially to the youth of our country. 
We live in a confederacy of States. The political relations of the States to each other 
are looked at in somewhat different lights, according to the geographical points of 
view. Government is taught as a science in some of the States, but in few of the 
Southern States, if in any of them. Our ambitious youth go to the East for instruc- 
tion in this department, for it is to be found there alone. Such a school may or may 
not be antagonistic in its principles to Southern views of the right philosophy of 
government, but we feel assured that a Southern university of learning could never 
disseminate views of society and government which would prove prejudicial to 
Southern interests. Besides political ethics, a right understanding and a full appre- 
ciation of political morality is of the last importance in every republic. 

A youth coming from the walls of the university with enlarged and fixed principles 
of political justice— with elevated notions of the use, the scope, and the design of 
government— would not be apt to sink into a factionist, or to merge the philosophic 
statesman in the turbulent demagogue. 

To instruction in law and government we would superadd (as we have said) 
instruction in history and international law; and we think a single professor would 
be adequate to discharge the combined duties that are here indicated. But it would 
require no ordinary man. Such a man as would fully suit the place would be of 
more difficult selection than any other professor in the university. His character, 



THE UNIVERSITY OP MISSISSIPPI. 143 

bis acquirements, even bis place of residence and of education, would bave to be 
considered. But it is in the power of compensation to procure such a man, we 
suppose, and we respectfully ask the legislature to aid us in raising the compensation. 
The annual excess of our revenue over our current expenditures is barely sufiScient 
to keep the university in fitting repair. Even if there was then any excess, it would 
be proper to apply it to the erection of additional buildings. It is apparent from 
the report of the commissioner of the seminary fund, now before you, that but little 
is, in future, to be expected from that source. If all the lands now belonging to this 
fund were sold even at present prices, and its dues were all collected, the annual 
interest from the whole of it would amount to about $1,500. 

With such tuition fees as a law professor well known to be qualiiied for his duties 
might command, and a payment annually of $2,000 as a fixed salary, we think it 
probable that the scheme we have developed might be carried into effect. Having, 
therefore, stated the matter for the consideration of your honorable body, we pray 
the grant of an appropriation in conformity with the views set forth. 

J. Thompson, 
President of Board of Trustees ^ University of Mississippi. 

This memorial was laid before the senate by its president, and resulted 
in the passage of the act of the 27 th of February, 1854, which is as 
follows : 

AN ACT to create in the University of Mississippi a professorship of governmental science and law. 

1. That a professorship of governmental science and law he created in the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, and it is herehy made the duty of the trustees of said institution 
to elect U professor to fill the same, who shall lecture on the philosophy of government 
and science of law to such class or classes as may he formed therein, under such 
rules and restrictions as the hoard of trustees may prescrihe. 

2. That said hoard of trustees he authorized to fix the salary of the said professor 
and to regulate its payment, and that the sum of $2,000 per annum he and the same 
is herehy appropriated, out of any funds in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, 
to he applied toward the payment of the salary of said professor on the first day of 
January and July of each year, as other moneys are drawn hy the said university, 
on a warrant of the president of. the hoard of trustees. 

8. That this act shall he in force from and after its passage. 

On the 14th of July following it was accordingly resolved by tbe 
board '^that the course of study in the law department shall embrace a 
term of two sessions, often months each; and diplomas will be granted 
to such students as shall obtain from the law professor a certificate of 
proficiency and qualification.'^ On the 29th of August, William F. 
Stearns, esq., a distinguished lawyer of Marshall County (the same 
who in 1846 delivered the oration at the laying of the corner stone of 
the lyceum), was elected to the chair of governmental science and law. 
The duties of that chair, as defined, brought Professor Stearns into 
contact with students in both departments. The senior collegiate class 
and the junior class of the law students proper, under his instruction, 
pursued together the studies of international and constitutional law. 

In the law school proper the students were examined daily upon 
their reading in the text-book under perusal, and such explanations 
were then afforded as were requisite in order to show wherein the gen- 
eral principles laid down by the author had been modified by local 



144 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

statutes or adjudications. Occasional lectures were delivered to tbe 
seniors, illustrating the local law and practice peculiar to Mississippi. 
Moot courts were held weekly for the practical exercise of the seniors. 
The law students were not subjected to any of the regulations of the 
university, other than those which related to moral conduct. 

The text-books used were, Blackstone's Commentaries, Kent's Com- 
mentaries, Story on Bailments, Story on Agency, Story on Partnership, 
Story on Conflict of Laws, Smith on Contracts, Byles on Bills, Stephen 
on Pleading, Angell and Ames on Corporations, Greenleaf on Evidence, 
Adams's Equity, Gresley's Equity Evidence, and Wharton's American 
Criminal Law. 

The first law class, that of 1854-55, had seven members: 

Benjamin Jay Clanton Panola County. 

James Alemeth Green, B. A. (U.M.) Tippah County. 

Flavins Josephus Lovejoy Calhoun County. 

John Townes Moseley, B. A. (U. M.) Kemper County. 

Lafayette Washington Reasons Calhoun County. 

James Stephens Ternil ' Jasper County. 

Alhert Hiram Thomas Oxford Miss. 

In the year 1857 the diplomas granted to graduates in the law depart- 
ment were made by law to operate as licenses to practice in all the 
courts of law and of equity in the State, and such has been the law ever 
since that date. At this time also large and valuable accessions were 
made to the law library, bringing it up to more than 1,000 well- selected 
volumes. Bishop on Criminal Law was substituted for Wharton as a 
text-book. 

For the first six years Professor Stearns had sole charge of this 
department. At the close of that time the number of students had so 
greatly increased the labors that another professor was found neces 
sary. Therefore the Hon. James F. Trotter, ex-judge of the high court 
of errors and appeals, was elected as an additional professor. By his 
learning, ability, and industry Judge Trotter extended still further the 
usefulness of the department ; but when the civil war came on, only one 
year after his election, the university work was suspended — this depart- 
ment with the other. 

After the termination of the war, although the department of arts 
was reorganized in July, 1865, the law school was not. At the June 
meeting, 1866, however, that school was reestablished. Hon. Horatio 
F. Simrall was elected professor, and pending the question of his 
acceptance and his reporting for duty Hon. Lucius Q. C. Lamar, pro- 
fessor of ethics and metaphysics, was appointed to discharge the duties 
of law professor also. At a called meeting of the board, held on the 
21st of January, 1867, Judge Simrall having failed to notify that body 
that he would accept, such failure was regarded as a declination, and 
Professor Lamar was transferred to that chair. The practice of uniting 
the seniors of the department of arts with the junior law students in a 
study of international and constitutional law was not resumed. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 145 

Professor Lamar made no changes in the course*of study. The school 
prospered under his management, but early in 1870, because of the 
political embarrassments surrounding the institution, he resigned his 
chair. The Hon. J. A. P. Campbellj now of the supreme court, was 
elected as his successor, but declined the chair. Thereupon Henry 
Craft, esq., of Memphis, Tenn., was elected, with Jordan M. Phipps, 
esq., of Oxford, Miss, (an A. B. of the university and ex professor of 
mathematics), as adjunct professor. Mr. Craft did not take charge of 
the school at any time, but resigned in 1871. Judge Phipps conducted 
it alone during the session of 1870-71. On Mr. Craft's resignation 
Thomas Walton, esq., A. B. and LL. B. of the university, was elected 
professor, and the style of the chair was changed to that of '^professor 
of law," simply. In June, 1872, the trustees reduced the period for 
attendance on the law school as a requisite to graduation from two years 
to one. 

The school at this time languished. Patronage was small, and when, 
in the summer of 1874, Professor Walton resigned to accept a seat on 
the chancery bench, the school was suspended. 

After three years, however, in the summer of 1877, the school was 
reestablished, and Edward Mayes, esq., of Oxford, Miss., an A. B. and 
LL. B. of the university, was elected professor, and he has occupied 
the chair ever since that date. Professor Mayes established the follow^ 
ing course of study : Blackstone's Commentaries, Stephen on Pleading, 
first volume of Greenleaf's Evidence, Kent's Commentaries, Adams's 
Equity, Smith on Contracts, Addison on Torts (Harvard abridgment), 
read in the order indicated. As soon as Greenleaf was finished the 
moot court was begun. In June, 1881, the two-year course was rees- 
tablished. The books used were then as follows: For the juniors, 
Blackstone's Commentaries (omitting fourth book), Stephen on Plead- 
ing, first volume of Greenleaf 's Evidence, second and third volumes of 
Kent's Commentaries, Bishop's Criminal Law, Bishop's Criminal Pro- 
cedure, Bishop on Contracts, and Bigelow on Torts; for the seniors, 
Adams's Equity, Bispham's Principles of Equity Jurisprudence, Bar- 
ton's Suit in Equity, first volume of Kent's Commentaries, Desty's 
Federal Procedure, Constitution of the United States, constitution of 
Mississippi, Cooley's Constitutional Limitations, Pierce on Eailroads, 
May on Insurance, Code of Mississippi, in the order named. 

This course of reading has remained in force, except that Broom's 
Commentaries on the Common Law have been substituted for Second 
and Third Kent, Contracts and Torts have been transferred to the 
seniors, Davis on International Law substituted for First Kent, Curtis's. 
Lectures for Desty, and Tiedeman on Eeal Property for May. 
21785— No. 24 10 



146 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



The following table will show the attendance on the law school from 
its foundation until now : 



Session. 



1854-55- 
1855-56. 
1856-57- 
1857-58. 
1858-59- 
1859-60. 
1860-61. 
1866-67- 
1867-68. 
1868-69- 
1869-70. 
1870-71. 
1871-72. 
1872-73- 
1873-74. 
1877-78. 
1878-79. 
1879-80- 
1880-81. 
1881-82., 
1882-83- 
1883-84. 
1884-85., 
1885-86. 
1886-87-, 
1887-88. 
1888-89. 
1889-90. 
1890-91 . 



Total 

Deduct students counted twice. 



Juniors. 



Individuals attending . 



Seniors. 



11 
9 
9 
27 
10 
1 
14 
11 
15 
1 
4 
2 
1 



Total. 



Graduated. 



531 
125 



9 
9 

22 
10 
1 
12 
10 
15 



5 
29 
13 
19 
16 
5 
5 
6 
3 
7 
5 
15 
II 
11 



FIRST HONORARY DEaREES. 

To return to the year 1854. On the 13th of July of this year were 
conferred the first honorary degrees bestowed by the university, that 
of doctor of laws on Dr. A. T. Bledsoe, on his retirement from the fac- 
ulty, and that of master of arts on Adjunct-Professor Jordon M. Phipps, 
an alumnus of the class of 1851, the first class of all to graduate.^ 

MISSISSIPPI CENTRAL RAILROAD — ^DR. BARNARD ELECTED. 

In this year, also, the university granted the right of way through 
its grounds and a depot site to the Mississippi Central Eailroad. The 
remote portions of the State now h'dgsm to be brought practically nearer 
together.^ 

In this year, again. Dr. Frederick A. P. Barnard was elected to fill 
the chair of astronomy and civil engineering, vacated by the resigna- 
tion of Dr. Bledsoe. 

ACT OF 1856 APPROPRIATES $100,000. 

The year 1856 was a remarkable one in the history of the institution. 
A memorial prepared by a member of the faculty, Dr. Barnard, in pur- 
suance of a resolution adopted at the previous session of the board of 



' Minutes of the Board, vol. 1, p. 222. 



abid.,p.234. 




THE OBSERVATORY AND HALL OF PHYSICS-UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 147 

trustees, was, od the 14tli of January, submitted by Mr. Young, tlie 
chairman of the committee, was approved and ordered to be sent to the 
legislature. That memorial was, in part, as follows: 

To the honorable the senate and house of representatives of the State of Mississippi: ^ ^ * 
While such are the indications of the growing popularity and usefulness of the 
university, the undei;signed are compelled further to represent that, in many respects, 
the institution is deficient in matters indispensable to its complete efficiency as a 
school of letters and science; and that the resources of the undersigned are inade- 
quate to the supply of these deficiencies. The number of officers of instruction is 
entirely insufficient to insure to each student the amount of personal attention which 
it is desirable that he should receive, and this evil is necessarily felt more and more 
seriously as the numbers swell. Kot a single department of science is provided with 
suitable illustrative apparatus ; the library is but the beginning of a collection of books, 
and offers no aids at all for the prosecution of such researches in the different branches 
of knowledge as are necessary to perfect the instructors themselves, to promote their 
nsefuflness to the university, and to enable them to connect their names honorably 
with the intellectual history of the age; cabinets of natural history in every branch 
are yet to be wholly created; lecture rooms offering suitable facilities for the experi- 
liiental illustration of several branches of physical science are to be provided or 
arranged at considerable expense; and, besides all this, the erection of atjditional 
buildings for the accommodation of the increasing number of students is impera- 
tively demanded, and must be commenced at once, if we would not be compelled to 
submit to the mortifying necessity of daily turning applicants for admission away 
from our doors. * * * 

The wants of tlie university in regard to scientific apparatus are so great as to 
reduce it in this respect at present far below respectability, and seriously to hazard, 
nnless they are promptly supplied, the permanence of that unexampled i)rosperity 
-which it has thus far enjoyed. In the state of development to which in our day the 
physical sciences have attained, it is absolutely impossible to illustrate their princi- 
ples with clearness or io make intelligible the methods by which their countless 
astonishing truths have been brought to light without so large a variety of instru- 
ments and special contrivances as to impose upon every institution for higher educa- 
tion a heavy outlay. In some branches of science the necessary instruments are 
Dearly everyone of them costly, and in others, where they are separately less expen- 
sive, they are exceedingly numerous. * * * There are many colleges in the 
country which, in nearly everyone of the several departments of optics, acoustics, 
electricity, magnetism, pneumatics, hydrostatics, and chemistry have expended more 
money than the University of Mississippi has yet been able to appropriate to all of 
them together. The undersigned have endeavored, to the extent of their means, to 
supply the deficiencies which seemed most urgently to demand their attention ; but 
hurdened as they have been by the necessity of building— a necessity now forced 
upon them anew by the very prosperity of the university itself—and trammeled in 
their action by- the entire inadequacy of their resources to meet the necessities of the 
case, they have been able as yet to make but little progress. In fact, they have no 
prospect of being able, unassisted, to put the university upon a creditable footing 
in these respects for many years. 

What has been said of apparatus is more or less applicable also to a library. The 
importance of an extensive library to an institution of learning is by many imper- 
fectly understood. Nothing is more true than that to be a successful teacher, even 
of the elements of knowledge, a man must himself know much besides those ele- 
ments; and the light which any instructor will be capable of shedding around the 
simplest facts will be greater just in proportion as he himself approaches the mas- 
tery of the entire subject to which those facts belong. Every teacher, therefore, 
who is fit for his position, and who does his duty, will be himself a learner as long 



148 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

as he lives. And it is the truest policy of the supervisory government of any col- 
lege to spread before the officers of instruction the largest field in letters and science 
which their means allow. It is much more in reference to college faculties than to 
college students that comprehensive libraries are desirable. The mental expansion 
of the student advances through the training which the course of study furnishes, 
and which is sufficient, for the most part, to occupy him; but the officer, without 
unrestrained access to books, is in danger of intellectual stagnation. 

Upon this topic it may be further observed that our colleges anS. universities are the 
sources to which the people look for authoritative opinions in all those abstruser 
matters with which the mass of men are unfamiliar. That they may possess the 
means of prouounping such opinions, and thus answer the expectations formed of 
them, it is absolutely indispensable that they should have the command of those 
records of the world's progress in knowledge which are to be found in books, so 
that, whatever question may be presented for solution, they may be able to produce 
everything valuable which has ever been put forth relating to the subject. The 
possession of extensive and selected libraries thus gives dignity and character to a 
seminar>^ of learning which can not be secured without it, and these advantages 
which are certainly desirable for every institution for higher education, are emi- 
nently so for one which is understood to represent the learning of a State. 

Again, it is undoubtedly true that the reputation of colleges is to a great extent 
dependent upon the personal reputation for talents and learning of the professors 
who concluct them. So strikingly is this the case, that a single name has often been 
known to build up an institution of learning altogether, and the loss of a single 
man has no less frequently pulled such an institution down. Now, most certainly 
no man can acquire a high reputation as a man of science or letters without the 
opportunity to consult what has been already published in his chosen department. 
Hence a college without a copious library can rarely count on the great advantage 
of embracing in its faculty a man whose name is familiar to the learned world. 

Under these circumstances the undersigned, after mature deliberation, have felt 
it to be their duty to make an appeal at.once to the justice and to the liberality of 
the legislature of the State in behalf of the university. It is undoubtedly among 
the highest duties of a government to provide for the education of the people; and 
where political institutions, like ours, are founded on the principles of liberality, 
this duty becomes identified with the truest interests of the Commonwealth. To 
every thoughtful man, therefore, upon whom to aiiy extent rests the responsibility 
of directing the legislation of a State, the question, in what manner it may be prac- 
ticable most effectually to diffuse intelligence among the masses of the people and to 
secure the systematic and thorough training of all in the elements of knowledge, must 
present itself as one of the most important that can occupy his attention. « * » 
It U a fact that the unprovided condition of the University of Mississippi, in regard 
to scientific apparatus in every department— to library, collections of minerals and 
fossils, museums of natural history, and everything else which is auxiliary to the 
business of instruction— is such as to reduce it to a position absolutely mean by the 
side of the universities of Alabama, Georgia, North and South Carolina, and Virginia. 
The undersigned have actually had the mortification in a recent instance of losing 
the services of a professor-elect, distinguished for high reputation and eminent abil-, 
ities, even after he had taken the trouble to visit the university from a distance of 
1,500 miles, and that simply because the inadequacy of the illustrative apparatus in 
his department was such as to convince him (to use his own words) that he could 
neither satisfy himself nor give satisfaction to others. Certainly no true Mississip- 
pian can be content that the institution of learning recognized by law as the State 
University, and therefore as the representative of the State in the highest depart-, 
ment of education, should continue to be so miserably provided in all those partic- 
ulars on which its respectability depends that he dare not compare it with any 
other of its class in the country. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 149 

One further consideration bearing upon this subject remains to be noticed. With 
the undersigned it is one which has great weight. Hitherto it has not been unusual* 
with our fellow-citizens to send their sons for education to a distance from home. 
The colleges of the Northern and Eastern States have educated great numbers of the 
present generation of Mississippi and not a few also of the youth who are about to 
come upon the stage to succeed them ; but a deep conviction has at last fastened 
itself upon the minds of our citizens that, if we would educate our sons in the true 
spirit of attachment to the institutions among which they are born, we must educate 
them upon our own soil. It is perhaps in a measure due to the recent rapid growth 
of this feeling among us that we attribute the unexampled success of the University 
of Mississippi in commanding the attendance of the youth of this and neighboring 
States; and as the feeling is one which is not likely soon to die, we may not only 
with reason anticipate a continuance of this visible consequence of its existence, 
but wo must feel ourselves bound to provide at least as well for those who seek 
their education with us as they would have been provided for in those distant 
schools which their patriotism constrains them to relinquish. It is impossible that 
we can reconcile it to our sense of duty to require our young men to abandon insti- 
tutions which offer the highest intellectual advantages on the ground that in those 
Institutions are nourished sentiments uncongenial with ours, and in return to con- 
tent ourselves with providing merely for the correctness of their sentiments, without 
paying any adequate heed to their intellectual wants. It is impossible that, while 
manifesting a sensitiveness so lively in regard to the cultivation of Southern hearts, 
we should be altogether forgetful of the claims of Southern heads. When, therefore, 
we demand that Southern men shall have a Southern education, we can not shake off 
onr sense of obligation to provide a worthy Southern education for Southern men; 
and when we insist that oar youth shall be educated at home, we surely can never 
cease to blush so long as we fail to provide for them at home an education in all 
respects as good as they can obtain abroad. 

Upon the University of Mississippi a peculiar obligation of this kind seems at pres- 
ent to rest; because of this institution it can be said — what of no other of its class 
in the Southwest can at this moment be said with equal truth — that it is peculiarly 
a popular favorite. Just in proportion as this fact is gratifying— and it must be 
truly so to every citizen of the State— just in the same proportion should any failure 
on the part of the State to provide whatever is necessary to secure to its respecta- 
bility and efficiency be esteemed the neglect of an obvious duty. 

The prayer therefore of your memorialists is that your honorable body would 
mal<o provision for the relief of the immediately pressing necessities of the university 
by the present appropriation of a sum not less than dollars to that object, etc. 

This memorial was placed before the legislature by a special message 
of the governor on the Gtli day of February, and tbe legislature 
appointed an evening session, when both houses met in the representa- 
tives' hall and heard an address from Dr. Barnard in its support. 

Under these circumstances the act of March 6, 1856, was passed. It 
is as follows : 

AN ACT for the relief of the State University. 

1. That to enable the trustees of the State University to provide suitable build- 
ings to accommodate the increasing number of students in said institution, ^o sup- 
ply deficiencies in the library and apparatus, and to meet other pressing wants of 
tlie institution, the sum of $20,000 be, and the same is hereby, appropriated, to be 
paid out of the State treasury annually, for the period of five years, to be paid on the 
order of the president of said trustees. 

2. That the treasurer of said board of trustees shall keep and transmit to the 
governor of this State, annually, on the 1st day of May, a particular account of 



150 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

all moneys received by said board under the provisions of this act, the amount 
appropriated by them, and the purpose and objects to which the said amounts have 
been devoted; and if it shall be made to appear to the governor that the funds 
drawn from the treasury under this bill are being misappropriated or likely to be 
wasted, it shall be his duty to instruct the auditor of public accounts to withhold 
any warrants on the treasury which it is made his duty to issue by this act, until 
the next ensuing session of the legislature. 
Approved, March 6, 1856. 

Of course this appropriation of $100,000 was a great help to the 
university. 

THE FACULTY ENLARGED. 

The first step taken was to increase the corps of instructors. On the 
15th of July, 1856, a committee of the board reported as follows : 

The committee to whom was referred the subject of the necessary increase of the 
professors and instructors in the university make the following report : 

That they have examined the subject with care, and feel ifc to be a positive duty 
imposed on the board to increase our educational corps. The classes are too large to 
recite to the same professor at the same time. We hold that in order to secure a 
proper attention to their studies by the students it is of primary importance to hold 
each student to a strict accountability for each and every recitation, *^This can not 
be done without a division of the classes in their recitations. 

To enable the professors to do this, and hold the students to a proper accounta- 
bility for every recitation, the corps of educators ought to be increased. It is furtber 
believed that the most prudent and sure policy to adopt in order to effect our object 
in this respect is to employ assistants at such low and reasonable salaries as to com- 
mand the services of competent young men to act as assistant professors. 

Pursuant to this resolution four additional tutors were added — one 
each in Greek, Latin, mathematics, and composition and logic. 

Arrangements were also made for additional buildings, chiefly for 
the observatory building, now devoted to the department of physics 
and astronomy. Also for the purchase of the Marcoe cabinet of min- 
erals, then in Washington City, and now, with the later additions, so 
highly valued at the university. Also for the Budd collection of shells, 
then in E"ew York, and now one of the principal attractions of this 
institution. Also for the purchase of $14,000 worth of additional appa- 
ratus and $7,000 worth of additional books for the law and college 
libraries. These appropriations by the board were preliminary to yet 
more liberal arrangements, to be made. as the residue of the $100,000 
should come in. Dr. Barnard, the president, contracted with Alvan 
Clark, of Cambridge, Mass., for a great astronomical telescope. This 
instrument was just completed in June, 1861, too late to be delivered 
at the university. Its aperture is 18J inches, and even yet it is the 
sixth in size in the United States. It is now at the Dearborn Observa- 
tory at Chicago. It created a sensation in the first month after its 
completion by the discovery made by it of a companion to the star 
Sirius, a discovery made by Mr. Clark himself almost accidentally.^ 

^ Minutes of the board, pp. 312-316; letter of Dr. Barnard in the archives. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 151 

DE. BARNARD ELECTED PRESIDENT, 

At this meeting of the board, lOtli of July, 1856, President Long- 
street resigned. The board strongly urged him to withdraw the resig- 
nation but without avail. An effort was made to elect his successor 
but failed, since the board could not agree. At an adjourned meeting, 
however, held in the following month. Prof. Frederick A. P. Barnard, 
LL. D., of the faculty, was elected to the presidency. 

THE aOVERNOR MADE PRESIDENT OF TRUSTEES. 

On the 3d of February, 1857, an act was approved making a funda- 
mental change in the constitution of the board of trustees. The gov- 
ernor of the State was declared by the statute to be, ex officio, its 
president, and this status has continued ever since, 

THE CHANCELLORSHIP CREATED. 

So, also, on the 29th of November, 1859, the title of ''president of 
the university '' was discontinued by order of the board and that of 
"chancellor of the university '^ adopted instead. 

THE UNIVERSITY AND THE COAST SURVEY. 

At the meeting of the board in November, 1859, a letter was laid 
before that body by President Barnard from Prof. A. D. Bache, Super- 
intendent of the American Coast Survey. It asked the cooperation of 
the University of Mississippi in an extended series of observations 
upon terrestrial magnetism and meteorology, then about to be instituted 
under the sanction of the British Admiralty, the American Coast Sur- 
vey, and various scientific bodies. The letter was accompanied by 
estimates of the probable cost of such cooperation. The request of 
Professor Bache was granted, and the executive committee were 
authorized to contract for the erection of the necessary building and 
the purchase of the required instruments. The building was erected 
accordingly, and a fine set of instruments, specially manufactured in 
Europe, contracted for, but the plan was interrupted by the breaking 
out of the civil war, and the instruments were never received.^ 

THE APPROPRIATION EXTENDED-— ACT OF 1860. 

On the 10th of February, 1860, an act was approved whereby the 
$20,000 annual appropriation was extended until the 6th of March, 1862. 

THE CIVIL WAR — "UNIVERSITY GRAYS." 

In 1861, immediately on the bombardment of Fort Sumter, the young 
men of the university became greatly excited, and eagerly pressed to 
be received into the army on the first call for volunteers. Opinion in 

^ Minutes of the board, vol. 1, pp. 439, 442; letter of Dr. Barnard, arcliives. 



162 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

the university was not unanimous in favor of secession. The State 
flag of Mississippi was raised after the secession, and kept flying on 
one of the dormitories by the students^ but on the dormitory opposite 
a band of loyal students kept the flag of the United States flying for 
ten days. The larger portion of the students, however, had as early as 
January formed themselves into a military company called ^' The Uni- 
versity Grays," and they now demanded of Governor Pettus to be 
mustered into the Confederate service. As none of the young men had 
consulted their parents on this point. Chancellor Barnard, considering 
their action premature, wrote to the governor requesting him not to 
grant their request. Professor Lamar also advised in the same way, 
and said that Mr. Davis, President of the Confederacy, disapproved of 
the volunteering of the younger class of men, comparing it to the 
grinding of the seed corn of the Republic. But the governor disregarded 
the chancellor's letter, and a mustering officer came to Oxford to 
enlist "The Grays." The chancellor thereupon issued a circular letter 
.to the parents of all the students, stating what had occurred, and 
requesting authority to demand the discharge of their sons from the 
military service on the ground that the enlistment was unauthorized. 
In the majority of instances the response was to the effect that the 
parents entirely approved of the action of their sons. Some authorized 
a demand for discharge on the ground that the boys were too young to 
be trusted to go into camp without older companions to advise tbem, 
and declared their intention to withdraw them from "Ihe University 
Grays" only that they might enlist with local companies. 

The University Grays, however, were organized. They elected Wil- 
liam B. Lowrey, one of their own number, a member of the junior class, 
to be their captain^ were incorporated into the celebrated Eleventh 
Mississippi Regiment, and marched away to the war, going immediately 
to Virginia, and participating in the first battle of Manassas. The col- 
lege was completely dispersed. Such students as had not joined "the 
Grays" either went home and enlisted in local companies or went to 
Charleston and Pensacola to military service. Professor Lamar left 
for Richmond, having been commissioned a lieutenant- colonel in the 
Confederate Army.^ 

THE CIVIL WAR — EXERCISES SUSPENDED. 

The trustees met in June in special session. Their embarrassments, 
deliberations, and action will here be best told by their official report, 
made to the legislature of 1861-62, The following are the most material 
portions of the report : 

Though the University of Mississippi, for causes which are generally understood, 
but "which will presently be more particularly explained, has been momentarily 
suspended in its operations, yet it has never been, throughout the whole period of 
its prosperous career, in the enjoyment of a prosperity more satisfactory than it was 

^ Letter of Dr. Barnard, archives. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 153 

in the moment in which, by a spontaneous impulse on tlie part of all its youthful 
and patriotic inmates to rush to the defense of an imperiled country, its halls were 
suddenly left vacant. As early as the month of January, when the danger of hos- 
tilities was yet very remote, a military company was formed among the students of 
the university, whose services were tendered to the governor of the State and 
accepted by him. The exercises of the university, however, still went on, being in 
no way interfered with by the drill of the company, which took place out of class 
hours. Nor did there seem to be any considerable relaxation in ihe spirit of study 
until the exciting events of April absorbed the attention of the whole country and 
gave token that the hour had come in which every citizen might be called on to 
defend his fireside from a wicked invasion. 

After this time study in college substantially ceased. Lectures and recitations 
and all other exercises proceeded, indeed, as usual, but the interest in them was 
gone and they passed as empty forms. One student after another dropped away and 
enrolled himself in some company about to march from his own neighborhood. In 
their turn the company of University Grays became entitled to marching orders, and 
on the 1st of May they actually took up their line of march for Virginia. In the 
memorable conflict of the 21st of July, on the plains of Manassas, this company 
bore a conspicuous j^art and covered themselves with imperishable glory. 

Simultaneously, or nearly so, with the departure of the University Grays, the 
graduating class of the university were brought to their final examination, and, in 
accordance with custom, discharged until commencement. The time of this exam- 
ination had been anticipated by several weeks at the earnest desire of the class. 

The loss of these two considerable bodies of young men reduced the already 
diminished numbers to a mere handful, and these within the next few days followed 
their companions. The university was not, therefore, suspended by any act of the 
board or of the faculty, though several neighboring colleges were so about the same 
time ; but in the manner just described the dissolution was spontaneous. The annual 
meeting of the board was holden as usual in June. It was impossible at that time to 
conjecture what might be the attendance at the opening of the ensuing session in 
September, but it was obvious that it must be comparatively small. The payment 
of the officers of the faculty being in a measure dependent upon fees, there seemed to 
be a necessity of some reduction in their number should the apprehended diminution 
in the attendance be realized. 

The board, however, unwilling to take any action which might seem ungracious 
unless driven to it by the pressure of positive necessity, merely addressed to each 
officer of the faculty a note, of which an extract is given below, and adjourned to 
meet at the university in October following. The extract is in these words: ^'That 
" while it is the desire of the board to carry on the operations of the university, if 
practicable, in accordance with the present plan of organization, yet inasmuch as 
their ability to So so must depend on the amount of patronage that may be extended 
to the institution, as well as upon the continued payment by the State of the stand- 
ing appropriations in favor of the university, and inasnmch as the pending war, unless 
U shall speedily be terminated, may have the effect of so curtailing the patronage 
and resources of the university as to render it impossible to continue its functions at 
all, or without considerably reducing the present scale of operations, therefore the 
board can not engage to continue the payment of the salary of any professor beyond 
the date of their next meeting in October, 1861, if at that time it shall be deemed 
expedient to modify the existing plan of instruction by reducing the number of pro- 
fessors, or wholly to suspend the exercises of the university, and in the meantime 
any professor shall be at liberty to seek other employment if he shall think proper 
to do so/^ 

Advertisement was immediately made in papers in different points of the State of 
the intention of the trustees to resume operations at the university as usual in Sep- 
tember. Editorial notices were inserted in many papers to the same effect. And 



154 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

* ^ "^ there was published in the Mississippian, and subsequently copied into a 
large number of journals, an address to the people of Mississippi by a committee of 
the board expressive of their conviction of the importance of keeping the university 
alive and their purpose to do so if the attendance justified. Notwithstanding these 
various expedients, the effort to secure a respectable number of students on the day 
appointed by law for the commencement of the session completely failed, and only 
four students presented themselves, nor was the number at all increased after the 
lapse of two entire weeks. It was under these circumstances that the board reas- 
sembled. They had hardly convened before the resignations of most of the faculty 
were handed in, including those of Dr. F. A. P. Barnard, chancellor of the university 
and professor of physics, etc.; William F. Stearns and James F. Trotter, professors 
of governmental science and law; L. Q. C. Lamar, professor of ethics and meta- 
physics ; Alexander J. Quinche, professor of Latin and modern languages, and Burton 
N. Harrison, assistant professor in physics. 

At a meeting of the legislature held subsequently to the annual meeting of tho 
board in June, a resolution had been passed recommending to the board to consider the 
expediency of introducing into the university the military system of instruction 
and discipline. This resolution coming up for consideration at this time, the spon- 
taneous practical suspension of the functions of the university as an educational 
institution, however much on every other account to be regretted, appeared to 
furnish an occasion peculiarly favorable to the introduction, if thought expedient, 
of the proposed change. And the resignation of so large a number of the faculty 
sensibly relieved the board of what might have otherwise been an embarrass'nent in 
case the change should be actually introduced. They accordingly acceptor all tho 
resignations offered, and in the same resolution declared the remaining chairs of 
Greek and mathematics and of English literature vacant. 

The chair of chemistry, it may here be properly observed, was already vacant. 

In fo:»mer reports the board have laid before the legislature the views by which 
they have been guided in administering the affairs of the university. Their aim 
has been to erect it into an educational institution of the highest class, and advanc- 
ing it, step by step, to raise it from the level of a mere college to the dignity of a 
university in the proper acceptation of that term. The fulfillment of this design 
required the creation of professional schools of law and medicine, of special schools 
of science, as of civil engineering, agricultural and analytical chemi^ry, theoretical 
and practical astronomy, and other subjects similarly important, and also in the 
more distant future, and as the progress of society should demand, schools of letters^ 
philosophy, philology, and history, such as are to be found in European institutions 
of the same grade. It has, however, been their view that the task of the present 
generation would be limited to the establishment of th^ professional schools of 
practical science; and that in these views they have been constantly in harmony 
with the legislature of the State has been evinced by the fact that t*ie school of law, 
already so flourishing, is the direct creation of the legislature itself, and that prop- 
ositions have repeatedly been introduced into one or other of the houses for estab- 
lishing one or other of the schools of science above named ; propositions which have 
ceased to be pressed when it became understood that the erection of those schools 
was within the programme which the board had prescribed to themselves. This 
programme could not of course be carried out until the institution, in its original 
aspect as a school of the liberal arts, had been so far i)erfected as to entitle the 
university to rank as a college among the first in the country. In order that it 
might justly hold this rank it was indispensable that it should possess attractions 
to aspirants after knowledge equal to those w^hich belong to the leading institutions 
of its class elsewhere. Such, it is believed^ have been provided for it by measures 
of which a detailed statement was made to the legislature in the report of the 
board of November, 1859. By reference to that report it will be seen that the 
university commenced its operations in 1848 without apparatus, without a library, 
without collections of minerals, or fossils, or shells ; in short, with only the build- 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 155 

ings necessary for tlio accommodation of Us officers and students. For five years 
the only experimental illustrations given in chemistry and natural philosophy were 
furnislied hy means of apparatus and instruments which were the private prop- 
erty of one of the professors, and which were removed by him on his resignation. 
The permanent income of this university provided hy law did not allow the great 
deficiencies in its means of usefulness to be filled up from that source, and accord- 
ingly, in response to an urgent representation of the case to the legislature by the 
board in the winter of 1855-56, a special annual appropriation was made for the 
purpose by law, which expired by its own limitation in 1860. In the rfeport already 
referred to the mode of application of the funds thus granted was fully set forth, 
and an extension of the law was asked for in order to complete the provisions for 
the observatory and to proceed with the enlargement of the library, a matter now 
esteemed of immediate and prominent importance. The extension was granted and 
an order was thereupon promptly given for the construction of a telescope, which 
should place the observatory of the University of Mississippi on a level with those 
of Cambridge, or Ann Arbor, or any other in the country in instrumental resources. 
The introduction of astronomical observations has been regarded by the board as 
important, not only because of its opening to the youth of Mississippi of a school in 
practical astronomy, but because it associates the institution itself with all that 
class of institutions throughout the world which are engaged in the prosecution of 
original scientific research, and thus affects advantageously our rex)utation as a peo- 
ple. Considerations of this kind induced the board, in like manner, to accept the 
invitation extended to the university in communications from distinguished men of 
science, appended to their report of 1859, already several times referred to, to become 
associated in a systematic observation of the variations of terrestrial magnetism, in 
which the public authorities and the scientific associations of the principal civilized 
powers are engaged, and concerning which more particular information may be 
found in a communication from the chancellor of the university, appended to the 
same document. In order to realize this project but a moderate expenditure was 
necessary, and arrangements had been completed for commencing the magnetic 
observations about the close of the spring of the present year, when the obstruc- 
tion of communication made it impossible to obtain the instruments, although they 
were completed and ready for delivery. 

A similar disappointment has been experienced in regard to the large telescope of 
the observatory. Though notice was received just before communication with 
the outer world by letter entirely ceased that the object glass of the instrument (in 
the construction of which the main difficulty lies) would be ready in August or 
September for a scrutinizing test examination, and though, therefore, with the 
ensuing spring there was every reason to anticipate the commencement of a sys- 
tematic series of astronomical observations at the university, yet the interruption 
occasioned by the war has indefinitely deferred this gratifying prospect also. It 
may be proper here to remark that though these instruments, magnetic and astro- 
nomical, have thus been prevented from reaching the university, there has, never- 
theless, been no loss sustained except the important one of time on this account, no 
moneys having been advanced to the constructors of the instruments in anticipation 
of their completion. While the disappointments just described have been sutTered 
in reference to the realization of projects of improvement in progress, the board 
have also to regret that the state of the times forbids and makes impracticable the 
present fulfillment of any part of that enlarged programme of operations which 
embraced the establishment at the university of schools of higher education in 
special departments of science. Had peace continued to bless the land the present 
time is that which had been looked forward to for setting on foot at least the 
schools of civil engineering and agricultural chemistry, of which the practical 
importance is so generally acknowledged, and of which the South has so especial 
need. These and all other projects involving expenditure must, however, be for the 



156 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

present suspended, and of this necessity the unanimous conviction of the board is 
expressed in the following resolution, adopted at their meeting in October last : 

''Resolved, That until further ordered, the treasurer of the board be instructed not 
to draw from the treasury of the State any more money than is actually required to 
defray the necessary expenses of the university, and to meet such liabilities as the 
trustees have already incurred/' 

While, however, recognizing the necessity and the duty of postponing further 
measures of improvement connected w ith the development of the university to a 
season more favorable to that high culture which can only thrive with peace, the 
board still cherish the undoubting confidence that an institution which, favored 
by an enlightened policy, has already made so large advances in reputation and 
usefulness, will yet fulfill their most sanguine expectations and become, what they 
have endeavored to pave the way for making it, a university in fact as well as in 
name. 

PROPOSED MILITARY SYSTEM. 

In speaking thus of the necessity of deferring plans of improvement until the 
return of peace, it may be proper to make an exception in favor of the proposition 
which has come with legislative sanction before the board,, of introducing into the 
university the military system of education. As early as the annual meeting of the 
board in June, and before the passage of the resolution of the legislature referred to, 
this subject had been brought up for notice, though not for action. It was esteemed 
to be one on which it would not be safe or wise to act without more full information* 
than Avas possessed by any member of the board. At the meeting in October cer- 
tain documents were presented by the chancellor, obtained from an institution in a 
neighboring State in which the military system has been adopted, and certain state- 
ments were made by him explanatory of features of the system as he had observed 
them during a personal visit to that institution; but there still remaiued a degree of 
indefiniteness in regard to the specific modifications which would have to be made 
in order to introduce the plan here, and especially in regard to the amount of 
expense which the necessary changes would involve, which induced the board to 
request the chancellor to complete the task he had commenced, and to report to them 
in full at their next meeting. This request has been complied with, and the report 
prepared under it is herewith communicated to the legislature. The most important 
of its results, so far as they affect the question immediately imder consideration, 
are tho following : 

1. The minimum of expense at which the proposed change would be effected is 
$22,000. 

2. The dormitories require a modification, which, though not greatly expensive, 
would render them untenantable for several months. 

3. There is for the moment a serious difficulty in the way of securing a competent 
military staff. 

In a question involving outlay the board could not at this time think of taking 
any action Avithout instructions from the legislature. Hence, although they are dis- 
posed to regard the proposition with favor and although the opinions of the report, 
w^hich, considering the long experience of the chancellor as an educator of youth, 
are entitled to high respect, are also favorable, they feel bound to limit themselves 
at present to the communication to the legislature of the information which has been 
laid before them, and leave the decision with the higher authority. * * ^ 

During the existing suspension of the exercises of the university pro|)er there is 
still maintained upon the premises a high school, which has been placed under the 
charge of Messrs. A. J. Quinche and B. N. Harrison, the former recently professor of 
Latin and modern languages, and the latter recently assistant professor of physics. 
These gentlemen have also been intrusted with the care and preservation of the 
university property. The school commands an attendance of upward of 30 scholars, 
principally boys pursuing preparatory studies. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 157 

The legislature took no action on tlie memorial. The pressing and 
fervid issues of the hour probably diverted the attention of all con- 
cerned from the immediate prosecution of a scheme promising so little 
of present result, and when the university reorganized later all were 
heartily tired of things military. The matter was dropped^sub silentio 
and finally. 

THE LEGISLATURE RESUMES THE ELECTION OF TRUSTEES. 

That legislature, however, took one important step in connection 
with the uiliversity. From its establishment until now the board of 
trustees had themselves elected new members to fill such vacancies as 
occurred, but by the act of December 19, 1861, this power was resumed 
by the legislature and the number fixed at thirteen, the governor 
being one.^ 

This enactment substantially closes the antebellum history of the 
University of Mississippi. 

THE CIVIL WAR — THE aEOLOGMCAL COLLECTIONS. 

To the war legislature, which met at Columbus in November, 1863, 
Dr. Hilgard, the State geologist, in his report says: 

During a portion of the winter of 1861-62 the chemical labors (analyses of soils, 
etc.) were suspended, in order to complete the arrangement, labeling, and cataloguing 
of the collection, now consisting of about 8,000 specimens, among which are about 
400 soils and marls, representing the agricultural resources of the State, outside of 
the Mississippi bottom, not yet explored. To the respectable aspect of the collec- 
tions so arranged, their preservation during the subsequent Federal occupation is 
chiefly owing. * * * At the retreat of the [Confederate] army from AbbeviUe^ 
[in 1862] I remained at Oxford in order, if possible, to prevent the wanton destruc- 
tion of the collections, which were in a dormitory building apart from the university 
collections. I obtained from the Federal provost-marshal an order protecting the 
collections, laboratory, etc., but it was only by unceasing personal vigilance that I 
could prevent serious injury to both. After the occupation of the university build- 
ings as a Federal hospital the collections were ordered to be removed to make room 
for the sick. I succeeded, however, in so far interesting the post surgeon in their 
preservation that a detail of carpenters were furnished me, by whose assistance I 
effected the removal to the observatory building, to which the shelves also had been 
removed. Thus, on the whole, but very little damage has been sustained, although, 
but for my presence, the greater part of the specimens would have been lost. They 
are now fully rearranged, and I have packed away ready for transmission the dupli- 
cates designed for the State collection at Jackson, 

THE CIVIL W^AR— CUSTODY OF PROPERTY— aOVERNOB CLARK'S 

MESSAGE. 

On the 3d of December, 1863, the joint standing committee on the 
nniversity reported as follows: 

Since the commencement of the present war the buildings, furniture, and timber 
belonging to the university have been injured and destroyed, more or less, by our 
armies camped there and thereabouts at various times. How to prevent further 

1 Laws of 1861-62. 2^ village 10 miles north of the university. 



158 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

trespasses is a difficult question, but one which ought to be solved if possible. The 
buildings, furniture, apparatus, etc., cost a ver^^ large sum of money, and all will be 
needed again at the close of the war when the institution is resumed. The secre- 
tary of the board of trustees, Hon. James M. Howry, has submitted a report to said 
committee, showing the condition of the university, etc. The committee have 
instructed me to report the accompanying preamble and resolution and recommend 
their passage, believing that very little in addition can be done in the premises. 

That report was closely followed by this special message from the 
governor : 

I respectfully calLyour attention to the condition of the University of Mississippi. 
All collegiate exercises have been suspended; the board of trustees have not been 
convened since the passage of the act entitled *^An act to amend the laws in rela- 
tion to the State University,^' approved December 19, 1861, and in the present state 
of the country a quorum can not be conveniently assembled. The classification of 
the trustees, as required by that act, has not been made, and can not now be made 
according to its terms. In the meantime there is no executive committee or other 
officer who has legal charge of the property and the cabinets, laboratory, and 
libraries, and the astronomical and philosophical apparatus, all of which are of the 
most valuable and costly character, are liable to destruction. The exercises of the 
college will not probably be resumed during the war, and I reconimend that the 
president of the board be authorized to appoint from the trustees, an executive com- 
mittee to manaoe the afi^airs of the university and provide for the preservation of its 
property, or that the number of trustees necessary to constitute a quorum be 
reduced to three, so that a meeting may be had. 

The act of December 19, 1^61, should be amended so as to continue the whole 
board in office, or a new board should be elected. 

Since the adjournment of the last legislature a vacancy has been created in the 
board of trustees by the death of the Hon. Cotesworth Pinckney Smith, so long and 
so honorably connected with that institution. Sad as have been the inroads which 
death has made upon our State in the last twelve months, the demise of none of her 
sons has caused a wider or more heartfelt sorrow. Born upon the soil of Mississippi, 
devoted heart and soul to her interest, and watching with jealous care over her 
honor, Judge Smith spent a long and laborious life in her service. In the forum, in 
the senate chamber, and upon the bench he labored with a zeal that knew no weari- 
ness, and with a purity of patriotism and a loftiness of purpose that has had few 
parallels. In every position he occupied, his great talents, his profound erudition, 
his extensive legal attainments, and the unquestioned purity of his character, shed 
unfading luster upon the annals of his native State, and when death called him hence 
he left none behind him whose names will live longer or be more gratefully 
enshrined in the hearts of the people. 

Charles Clark. 

The act of December 9, 1863, was passed in conformity with the gov- 
ernor's suggestions, the trustees in ofSce being continued until the 
appointment of their successors. 

There is little else of interest to relate of war history. The Federal 
and the Confederate armies in turn used the college property in part 
for hospitals, and the magnetic observatory goes by the name of " the 
dead house '^ to this day. Fortunately, no permanent injury was done. 

REORaANIZATION OF 1865. 

. On the cessation of hostilities, the Hon. William L. Sharkey was 
appointed provisional governor of the State. He was then a member 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSIiSBIPPI. 159 

of the board of trustees, and had been since the incorporation of the 
institution in 1844. Naturally he was anxious to see the institution 
a«?ain at work. 

Therefore, on July 1, 1865, he issued a proclamation convening the 
board. That body, according to the call, met at Oxford, on the 31st of 
Jujy. At this meeting measures were taken to reopen the college on 
the first Monday of the following October. Prof. John N. Waddel was 
elected chancellor and requested to teach, ad interim, the English 
clavsses, in addition to his regular assignment of ethics and metaphysics. 
Gen. Alex. P. Stewart was elected to the chair of i)hysics, astronomy, 
and civil engineering; Dr. John J . Wheat to that of Greek and ancient 
literature; Prof. Alex. J. Quinche to that of Latin and modern lan- 
guages, and Prof. Claudius W. Sears to that of mathematics. The 
tuition fee was fixed at $50 per annum.^ 

The university opened on the day appointed, the first Monday of 
October, 1865. ISTotwitlistaudiug the devastating effects of the war 
just concluded, there was a good attendance of students. The total 
enrollment of the year was 193, the greater part of which was composed 
of youths and young men who had served in the Confederate army. 

On the 23d of October the board met agaiu, pursuant to a call of 
Provisional Governor Sharkey, this time meeting in Jackson. 

General Stewart having resigned his chair of physics, astronomy, 
and civil engineering, Gen. Francis A. Shoup was elected to that pro- 
fessorship. Dr. Stanford G. Burney was elected professor of English 
literature, and Dr. Eugene W. Hilgard requested to discharge provis- 
ionally the duties of professor of chemistry, geology, and mineralogy; 
the terms of office of the two professors elect to begin on the 1st of 
January following. 

A HiaH SCHOOL PROPOSED. 

The question of establishing a high school in connection with the 
university was raised. It was found that the students who applied for 
admission were, either in whole or in part, unprepared for entrance 
into even the freshman class. The faculty had temporarily arranged 
to class such boys and have them instructed, by way of preparation, by 
members of the faculty. But this arrangement was not regarded as 
altogether satisfactory, and the chancellor recommended the establish- 
ment of an university high school. The recommendation was referred 
to a committee, to report at the next meeting. 

The next meeting was in June, 1866. The high-school committee 
reported adversely, on the ground that the university was too poor to 
undertake the expense of such an establishment. There was, however, 
a minority report by Judge Clapp, recommending the appointment of 
another committee to investigate the practicability of the scheme, with 
instructions to report at the next meeting of the board. The minority 
report was adopted. 



' Minutes of board, vol. 2, pp. 52-62. 



160 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

CHANGES IN THE FACULTY. 

At this meeting the chair of ethics and metaphysics was filled, Hon. 
L. Q. 0. Lamar being elected thereto, The classes in moral philosophy 
and political economy were taken from that chair and assigned to 
the chancellor. Dr. Eugene W. Hilgard, former State geologist, was 
elected professor of chemistry, geology, and mineralogy. 

The faculty were authorized to establish special schools^in calculus, 
civil engineering, Spanish and French, without expense. 

THE ACT OF 1867 APPROPRIATES $20,000. 

At this meeting it was ordered further, that a memorial be sent to 
the legislature, then in session, praying for a recognition of the debt 
due the university on account of the seminary fund and an appropri- 
ation of $15,000 for two years for repairs. 

Accordingly, the memorial was prepared and presented, and the fol- 
lowing are extracts from it: 

The undersigned, trustees of the University of Mississippi, respectfully represent, 
that the fifteenth session of the university (the second since the close of the war) 
opened on the 24th of September last with 157 students, and on the 17th of October 
instant the number liad increased to 201, distributed among the college classes as 
follows: Senior, 4; junior, 30 j sophomore, 51; freshman, 27; irregular, 66j many of 
whom are pursuing studies preparatory to entering the regular classes. This shows 
a prosperity for the university equal to its most flourishing condition before the war, 
and an unexpected ability and disposition on the part of the people, after the liery 
trials through which they have passed, to secure for their children the advantages 
of the higher branches of education. 

Certainly this prosperity of the university, which should be the pride of every 
citizen, and this ability and disposition of the people to advance the moral and intel- 
lectual culture of the growing mind of the State, should be most gratifying to the 
people's representatives, and should induce them to give the most liberal support to 
the university, to enable it to accomplish the great purpose for which it was founded 
and to give the highest encouragement to the sentiment which tends so strongly to 
the development of the intellectual resources of the State. 

To do this, all that is required is for the legislature to endow the university with 
the fund which is its own, which has been so long withheld, or to make such appro- 
priations from the treasury as will enable it to furnish the means of education to the 
children of the State who seek instruction within its walls. Surely it would be 
better to endow it at once with that which belongs to it, that it might forever per- 
form all its high functions unsnrpassed by any other similar institution of learning, 
without making a further call upon the State. But if, in the wiser judgment of the 
legislature, that can not at present be done, then what is required is the appropria- 
tion of the necessary amount to provide for the exigencies of the university for the 
time being. 

We ask respectfully to present to the legislature the facts in reference to these two 
propositions as they were presented to the legislature in 1856, with the action of that 
body upon them at that time. * * » [Here follows an abstract of Governor 
McRae's message of 1856 on the seminary fund and of the action of the legislature 
thereon. The memorial then continues :] We respectfully ask your honorable body, 
upon this statement of facts, to allow the interest annually upon the indebtedness 
of the State to the university or to make adequate appropriations to meet all its 
necessities. The appropriation under the act of March, 1856, ceased in March, 1861, 
the first year of the war, and from that time for the four years ensuing the exercises 



THE 'UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 161 

of the university were suspended and the grounds were occupied by Confederate and 
Federal troops alternately for camp and hospital purposes. 

Your honorable body may well know wbat ruin and decay must have befallen them 
during that period. With the return of peace the university has been reestablished 
in all its departments, with a faculty of arts unsurpassed in ability and efficiency by 
any similar institution in the South, and prosperity has again dawned upon it. The 
necessity now arises for means to repair the present buildings; to erect additional 
ones for the increasing number of students and professors, especially a residence 
suitable for the chancellor of the university ; to inclose and improve the grounds, 
which are now like a waste place, and to make necessary additions to the library 
and portions of the app9,ratus. * * * 

Careful estimates have been made of the sum now required to meet the necessities 
of the university, and it is believed that $30,000, payable in two installments of 
$15,000 each during the current year, will be sufficient for all the purposes embraced 
in this memorial. 

The munificent donation of land to the State for the establishment of a seminary 
of learning and the acceptance of the trust by the State for its faithful manage- 
ment, both now appeal to her to make the university what it was originally designed 
to be.' 

Thereupon the legislature i)assed the following : 

AN ACT for tbe relief of the State University. 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted hy the legislature of the State of Mississippi, That the sum 
of $20,000 be, and is hereby, appropriated, out of any moneys in the State treasury 
not otherwise appropriated, for the use of the State university, to provide additional 
buildings, to make necessary repairs, and meet other pressing wants of the institu- 
tion, to be paid quarterly on the first days of January, April, July, and November, 
on the order of the president of the board of trustees ; and until further direction 
by legislation a similar amount is annually appropriated thereafter. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted^ That this act take eJBFect from and after its passage. 

Approved February 19, 1867. 

FURTHER OHANaBS IN THE FACULTY. 

On the 21st of January, 1867, there was a called meeting of the board 
at Jackson. 

The chair of physics, astronomy, and civil engineering was divided 
into two chairs — first, that of applied mathematics, including mechan- 
ical philosophy and civil engineering, which was assigned to Professor 
Shoup, and secondly, that of experimental philosophy and astronomy, 
to which Dr. Landon 0. Garland (later chancellor of Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity) was elected. The ethics and metaphysics were assigned td the 
chancellor. 

Such were the formative processes through which the faculty passed 
on the reorganization after the civil war. There were still other and 
later changes, but they were widely separated in time, and of not great 
importance. They will therefore not be traced in detail. 

THE SPECIAL SCHOOLS, 

In the year 1867-68 certain "special schools" were established — first, 
for the benefit of such students as had not the time or the means to 



' Senate Journal, 1866, Appendix, p. 87, 
21785— No. 24 11 



162 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

pursue tlie regular curriculum; second, for those who should desire 
to prosecute special studies further than the regular course carried them. 
Those schools were of mathematics, of natural philosophy and astron- 
omy, of applied mathematics and civil engineering, of practical chem- 
istry, and of geology. They were kept up until displaced by the reor- 
ganization of 1870. 

THE TJNIYERSITY AND RECONSTBUOTION. 

The university seemed entering on a new career of usefulness and 
prosperity. The perils and the desolation of the war had gone by. 
The empty halls and lecture rooms were again filled with eager and 
aspiring youths, at once the hope and the pride of the State 5 the pro- 
fessors' chairs were occupied by selections from the most honored sons 
of the South, and the treasury of the institution was filled with the 
State's ready bounty. The sky seemed cloudless as a day in June, and 
the memory of the pall that had recently hung over it served only to 
intensify the brightness of the passing hour. Yet below the horizon 
were the mutterings of a gathering storm. 

The reconstruction measures adopted by Congress went into effect 
in 1867. The governor of the State who had been chosen by the peo- 
ple, and who, among other things, was ex-officio president of the board 
of trustees, was removed from his office, and Gen. Adelbert Ames, of 
the United States Army, api)ointed military governor. The State offi- 
cials were all displaced, the judiciary and legislature suspended, and 
the State placed under martial law. 

In the general displacement of officers, however, the university trus- 
tees were not included. General Ames did not interfere with the 
institution. He issued the warrants for its support promptly, and 
seems to have been animated by no hostile designs. Except so far as 
the routine of his office work brought him into contact with it, as where 
it was necessary to fill a vacancy in the board, etc., he left it severely 
alone. At the June meeting of 1868, the secretary was early ordered 
to notify him of the board's assembling and to invite his participation 
in the meeting. He seems to have made no response, nor did he ever 
attend a session. The new appointments made by him to vacancies in 
the board were not objectionable to the people of the State. Indeed, 
no man was ever more sincerely loved and honored by Mississippians 
than was one of his three appointees, the Hon. William Yerger. The 
policy pursued by Governor Ames toward the institution seems to have 
been thoroughlj^ conservative and wise. 

However, the new constitution of the State was adopted on the 1st 
of December, 1869, and in the January following the first legislature of 
the reconstructed State was convened by proclamation of the military 
governor. It was of the type then denominated "radical," thoroughly 
so, and a very large part of its membership were negroes. Ii^eedless to 
say that it was a very unacceptable legislature to the white people of 
the State. 



THE UNIVEKSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 163 

Among other things that this body did was to reorganize the univer- 
sity. It passed the following statute: 

AN ACT to provide for the appointment of a board of trustees of tbe University of the State of 

Mississippi. 

*Sec. 1. Be it enacted ly the legislature of the State of Mississippi, That the governor 
of this State shall, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, appoint twelve 
citizens of this State, who with said governor as president, shall constitute the 
board of trustees of the State University. A majority of said board shall constitute 
a quorum to transact business. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That said trustees shall, immediately after their ap- 
pointment, divide themselves by lot into three classes : The first class shall hold 
their office for two years from the date of their appointment ; the second class shall 
hold their office for four years after the date of their appointment, and the third 
shall hold their office for six years from the date of their appointment. 

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That as the terms of office of said .trustees expire as 
provided for in the second section of this act, their successors shall be appointed by 
the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, who shall hold their 
offices for the term of six years from the date of their appointment, and thereafter 
until their successors are qualified. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, That in case of vacancies occurring by death, resigna- 
tion, or otherwise, during the recess of the senate, the governor may make appoint- 
ments to fill such vacancy or vacancies, which appointment or appointments shall 
entitle the party to hold and exercise the duties of said office until the next meeting 
of the senate. 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted. That until the appointment of the trustees, as pro- 
vided for in the first section of this act shall be made, the present incumbents shall 
hold and exercise the office and duties of trustees. 

Sec. 6. And he it further enacted, That all acts and parts of acts in conflict with 
this act be, and the same are hereby, repealed, and that this act shall take efi'ect and 
be in force from and after its passage. 

Approved May 9, 1870, 

Pursuant to this act, and during the early summer of 1870, a new 
board was appointed. Some of the appointees were acceptable to the 
white people of the State, but the board as a body was not. The 
removals were deeply felt by all who had any interest or pride in the 
institution. They were Howry, Avho from the earliest hour of its being 
in 1844, to that day, a period of twenty-six years, had served faithfully 
and well; Brown, whose unbroken service was only two years less, and 
whose zeal was quite as great; Young, the amiable and elegant gentle- 
man, who had been uninterruptedly on duty since 1848, twenty-two 
years; Clayton, a nestor and achates at once, wise and true, one of the 
original incorporators of the college; Hillyer, a scholarly and wise and 
trusted servant; Walthall, endeared to all the people by his chivalric 
and brilliant record in their unfortunate armies; Yerger, the matchless 
advocate and jurist, a gentleman without shadow of reproach ; and Hill, 
whose Eepublican politics had yet not deterred a Democratic governor 
and senate from committing to his hands, among others, the keeping 
of the State's most precious jewel. 

In the face of this action, it was but little solace that West, Pegues, 
and Charles Clark were retained, and Isom and Simrall newly ap- 
))ointed. They were only five. The feeling was generally entertained 



164 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

that tlie board had been ^' radicalized," afid ttiat their presence would 
do no good. 

Mr. Lamar resigned the professorship of law at once. Throughout 
the State soon arose a heated and somewhat bitter discussion, not loud 
but persistent and influential, finding expression in the newspapers 
occasionally, as to whether it did not behoove '^ sound Democrats'' to 
resign from the faculty, such as were of it, and all others to decline to 
send their sons to an institution where they would be in danger of 
being '* corrupted politically.'' This sentiment was not universally 
accepted. Many maintained that the true policy was to surrender 
nothing 5 to fight every inch of the ground; that, if the university was 
to be taken away from the white people of the State, it should be made 
manifest that such was its fate, and no seeming abandonment of it by 
them should give a disguise to the transaction. There was a strong 
undercurrent of nervous apprehension lest at any time some aggressive 
negro should ignore the provision made for his race elsewhere, and 
demand admission to the university, in which case an explosion was 
regarded as inevitable. 

It was an anxious period. The result of the agitation was that the 
public confidence was more and more withdrawn from the college and 
the attendance fell away to a very marked degree, in spite of every 
effort for its maintenance. 

From its foundation until 1870 the board had always met during the 
commencement week to attend to the business of the university. One 
important feature of that business was the conferring of degrees on the 
graduates. At the commencement of 1870, however, there was no 
meeting; the old board was removed, and the new not organized. 
The degrees were conferred by the faculty, a proceeding unprecedented 
in the history of the institution. 

On the 15th of August following, there was a called meeting of the 
new board. The degrees conferred by the faculty were confirmed.^ 

A NEW SCHEME OF OBaANIZATION — 1870. 

The next meeting of the board, and a very important one it was in 
its results, took place 26th of October, 1870. The following preamble 
and resolutions were adopted : 

The committee appointed under a resolution of the board at its meeting in August 
last, to take into consideration the subject of a change from the close college to the 
university system, through its chairman, Mr. Lyou, made the following report 
(Appendix No. 1), which was read and received, and, after discussion, adopted with 
the following preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas the University of Mississippi was originally founded for the advancement 
of the cause of education in its most enlarged sense, and for the benefit of the pres- 
ent and future generations of its youth, and thus for the elevation and culture of our 
people in arts, science, literature, and morals ; and whereas during the period of its 
existence as an institution of learning, now reaching over a space of nearly a quar- 
ter of a century, its sphere of operations and field of usefulness have been limited by 

1 Minutes of the board, vol. 2, p. 225. 




THE CAMPUS-UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 165 

circumstances beyond the control of the authorities, so as never yet to have develoi>ed 
the idea of an institution of the higher learning, such as is demanded by modern life, 
but has been confined to the narrow limits of the close college system, thus failing 
to fulfill the expectations and satisfy the desires of those for whom it was estab- 
lished; and whereas the voice of a discerning public is everywhere demanding that 
the area of its operations shall bo enlarged so as to open its portals for the admission 
of applicants for every form of scholastic training, both of a theoretical and prac- 
tical character; and whereas it is believed that the times are propitious for the con- 
summation of the long-cherished purpose to change the system of this institution 
from the close college to the university proper ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this board of trustees that the following shall be 
adopted as the plan for the future operations of the University of Mississippi : First, 
there Shall be included in the plan three general departments, viz : 

1. A department of preparatory education. 

2. A department of science, literature, and arts. 

3. A department of professional education. 

Under the first of these departments is included a university high school, in which 
shall be taught all those branches of study that are preliminary to the university 
courses, viz : English, Latin, Greek, and mathematics, together with a course of 
commercial science, including penmanship and bookkeeping. 

Under the second of these general departments there shall be included six distinct 
courses of study, four of which shall be for undergraduates, and shall be parallel 
courses, and two of them shall be postgraduate courses. 

The four parallel courses for undergraduates shall be designated and described as 
follows : 

1. The course for Bachelor of Arts, requiring for its completion four years, and 
embracing the following studies: For the first year: English, Latin, Greek, and 
mathematics. For the second year: English, Latin, Greek, mathematics, history, 
and physics. For the third year: Physics, metaphysics, rhetoric, Greek, Latin, 
French, and chemistry. For the fourth year : Optics, astronomy, geology, political 
economy, ethics, English literature, Greek, and French. 

2. The course for Bachelor of Science,requiring three years for its completion, and 
embracing the studies following : For the first year : English, Latin, natural history, 
and mathematics. For the second year : Mathematics, physics, political economy, 
history, English literature, French, and ethics. For the third year : Physics, astron- 
omy, metaphysics, chemistry, and geology. 

3. The course for Bachelor of Philosophy, requiring for its completion three years, 
and embracing the studies following : For the first year : English language and lit- 
erature, natural history, and mathematics. For the second year : Mathematics, phys- 
ics, geology, history, and English. For the third year: Physics, astronomy and 
meteorology, chemistry, metaphysics, ethics, and rhetoric. 

4. The course for civil engineering, requiring for its completion four years, and 
embracing the studies following: For the first year: English language and litera- 
ture, natural history, French, and mathematics. For the second year : Mathematics, 
drawing, French, and German. For the third year: Physics, mechanics, chemistry, 
and engineering. For the fourth year: Optics, astronomy, geology, engineering, 
ethics, and history. 

The two postgraduate courses shall be as follows: 

1. The course of Master of Arts, requiring one year additional to the course of 
A. B. and embracing, in addition to the studies for that course, an extended course 
in any three of the following: viz, Latin, French, German, Anglo-Saxon, Greek, 
Hebrew, ethics, metaphysics, history; on which the candidate must sustain a satis- 
factory examination, and submit an approved thesis. 

2. The course for Doctor of Philosophy requiring two years additional to the 
course for A. B., and requiring the following additional studies: For the first year, 
practical chemistry, practical mineralogy, and practical botany. For the second 
year, practical geology, practical zoology, practical astronomy, and practical 



166 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

cliemistry ; on any three of whicli the candidate must sustain a satisfactory exami- 
nation and present an approved thesis. 

Under the third general department there shall be included two professional 
schools, viz: 

1. A school of law and governmental science. 

2. A school of medicine and surgery. 

For the first of these professional schools, when complete in its organization, 
there shall he provided a faculty of four professors. For the second professional 
school, when organized, a faculty sufficiently large to meet all demands for this 
form of professional education. 

The department of science, literature, and the arts shall be organized with the 
following corps of professors, viz : 

1. A chancellor, to instruct in moral science and Christian evidence. 

2. A professor of mathematics. 

3. A professor of the Greek language and the history of ancient literature. 

4. A professor of the Latin language. 

5. A professor of English literature. 

6. A professor of modern languages. 

7. A professor of metaphysics and logic. 

8. A professor of history and political economy. 

9. A professor of physics and astronomy. 

10. A professor of chemistry in all its branches. 

11. A professor of mineralogy and geology. 

12. A professor of botany and zoology. 

13. A professor of engineering. 

For the present the seventh and eighth chairs shall be filled by the same incum- 
bent, and, in like manner, one professor shall discharge the duties of the eleventh 
and twelfth chairs. 

The chancellor of the university shall be the presiding officer of all the faculties 
in the various departments. 

On motion of Mr. Simrall, the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the parallel courses, as laid down in the report and resolutions, be 
at once put in operation by the present corps of professors and their assistants as 
far as practicable, and that at the opening of the next session the above system be 
fully inaugurated. 1 

The medical and surgical school provided for in the foregoing reso- 
lutions was never put into operation. The high school was abolished 
and a subfreshman class organized in lieu thereof in 1883. In the main, 
however, the scheme of organization devised by these resolutions has 
been in force continuously since that day. Some minor changes have 
been made, which will appear when the present scheme of work is set 
forth at the conclusion of this chapter. 

THE NEW OHABTEU OF 1871. 

The next step in the university's history is the enactment by the 
legislature of 1871 of an entirely new charter, approved May 9. It 
appears as a portion of the Kevised Code of 1871, and is as follows: 

ARTICLE I.— ORGANIZATION OF UNIVERSITY. 
(Revised Code of 1871.) 
2062 The University of Mississippi, incorporated 24tli of February, A. D. 1844, 
shall continue to be organized and governed as follows, viz: The trustees now in 

1 Minutes of the Board, vol. 2, pp. 239-242. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 167 

office shall continue according to the terms of their appointment and until their 
successors shall be qualified; and they and their successors in office are hereby 
declared and constituted a body politic and corporate by the name and style of the 
"University of Mississippi.'' 

ART. II. — POWERS AND DUTIES OF TRUSTEES. 

2063. The said trustees shall possess all the powers necessary and proper for the 
accomplishment of the trust reposed in them, viz : The establishment and mainte- 
nance at the site of the university buildings near Oxford, in Lafayette County, of a 
first-class institution in the different departments of learning; and they may adopt 
all such by-laws and regulations as they deem expedient for this purpose not repug- 
nant to the laws and constitution of this State. 

2064. A majority of the board of trustees shall constitute a quorum for the trans- 
action of business. 

2065. As the terms of office of said trustees expire, their successors shall be 
appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate. They 
shall hold their offices for a term of six years from the date of their appointment, 
and until their successors shall be qualified. 

2066. In case of vacancies occurring during a recess of the senate, the governor 
may make appointments to fill the vacancy, until the meeting of the senate, and 
thereafter during the session of the senate, until successors shall be appointed and 
qualified. 

2067. The governor, ex officio, shall be president of the board of trustees of the 
university ; but in his absence a president pro tempore may be appointed by the 
board. 

ART. III. — MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. 

2068. There shall be appropriated annually for the support of the university the 
sum of twenty thousand dollars, out of the State treasury, to be expended under 
the direction of the board of trustees, and to be drawn quarterly, upon auditor's 
warrants upon the treasury, to be issued upon the order of the governor, as presi- 
dent of the board of trustees, and this shall be in lieu of all allowances heretofore 
made by the State for a support of the university. 

2069. The secretary of the State shall, from time to time, furnish for the use of the 
university two copies of all laws, journals, reports of decisions of the supreme court, 
and all other books and public documents had for distribution among the public 
officers of this State. 

2070. If any person shall sell vinous or spirituous liquors in any quantity less 
than five gallons within five miles of the university, he shall, on conviction, be fined 
five hundred dollars, or be imprisoned in the county jail not exceeding two months^ 
or both, for each offence ; but this shall not prohibit the sale of vinous or spirituous 
liquors by druggists for medical, sacramental, or culinary purposes. 

2071. This chapter may be repealed at the will of the legislature. 

2072. That this act shall take effect from and after the first day of October, A. D. 
1871. 

Approved May 9, 1871. 

This legislation was quite a material reduction of the university's 
income from the State. At the time it was annually receiving, approxi- 
mately, as follows : 

Under the act of 1848 $11,000 

Under the act of 1854 2,000 

Under the act of 1867 15,000 

Total, about 28,000 

Amount of reduction made by the act 8, 000 



3 68 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

THE UNIVERSITY AND ALCORN UNIVERSITY. 

However, that act produced no actual damage. It was, on that 
point, repealed in just four days. On the 13th of the same month the 
act incorporating Alcorn University was passed, and that charter 
provided for the payment of $50,000 per annum each to the Alcorn 
University and the University of Mississippi.^ 

Kor was it alone in respect of this great augmentation of the pro- 
posed income from $20,000 to $50,000 that the establishment of Alcorn 
University was to figure in the history of the State University. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

On the same day that the Alcorn University charter was approved 
was also approved an act disposing of the agricultural land-scrip fund. 
The charter provided that three-fifths of that fund should be the prop- 
erty of Alcorn University, and the other act provided that two-fifths of 
it should be property of the State University.^ This disposition of the 
fund was in conformity with the suggestions of Governor Alcorn in his 
message of 1870. The part assigned to the university realized $95,000 
in 8 per cent State bonds in 1873. 

This appropriation of two-fifths of the land-scrip fund to the uni- 
versity was conditioned on the establishment by it of a ^'college of 
agriculture and the mechanic arts,'' including a machine shop, model 
farm, a chemical laboratory, and a chair of agricultural chemistry, and 
the application of the interest of the fund to their maintenance. 

Consequently, at a meeting of the board on the 30th of August, 1871, 
this committee report was received and adopted : 

Your committee beg leave to say that the funds not yet being provi-ded, or rather 
available, it is not at present possible to put this department into full operation. 
They, however, think that preliminary steps may be taken to that end. They concur, 
in the main, with the views advanced by Professor Hilgard, whose report is here- 
with submitted, that while ample instruction should be afforded in all branches 
connected with the science of agriculture, obligatory labor, except in so far as may 
be necessary for practical instruction, should not be imposed on the students. A 
small farm will be necessary to exemplify the teachings of the professors. While 
the students in this department should not be compelled to labor on this farm, still 
they may be encouraged to do so by being paid for any work they may perform. 
They think 20 acres will be sufficient for all present purposes, and will practically 
exhibit all the results of different modes of culture, as well as the effects of various 
fertilizers and the workings of the many labor-saving implements now in use. 

Your committee are not prepared, nor do they think it proper at present, to make 
any recommendation as to number of professors, cost of buildings, general outfit, etc. 
They, however, recommend to the members of the board the careful perusal of the 
report of Professor Hilgard [see Appendix B], believing that it will contribute much 
to the formation of right views on the whole subject. 

They beg leave to recommend the passage of the following resolutions as prelim- 
inary steps toward the final organization of the department: 

Resolved, That Professor Hilgard be appointed professor of agricultural chemistry 

1 Revised Code, 1871, sec. 2916. 2 Laws of 1871, p. 704. 



THE UNIVERSITY OP MISSISSIPPI. 169 

and the special geology and agriculture of the State, and that he be requested to 
deliver a course of lectures on these subjects during the current year. 

Resolved, That so soon as funds are provided, the executive committee be author- 
ized to elect a superintendent of the farm, and to take the necessary steps to put the 
same in a state of preparation. 

Tho. E. B. Pegues, Chairman. 

The ^'Appendix B" referred to in the foregoing report was an elab- 
orate and able statement by Professor Hilgard of the results of an 
extensive personal examination made by him into the organization, 
equipment, and processes of the leading agricultural and mechanical 
colleges in the United States, with a detail of the adjustments in the 
faculty, the constitution of new chairs, and erection of buildings and 
purchases of appliances needed to put the proposed department into 
active operation. During the session of 1871-72 Dr. Hilgard delivered 
the course of lectures called for in the preceding resolutions. 

At the June meeting, 1872, the following action was taken : 

The committee to whom was referred the agricultural department of the university, 
beg leave to recommend the adoption of the following resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That the agricultural department ought to be organized so as to go 
into operation at the opening of the next session. 

2. Resolvedy That instruction in this department ought to be assigned to the corps 
of professors as now constituted, if compatible with their duties. If it shall be 
found impracticable for the present professors to instruct in full in this department 
the necessary instructors will be appointed. 

3. Resolved, That only so much land should be employed in cultivation (not to 
exceed 25 acres) as may be necessary to illustrate the scientific instruction. 

4. Resolved, That inasmuch as the funds will not admit of a complete organization 
of the mechanical department at this time, it be postponed until the close of the 
next scholastic year. 

5. Resolved, That the executive committee, with the aid of the chancellor, be 
instructed to devise the curriculum of studies, to be made public before the opening 
of the next session, and that the executive committee be charged with all the other 
details. 

6. Resolved, That a sum (not exceeding $5,000) be appropriated out of the ordinary 
funds of the university, to be used, so soon as the same can be spared, to put the 
land in order, and to provide the necessary buildings. 

H. F. SiMRALL, Chairman. 

It was further ordered that the executive committee elect a superin- 
tendeut of the farm to be attached to the agricultural department, at 
a salary not to exceed $1,000. 

In j>ursuance of that authority the committee elected, as adjunct 
professor of agriculture and superintendent of the farm. Dr. M. W. 
Philips, a celebrated agriculturist of the State and editor of a popular 
agricultural journal published in Memphis. 

The department was opened for the reception of students October 2, 
1872. A full curriculum was presented, of four years' extent, including 
agriculture, horticulture, stock raising, dairying, etc., mathematics, 
English, natural history and geology, general and economic chemistry, 
physics, meteorology, history, political eccrnomy, and ethics. The idea 



170 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

was to have these students fall in with the ordinary classes in such sub- 
jects as were common to both courses; whereby but a small Increase of 
the faculty would be needed. 

On the 23d of January, 1873, Dr. Hilgard submitted to the chancellor 
a report from which the following extracts are made : 

Dr. John N. Waddel, 

Chancellor University of Mississippi: 

In vie^v of the approaching meeting of the board of trustees of the -university, I 
beg leave to present herewith a report on the general condition and prospects of the 
agricultural department of the university, concerning which some action seems 
necessary at the present meeting. 

As regards first, the failure, thus far, to secure any classes in this departmert it 
might appear discouraging at first sight. It does not so impress me, perhape for 
the reason that my intimate personal acquaintance with the views and prejudices 
of our agricultural population did not lead me to expect a very different result at 
the outset. The inquiries and applications for circulars received lead me to believe 
that, had our public announcement not come so late that students could hardly get 
ready for the beginning of the session, we might at least have started a freshman 
class. 

But it must be remembered that the idea of educating young men professionally 
for the pursuit of agriculture at an institution of learning is a new one even in 
older communities than ours, and that with us not longer than ten years ago those 
who considered that any improvement whatsoever in our agricultural practice was 
necessary were few and far between. And even these few were divided as to the 
proper mode of attaining such improvement, a small minority only admitting that 
there was anything in *^book farming^' worthy of the attention of a '^practical" 
man. While, in my official capacity as State geologist, I have had ample oppor- 
tunity to become cognizant of the state of feeling as then existing, I may now, in 
the same capacity, bear witness to the great and material change that has been 
wrought in public sentiment oh these questions of late, and that the calls for infor- 
mation on all topics connected with industrial pursuits are constantly and rapidly 
on the increase. The conviction that a change in our agricultural system is neces- 
sary seems, indeed, to be almost universal; but it has not as yet reached that 
advanced stage which brings the further conviction that fairs, improved imple- 
ments, fertilizers, etc., are after all only like good tools, lequiring fche skill of an 
educated workman for their proper use and the best results to be derived therefrom. 

It is my conviction that the enlightenment and ratification of public opinion on 
the general subject, as well as upon the objects and mode of instruction of the agri- 
cultural department, is among the foremost necessities of our present situation. In 
our sister States of Alabama and Georgia this necessity was so well appreciated that 
a regular canvass of these States was, at the very outset, undertaken by the heads 
of the institutions established there, and with the most satisfactory results as 
regards the numbers of the attendance secured. I am not prepared to recommend 
unconditionally that we follow their example, or at least would be compelled to 
decline acting personally in the matter. But I do think that it is incumbent upon 
us to avail ourselves largely of the press, both periodically and occasionally, to 
impress upon our peijple the claims of this department upon their attention and 
support. Such was essentially the object of the address delivered by myself on the 
occasion of the late State fair at Jackson, and without claiming for that effort any 
merit beyond that of a correct and forcible exposition of the actual condition of our 
agricultural system, of its faults, and of the remedies that should be applied, I 
think with many prominent gentlemen who have conversed with mo on the subject 
since that it should be widely circulated as a campaign document, so to speak, on 
behalf of the agricultural department of the university, and of agricultural and 



THE UNIVERSITY OP MISSISSIPPI. 171 

industrial imiirovement and education in general. Pecuniary embarrassments on 
the part of the Jackson Fair Association, by whom the publication was first pro- 
pped, having threatened to materially delay its circulation, I trust that the board 
will not only ratify the expenditure for printing it, to the extent authorized by you, 
but will also relieve Dr. Philips from being even temporarily held responsible for 
the balance of the cost, which will ultimately be reimbursed by the Fair Associa- 
tion, according to agreement. 

It were, indeed, a low view to take of the mission of education and of educational 
institutions, if we were to consider our moral duty fulfilled by merely keeping up 
with local public opinion, and supplying the demand as it arises. Such is, unfortu- 
nately, the theory of but too many who exert influence on our institutions, both in 
public life and in the press. 

The example of other States, both older and younger than our own, that have gone 
before us in this work, can leave no doubt either as to the necessity for, or the ulti- 
mate success of, schools of agriculture. What thoy have done, we can and must do ; 
for our system of culture is certainly not superior to theirs, our population not 
better educated, our lands quite as rapidly going to waste. If, then, our people 
have shown a certain degree of supineness in this matter, so much greater is the 
necessity — so much more is it incumbent upon us to use our utmost exertions, and 
all the means at our disposal, to diffuse information on this vitally important sub- 
ject; to dispel prejudice and misunderstandings, and to so organize and equip the 
institution that it must command respectful attention, and may challenge criticism 
in all its parts and details. 

This, in my view, is the only proper and safe course to be pursued by us. Nothing 
could be more fatal to our success than if, discouraged by a present want of patron- 
age, we were to ** heave-to,'' waiting for it to come, and meanwhile confine our 
operations and means of instruction to its probable requirements for the time being. 
Nothing short of an absolute financial impossibility should impel or induce us to 
thus invite failure, and proclaim our unfitness for the trust confided to us. 

It is with this view that, as a member of the local subcommittee appointed to 
determine upon the site for the college farm, I have insisted strenuously, and it 
may have seemed at times obstinately, that both as to its location and extent the 
very first beginning should be so made as to indicate what it should hereafter be 
and do, feeling well assured that the acceptance by the board of my recommendation 
that not more than about 25 acres should at the outset be taken into cultivation 
could not reasonably have been meant to compel the adoption of this as the maxi- 
mum area to be considered in the general plan, or put under fence. It was certainly 
far from my intention to be understood as recommending anything so ludicrously 
disproportionate to what has been done by every other State where a farm has been 
established at all ; and so peculiarly inappropriate where a variety of soil and posi- 
tion is positively essential even to efiScient instruction; apart from experiments, 
where it becomes a conditio sine qua non. There will be no difficulty now in finding, 
within the limits of the 2 inclosures representing the farm, such variety as can 
usually be found in small upland tracts in this section of the State. 

Again, it has been objected to the site selected, that it embraces not an inconsider- 
able tract of land badly washed and gullied, lying in full sight of the railroad and 
public road. 

It is, indeed, a great pity (to say the least) that so large a piece of land lying so 
close not only to the public highways mentioned, but to the campus itself, should 
so long have been allowed to run to waste, when a very little labor applied in time 
might have preserved it. The injury is great now, but it will be greater, and will 
in part become irreparable a few years hence. A small amount of labor bestowed on 
it now, at convenient times such as always occur to the careful farmer, can yet keep 
the gullies from encroaching farther, and even make a beginning toward their filling 
up and final reclamation. Had they been left outside of our fence, as was proposed, 
we should have done precisely Avhat we intend with all our might and main to 



172 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

urge our young men not to do, viz, to turn out their worn and gullied lands to final 
devastation. It will be to them a lesson fully as important at this time as any they 
can learn ; for the reclamation of worn and waste lands in this State is becoming 
more and more a question of alarming magnitude. We have good land enough 
within the inclosure to raise premium crops of every kind ; we have also worn land 
enough to exemplify its reclamation. 

The location within full view of the Central Railroad will make the farm the best 
advertisement of the department, if equipped and managed as it should be. It 
should have nothing to hide from the public gaze or from fair criticism. 

To this end, I would strenuously second the suggestion made by Dr. Philips in his 
report, viz, that a definite general plan based upon an accurate topographical sur- 
vey of the ground should at once be made and adopted, so that everything that is 
done in the way of improvement may tend toward the realization of a harmonious 
and efficient whole. In no other way can true economy be attained and the peri- 
odic undoing of patchwork avoided. 

I can not omit in this connection to suggest the necessity of providing, for the 
funds to be used in the operations and management of the farm, a different mode of 
disbursement from that now existing with regard to other university work. Unlike 
general improvements or repairs, the operations of the farm can not afford to await 
their turn at the foot of the docket, or be governed by the fluctuations of warrants. 
In order to be a success in any point of view it must be managed as a prudent busi- 
ness man would manage his own concerns, to the utmost extent consistent with its 
special object — instruction. At times when the success or failure of a season's oper- 
ations may depend upon prompt action requiring pecuniary outlay, the delay 
attendant upon circuitous official references often becomes ruinous. 

To avoid such troubles and to secure unity and efficiency of management, consid- 
erable discretion must be allowed the superintendent of the farm — a condition not 
in the least incompatible with the strictest accountability. So far from this, such 
large measure of discretion is the only condition on which an incumbent of the 
proper qualifications can be held strictly responsible for the results which unequiv- 
ocally flow from his individual management only when thSre is no divided respon- 
sibility. 

It gives me pleasure to reiterate in this place my confident belief that in Dr. 
Philips we have secured the right man for the place, and I hope he will be given 
abundant opportunity to demonstrate the fact. As an experienced business man, he 
is doubtless correct in the suggestion made in his report concerning the propriety of 
immediately entering upon the breeding of blooded stock as a means of increasing 
the pecuniary resources of the department, provided only that arrangements for the 
proper and safe keeping of the animals can be speedily made. While lucrativeness 
should always be a very secondary consideration as compared with the necessities 
of instruction, yet, situated as we now are, anything that can render the balance 
sheet more satisfactory without interfering with the educational interests deserves 

especial consideration. 

^ # * «• * -J- * 

In all our plans and operations, however, the inadequacy of our resources, both as 
regards the plant and the employment of additional special instructors, meets us at 
every turn. It has been thus in the great majority of the agricultural colleges estab- 
lished in accordance with the act of 1862, even where the States have added liber- 
ally to the closely entailed Congressional donation, and communities have vied with 
each other in offers to donate improved sites. The obvious reason of this lies in the 
fact that industrial instruction, to be effectual, is intrinsically of a costly character, 
requiring a '^plant,'' which forms no part of the estimated cost of literary colleges, 
while at the same time in many cases the salaries usually offered to instructors in 
literary courses are wholly inadequate to command the services of men eminent in 
technical pursuits. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 173 

This report was, by tlie chancellor, presented at a meeting of the board 
of trustees on the 4th of February, and that body thereupon passed the 
following resolution : 

Resolved, That Professor Hilgard be requested to report to the governor the condi- 
tion and requirements of the agricultural department of the university, and that the 
governor lay the subject before the legislature and recommend such an appropriation 
as may be necessarj^ to place this department on an efficient footing. 

Professor Hilgard discharged the duty imposed upon him by the fore- 
going resolution, but without avail. The legislature took no action in 
the matter. 

At the June meeting of the board, 1873, a second report from Dr. 
Hilgard was submitted, from which is taken the following extract : 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

Concerning the requirements and prospects of this department I have little' to add 
to what I have already expressed in a report laid before you at the late session of the 
board of trustees. The failure of the legislature to make any provision for an outfit 
such as is contemplated by the act of donation renders i fc impossible to carry into 
effect the plans heretofore detailed, and all that can be done at the present time with 
the limited means at command are the experimental operations detailed in the 
accompanying report of Dr. Philips. Under these circumstances it is not surprising 
that the cry of ^^ failure" should already be raised by those whose wish is father to 
the thought. I see no cause for such clamor, and trust that yourself, as well as the 
board of trustees, will take no heed of it, but will duly consider the circumstances 
under which that which has been done has been accomplished, and I think you will 
be satisfied that few men laboring under similar dijfficulties would have accomplished 
as much as Dr. Philips is able to show. He has inaugurated a number of important 
experiments, .whose results when published will convey important practical infor- 
mation. With the limited force at his command he has materially improved the 
aspect and condition of the tract now under cultivation at times when other opera- 
tions were stopped by the weather, and even on the tract newly put under fence he 
has put in the " stitch in time " whenever possible. He will make abundant feed 
for the coming season, and if but reasonably backed by funds at that time will be 
able to prove conclusively to all willing to be convinced that the practical part, at 
least, of the agricultural department is no failure. But the most intelligent or even 
desperate energy can not succeed without means. 

I can not for a moment admit that the late unfavorable action of the legislature 
represents the interest of the people on this subject. I know it to be otherwise from 
a long and close intercourse with the farming population of the State. Whatever of 
supineness or political considerations may have brought about the result, it assuredly 
does not represent the state of intelligent public opinion. And my hope that a diflPer- 
ent action, more consonant with the interests of industrial and educational progress, 
will yet be taken by the legislature is unshaken. 

As regards the absence thus far of students in the agricultural course, it is a phe- 
nomenon of common occurrence in the establishment of new professional schools, and 
so far from discouraging us, should only stimulate to greater efi"orts. All parties 
agree that the necessity for this class of instruction is great and crying ; but it is a 
new thing in this country, and opinions differ greatly as to the manner and oppor- 
tunity of imparting it; this experience alone can determine. I have heretofore 
placed before you the results of the experience of the older colleges in the country, 
basing thereon mj^ recommendations as to the course to be pursued by us. I have 
found no reason as yet to change my views in this regard; and the discussion which 
was provoked at the late session of the agricultural congress at Indianapolis, by a 
motion to indorse the *' Morrill bill,'' and in which many unkind things were said of 
the agricultural colleges in general, has but confirmed me in my opinions as pre- 
viously expressed. 



174 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Hampered thus, as explained by Dr. Hilgard, by want of means to 
equip an agricultural and mechanical college, but little was ever 
done. The justness of the Doctor's views in regard to the temper of 
the people of the State was manifested a few years later by the estab- 
lishment of the Agricultural and Mechanical College at Starkville. 
Meanwhile the matter languished. The farm was continued in a small 
way on strictly an experimental basis, under the charge of Dr. Philips, 
until the year 1876, when it was finally abandoned. 

In the year 1878 the Agricultural and Mechanical College was 
chartered 5 and the agricultural land-scrip fund was withdrawn from 
the university and passed to the credit of that institution, along with 
a sufldciency of that portion of the fund previously donated to the 
Alcorn University to make up one-half of the whole. 

FREE SCHOLARSHIPS. 

A third instance in which the establishment of the Alcorn University 
was made to affect the State University was that of the free scholarships. 
One of the features of the Alcorn charter was a provision so very ill- 
drawn that it is impossible to say with any certainty what it does mean, 
but which was understood to give one free scholarship, including the 
right to have, for the benefit of the scholar, $100 per annum from the 
common-school fund in the public treasury, to each county or other 
representative's district in the State, with a proviso to the effect that 
when any county was entitled to more than one representative there 
should be one scholarship for each representative. Quite a number of 
students, selected under that statute, on couipetitive examinations, 
attended the university for several years; 116 being considered the 
full annual attendance admissible thereunder. In the year 1875, how- 
ever, the whole scheme was abolished by a repeal of that portion of 
the statute. 

FREE TUITION. 

In 1871 tuition was made free, except in the law school, to all Missis- 
sippi students. Students from any State who were preparing for the 
ministry, or who were not able to pay tuition, were also admitted free. 
In 187C students, from any State or country, were ordered to be admitted 
free of tuition fees ; and such has been the rule ever since that date. 

THE Hian SCHOOL. 

It will be remembered that one of the features of the reorganization 
of the university in 1870 was an order for the establishment of a high 
school. It was not, however, until the fall of 1874 that any arrange- 
ment was made for it, at which time Mr. Andrew E. Kilpatrick, an 
A. B. of the class of 1873, was elected its principal. In the year 1875 
Professor Kilpatrick resigned, and Prof. Lewis T. Fitzhugh (later prin- 
cipal of Whitworth College), was chosen to succeed him. The high 
school, however, while very prosperous, was broken down finally by its 
very prosperity. It Avas strongly objected to by the teachers of acad- 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 175 

emies tliroughout the State on tlie ground that it was an invasion of 
their field of work and patronage. In the year 1883 the board of 
trustees, deferring to that objection and considering the further fact 
(more weighty by far) that the academies of the State had begun to 
recover from the ruinous effects of the late war and to do much more 
thorough educational work than had been done before, abolished the 
school. A subfreshman class was organized in lieu of it, intended only 
for students applying for admission to the higher classes of the univer- 
sity and candidates for the A. B. or B. S. degree. This class was placed 
iu the charge of Professor Fitzhugh as principal, with the rank of a 
full professor. Subsequently, the restriction that students of the sub- 
freshman class should be candidates for the A. B. or B. S. degrees was 
set aside, and those designing to pursue the B. P. course, or even a 
select course, were admitted to the privileges of the class. In 1886 
Professor Fitzhugh resigned to accept the presidency of Whitworth 
College. He was succeeded by John Wesley Johnson, A. B. and M. A., 
of the university. In 1889 the subfreshman class, as a distinct organiza- 
tion, was abolished 5 the students doing preparatory work being placed 
under the immediate tuition of their respective professors, and Professor 
Johnson was assigned to other duties. 

CHANCELLOB A. P. STEWABT. 

In the month of July, 1874, Dr. Waddel resigned the chancellor- 
ship. Dr. John J. Wheat, the professor of Greek, being the senior by 
election, was declared the vice-chancellor, and discharged the duties of 
that position. On the 7th of October, 1874, Gen. Alexander P. Stewart 
was elected unanimously to the chancellorship, and was inaugurated in 
the following December. This distinguished gentleman was thoroughly 
identified with the Southern people. He had been a lieutenant-general 
in the Confederate army, and had served in that delicate and trying 
position with the greatest success to the very end. His installation as 
the presiding officer of the faculty almost wholly allayed the restiveness 
of the people of the State about the institution, growing out of the 
political complications already described. And the unmistakable index 
of a better feeling was the fact that in the inaugural ceremony the new 
chancellor was introduced to the audience by the Hon. L. Q. C. Lamar, 
then a member of Congress, but who had resigned his professorship of 
law in 1870. 

BEOHaANIZATION OF 1870. 

In the fall of the year 1875 there was a great political uprising in 
Mississippi. The Democratic party regained control of the State. On 
the 14th of April, 1876, there was passed and approved "An act to re- 
organize the University of Mississippi.'' Its tenor was as follows : 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted hy the legislature of the State of Mississippi, That the University 
of Mississippi incorporated the 24th of February, 1844, shall continue to be organized 
and governed as follows, to wit: The board of trustees of said institution shall be 
fifteen in number^ five of whom shall be alumni of said institution. The members 



176 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

of said board shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the consent of the 
senate, and shall hold their office for six years, or until their successors are appointed : 
Provided, That the first board appointed under this act shall at its first meeting, 
which shall be held in the university buildings at Oxford on the Monday before the 
last Thursday in June, 1876, be divided by lot into three classes of five each. The 
first class shall hold their offices for two years from the date of their appointment, 
the second class shall hold their offices for four years, and the third class for six 
years: Provided further, That the present board shall hold their offices until their 
successors are appointed as herein provided. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That the board of trustees herein provided for and 
their successors are hereby declared and constituted a body politic and corporate by 
the name and style of •' The University of Mississippi.^^ 

Sec. 3. Be it farther enacted. That in case of vacancies occurring in the board of 
trustees during a recess of the senate the governor may make appointments to fill 
such vacancies until the meeting of the senate, and thereafter during the session of 
the senate until such vacancies are filled. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted. That the governor of the State shall be president of 
the board of trustees of the University of Mississippi; but in his absence from any 
meeting of the board a president pro tempore may be appointed by the board. 

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted. That a majority of the trustees shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business, and the approval of two-fifths of all the 
trustees shall be necessary to the adoption of any order or resolution by the said 
board. 

Sec. 6. Be it further enacted. That the trustees shall possess all the powers necessary 
and proper for the accomplishment of the trust reposed in them, viz, the establish- 
ment and maintenance at the site of the university buildings near Oxford, in Lafayette 
County, of a first-class institution in the different departments of learning ; and they 
may adopt all such laws and regulations as they may deem expedient for the purpose 
not repugnant to the constitution and laws of the State. 

Sec. 7. Be it further enacted. That the said board shall elect a treasurer who shall 
receive all the moneys coming to said institution except the State appropriation, and 
shall disburse the same for legal and proper purposes, and his tenure of office and 
compensation shall be fixed by said board— the latter not to exceed $200 per annum. 
Said treasurer shall make a report of his receipts and expenditures, accompanied by 
proper vouchers, annually to said board, if it meet so often, for purposes of allowance 
or rejection : Provided, That said treasurer may be removed at any time by said board 
on satisfactory evidence of official misconduct to be produced in the presence of said 
treasurer and on reasonable notice to him, and to this end said board may, by sum- 
monses addressed to any suitable officer of any county in this State to be served by 
him, summon witnesses and send for papers : Provided, That no member of said board 
or of the faculty of tfie university shall be eligible to the office of treasurer: And 
provided further, That said treasurer shall live either in the town of Oxford or within 
1 mile of the university. 

Sec. 8. Be it further enacted. That the members of the board of trustees shall 
receive as compensation their actual traveling expenses incurred in going to and 
returning from the meetings of said board, payable out of any funds belonging to 
the university. 

Sec. 9. Be it further enacted, That in the construction of this act by the term 
" alumni ^^ shall be understood all such persons as have graduated in any department 
of said institution, whether of arts, science, or law. 

Sec. 10. Be it further enacted, That all the powers and duties belonging to the 
present board of trustees of the University of Mississippi are hereby conferred upon 
the board as organized under this act. 

Sec. 11. Be it further enacted. That all acts and parts of acts in conflict with this 
act be, and the same are hereby, repealed and that this act take effect and be in force 
from and after its passage. 

Approved April 14, 1876. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 177 

Under this statute a new board was appointed, composed of four mem- 
bers of the former board, ten new members, and Jud^e Hill, restored. 

The board met as usual in June. They passed a resolution requesting 
the Hon. H. H. Chalmers (a member of their body, an alumnus of the 
university, and theti one of the justices of the supreme court) to prepare 
an address to the public setting forth the merits of the institution and 
urging its support. The effect of this address, and of a canvass of the 
State made by the chancellor and several members of the faculty in the 
summer of 1877 was such that the attendance of students in the session 
following ran up to 471, a number much larger than was ever reached 
before. 

DEPARTMENT DIPLOMAS. 

In 1877 was begun the practice of awarding department diplomas. 
They were at first conferred on any student who should corai)lete satis- 
factorily the longer course in any one of the nine departments into which 
the work of the literary and scientific department was divided, and en- 
titled their holders to the status of alumni. In 1886 it was resolved to 
grant no further department diplomas except to such students as should 
complete the longer course in at lest three of the then ten departments. 
In 1889 the departments were dissolved and nineteen (now twenty) 
schools established. Department diplomas are conferred whenever the 
student shall have completed schools whose work shall aggregate 
twenty-five hours weekly. 

THE VAIDEN CHARITY. 

It was at the session of 1877-78 that Dr. Oowles M. Yaiden, a member 
of the board, inaugurated a charity, which he sustained until his death, 
several years after. A large number of aspiring but indigent young 
men were advanced by him the money necessary to pay their expenses 
at college on an economical plan, on their personal notes. At one period 
there were as many as 100 of the " Yaiden beneficiaries" in the institution. 

THE LABAUVE CHARITY. 

In the year 1879, Ool. Felix Labauve, of De Soto County, died and left 
by his will a residuary legacy to the Hon. Thomas W. White, in trust, 
that the net income thereof should be devoted to the education at the 
university of poor young men, who are orphans, sons of worthy parents, 
and from De Soto County. The legacy yielded about $16,000, and the 
income now liberally supports five beneficiaries. Colonel White, the 
original trustee, is now dead, and the fund (now $20,000) is managed 
by the local treasurer. 

Col. Felix Labauve was a native of France. His father served in our 
Kevolutionary war under Eochambeau; was at the siege of Yorktown, 
was decorated by l^JTapoleon with the Cross of Honor for services against 
the Eussians, and became a captain. After his father's death Felix 
came to America when 8 years old. Eepresented De Soto County in 
the legislature of 1843; was member of the State senate in 1845. Was 
21785— No. 24 12 



178 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

afterwards clerk of the circuit court. Eendered efficient service dur- 
ing the war; was again in the legislature and was commissioner for 
Mississippi to the Paris Exposition in 1877. He died a bachelor. 

FEMALES RECEIVED. 

At the meeting of the board of trustees held in June, 1882, it was re- 
solved to open the doors of the institution to females, except in the high 
school. The coeducational feature thus adopted has worked very satis- 
factorily. No adjustments of curriculum were made to meet any want 
for ornamental education or training. The girls were simply allowed 
to avail themselves of the severe classical, scientific, and philosophical 
courses offered to boys. Consequently the institution has not been ex- 
tensively patronized by females; most of those who come being such as 
desire to qualify themselves to teach. The largest number of girls in 
one year was 23. In scholarship the result has been very gratifying. 
The first class to graduate with female members was that of 1885; and 
of the six graduating classes from 1885 to 1890 inclusive (in five of which 
there were females), in two the highest records were made by girls : Miss 
Sallie Yick Hill, class of 1885, from Noxubee County, and Miss Mattie 
James Smythe, class of 1888, from Leake County. Twelve young ladies 
have graduated in the six years, and of the 12, 5 have professorships 
in colleges among the best in the South. There are now (1890-91) 4 
female candidates for the post-graduate degree of M. A. 

CHANCELLORSHIP ABOLISHED — CHAIRMAN MAYES. 

In the month of July, 1886, Chancellor Stewart resigned. The trus- 
tees thereupon abolished the ofiice of chancellor, and directed that the 
presiding officer of the university should be a chairman of the faculty, 
to be selected by that body from their own members. The faculty there- 
upon elected Prof. Edward Mayes, of the law chair, an alumnus of the 
class of 1868, to be chairman. At the expiration of the first year of the 
term the chairman called attention of the faculty tq the fact that the 
order of the board fixed no period of time during which the chairman, 
once elected, should serve, and requested them to elect their chairman 
for the coming year. This they did by reelecting the incumbent unami- 
mously. Chairman Mayes was a second time unamimously reelected in 
July, 1888. 

THE REORGANIZATION OF 1889. 

In June, 1889, Chairman Mayes, in conformity to the bylaw of the 
university, made a report to the trustees on the needs and condition 
of the institution. Induced by that report the trustees made a thorough 
reorganization both of the scheme of study and of the faculty. 

First. The law by which the department of science, letters, and art 
was divided into ten subordinate departments was abolished. It was 
considered that such division was arbitrary and unphilosophical; that 
there was no necessary connection between many of the studies associ- 
ated in the make up of a single department, and that it was unjust to 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 179 

the student. For instance, the department of modern languages in- 
cluded both French and German, and under that arrangement a candi- 
date for the B. S. degree, in order to get any credit whatever for work 
done in the one language, however excellent, was forced to take the 
other. Again, the department of natural history was composed of the 
four subjects of botany, zoology, mineralogy, and geology, and in order 
that a student should be credited with work done in any one of them 
he was forced to take all the others. So also was it with physics and 
astronomy on the one hand and with history and political economy on 
the other. 

Under the new rule the trustees declared that there should be nine- 
teen distinct schools, each being independent of all others; satisfactory 
and completed work done in any one should entitle the student to so 
much credit toward his degree, whether he h ad taken any other particular 
school or not. The nineteen schools were as follows : 

1. Latin language and literature, to be a course of four years. 

2. Greek language and literature, to be a course of four years. 

3. French language and literature, to be a course of two years. 

4. German language and literature, to be a course of two years. 

5. English language and literature, to be a course of three years. 

6. Belles lettres, to be a course of one year. 

7. Pure mathematics, to be a course orf at least three years. 

8. Physics, with optics and acoustics, to be a course of three terms. 

9. Astronomy, to be a course of one term. 

10. History, to be a course of one year. 

11. Political economy, to be a course of one term or of one year, at 
the discretion of the professor. 

12. Mental and moral philosophy, to be a course of one year. 

13. Logic, to be a course of one term. 

14. Botany, to be a course of one term. 

15. Zoology, to be a course of one term. 

16. 'Mineralogy, to be a course of one term. 

17. Geology, to be a course of one term. 

18. Theoretical chemistry, to be a course of one year. 

19. Practical chemistry, to be a course of one year. 

Second. The foregoing order effected these changes in the extent of 
scholastic work. In the schools of history and political economy the 
course in each was extended from one term to two; in those of French 
and German each, from one year to two ; in those of Latin and Greek 
each, from three years to four; and the school of belles lettres was 
wholly a new course. It is designed for a study of the last year — 
assumes that the student has, in the study of the five schools of ancient 
and modern languages, acquired a certain acquaintance with their 
respective literatures, and embraces, so far as is possible in the time 
allotted, a consideration of the best authors of all tongues and nation- 
alities, without regard to the language, and with especial attention to 
the interrelations of national literatures to literary criticism and to the 
philosophy of literature. 



180 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Third. Large scope was afforded for electives. Theretofore the only 
degree which could be taken by an elective course was that of bach- 
elor of philosophy. The studies for the B. A. and the B. S. were all 
prescribed. Under the new rule, any student who does an amount of 
work equal to 75 recitations per week for one year is entitled to a 
bachelor's degree. If his course shall include the English, the Latin, 
the Greek, and the pure mathematics, he may call for an A. B., the 
remainder of the work required being elective; if it include botany, 
zoology, mineralogy, geology, theoretical and practical chemistry, 
mathematics, physics, and astronomy, he may call for a B. S., all the 
remainder of the work required being elective; and any course taken, 
provided the necessary amount of work be done, entitles to a B. P. If 
a student shall take the whole 19 schools he may call for any two 
degrees. 

In the computation of work to be done for any degree, however, the 
following work is not counted, being considered preparatory: That of 
the first and the second years in mathematics (which was in fact made 
a ^ye years' course), in Latin and Greek; that of the first year in 
English. 

Of course a student is not debarred the privilege of entering an 
advanced class under the test of examinations for entrance. He is 
credited, if successful on such examinations, with all of the work 
passed over by such examinations, in like manner as if he had done 
the work in the university. 

Fourth. The office of chairman of the faculty was abolished, that of 
chancellor restored, and the faculty organized as follows: 

Chancellor: Edward Mayes, LL. D. 

Schools of physics and of astronomy : Kobert Burwell Fulton, A. M., 
professor. 

Schools of Greek and of Latin: Addison Hogue, professor; Alexan- 
der L. Bondurant, assistant professor. 

Schools of English and of belles lettres: Richard Marion L^avell, 
A. M., professor; John W. Johnson, A. M., assistant professor. 

Schools of French and of German : Joseph Auguste Fontaine, Ph. D., 
professor. 

Schools of mental and moral philosophy, of logic, of history, and of 
political economy: William Rice Sims, professor. 

School of pure mathematics: Henry Aubrey Strode, professor; John 
W. Johnson, A. M., assistant professor. 

Schools of theoretical and practical chemistry: Richard W. Jones, 
professor; John William Provine, B. S., fellow. 

Schools of botany, zoology, mineralogy, and of geoldgy : Richard W. 
Jones, professor; John W. Johnson, A. M., assistant professor. 

School of elocution : Miss Sally McGehee Isom, instructor. 

School of law: Edward Mayes, LL. D., chancellor, professor. 

Since the action above described the course in mathematics— room 
being given to that end by the law that it should be '^ at the least" 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 181 

tbree years — has been expanded into one of ^ve years, of which the fifth 
is not compulsory for any degree. 

To illustrate the practical working of the foregoing scheme, suppose 
a youth to come in who applies for a degree of B. A. He is examined 
by the professors in charge of the schools of Latin, Greek, mathe- 
matics, and English and assigned to the classes of the fourth year in 
the first three and that of the third year in the last. Ho will at once 
be credited toward his seventy- five hours with the work so passed over; 
that is to say: 

Hours. 

Third year Latin (first and second being merely preparatory) 5 

Third year Greek (first and second preparatory ) 5 

Third year mathematics (first and second preparatory) 5 

Second year English (first year being merely preparatory) 5 

Total credit on entrance , 20 

He mnst then do the — 

Fourth year Latin 5 

Fourth year Greek 5 

Fourth year of mathematics 5 

Third year English 5 

Total number of hours 40 

He now has uncontrolled election in the residue of thirty- five hours, and might 
make it in this wise : 

German (two years, five hours per week) 10 

History (one year, five hours per week) 5 

Theoretical chemistry (one year, five hours per week) 5 

Mental and moral philosophy (one year, five hours per week) 5 

Physics, etc. (three terms, five hours per week) 7^ 

Astronomy (one term, five hours per week 2^ 

Making the necessary total of 75 

The student in such case would graduate in three years by doing fif- 
teen hours weekly in one year and twenty hours weekly in each of two 
years. 

OANVASS OF THE STATE. 

During the summer of 1889 the chancellor made a partial canvass of 
the State in the interests of the university, addressing the people in 
public on the history, work, and status of the institution. He spoke in 
the towns of Holly Springs, Magnolia, McOomb, Brookhaven, Hazle- 
hurst, Jackson, Katchez, Lexington, Durant, Kosciusko, Starkville, 
West Point, Meridian, Macon, Aberdeen, Columbus, Winona, Grenada, 
Vaiden, Canton, Yicksburg, Fayette, and Port Gibson. 

The result of all these measures was an immediate large increase in 
the attendance at the university. 

FELLOWSHIPS ESTABLISHED. 

In the summer of 1890, Assistant Professor Johnson resigning in 
order to undertake a course of special study in Germany, the trustees 
resolved not to fill that place, but in lieu thereof to establish a number 



182 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI 



of fellowships for postgraduates. The fellows are to pursue special 
studies to qualify them for professorships, and they are required to act 
as assistants to their special professors. Each fellow is paid $300 per 
annum for his first year and $400 per annum for each subsequent year. 
There was already one such fellowship, that in chemistry, established 
in 1887. Four others were added, one each in mathematics, English, 
physics, and natural history. 

The strictly narrative portion of this chapter is now concluded. It 
remains to sum up the general results and to give the presetit plan of 
organization. 

The university is now (1891) in the forty-eighth year of its chartered 
existence and in the forty-third of its active working period. Yet the 
session now progressing is the thirty-ninth only, four years having been 
lost during the war. 

Summary of the total enrollment. 





Number of students 
attending. 


l^umber degrees conferred. 




Literary. 


1 


1 


Honorary 
grees. 


de- 


Students' degrees. 


Session. 


r6 


& 


rf 

< 






hi 
h3 


M 
< 


02 




i4 


i 
< 




1848-49 








80 
76 
134 
144 
130 
158 
173 
233 
264 
178 
168 
216 
226 
193 
246 
231 
213 
208 
120 
260 
302 
208 
137 
131 
125 
471 
319 
414 
347 
214 
259 
276 
234 
202 
185 
229 
189 
246 
238 






















1849-50 




























1850-51 
















15 
11 
22 
37 
28 
34 
36 
39 
19 
27 
28 












1851-52 


























1852-53 


























1853-54 








1 






1 













1854-55 


166 
211 
243 
162 
140 
175 
191 
193 
227 
207 
187 
186 
113 
250 
287 
199 
135 
128 
123 
429 
301 
392 
326 
200 
239 
255 
223 
188 
169 
197 
160 
218 
202 




7 
22 
21 
16 
28 
41 
35 
















1855-56 






2 


"i' 






6 
9 
9 
9 
22 
10 






1856-57 


6 













1857-58 














1858-59 


4 
1 






4 
2 










1859-60 














1860-61 




1 

2 
1 
4 










1865-66 


7 
3 












1866 67 


...... 

""5' 

3 
2 
3 
2 
6 
1 
2 
3 
2 
6 
9 
3 
3 
6 
9 
12 
12 
14 


19 

24 
26 
22 

7 

10 
11 

6 

36' 
17 
20 
18 
12 
14 
12 
8 
11 
10 
23 
17 
16 
22 


1 
2 
1 


4 

24 
20 
21 
18 
12 
12 
14 
10 
13 
4 
8 
7 
5 
13 
12 
5 
7 
3 
9 
4 
4 
1 
6 






1 
12 
10 
15 






] 867-68 










1868-69 


4 












1869 70 














1870-71 










3 
4 
1 

2 
2 
2 








1871 72 








1 




3 
9 
5 






1872 73 










9, 


1873 74 










1 

1 
1 

"3' 
1 


1 


1874-75 








?, 


1875 76 






1 
5 
3 
•1 
2 








3 


1876-77 














1877 78 ... 


1 
2 


29 
13 
19 
16 
5 
5 
6 
3 
7 
5 
15 
11 
11 




3 


1878 79 






?, 


1879 80 






1 


1880 81 






2 
8 
2 
5 


11 
7 
9 
7 
9 
3 
4 
2 

16 
2 


?. 


1881 82 






3 


"2 
5 

1 




1882-83 










1883 84 ... 












1884 85 








.... 


1 


18S5 86 










1886 87 










1 

"2' 
3 


1 


1887 88 








1 


1 


1888 89 








2 


1889 90 










2 


1890-91 










3 
























Total 


7,635 


103 631 


8,369 


26 


1 


25 


29 


545 


47 


73 


265 


6 


26 








. 



Total number' of individuals in literary courses . 
Total number of individuals in law course 



1,927 
406 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 183^ 

The presiding officers of faculty have been as follows : 

George Frederick Holmes, LL. D., president 1848-49 

Albert Taylor Bledsoe, LL. B., professor, presiding 1849 

Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, LL. D., D. D., president 1849-56 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D. , president 1856-59 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D., chancellor 1859-61 

John Kewton Waddel, D. D., chancellor 1865-74 

John J. Wheat, vice-chancellor, presiding 1874 

Alexander P. Stewart, chancellor 1874-86 

Edward Mayes, LL. D,, chairman of faculty 1886-89 

Edward Mayes, LL. D.. chancellor 1889- 

The professors have been as follows : 

GREEK LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

John N. Waddel, LL. D., D. D 1848-57 

Henry Whitehorne, A. M -' 1857-61 

John J. Wheat, D.D 1865-86 

Addison Hogue 1886- 

LATIN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

John N. Waddel, LL. D., D. D 1848-56 

Wilson Gaines Richardson, A. M 1856-59 

, . ,. (1860-61 

Alexander J. Quinche, A. M ^ 1865-89 

Addison Hogue , 1889- 

HEBREW LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

John N. Waddel, LL. D., D. D 1848-51 

SPANISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

John N. Waddel, LL.D., D.D 1848-51 

FRENCH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

John N. Waddel, LL. D., D. D 1848-51 

William A. Strozzi 1851-53 

Wilson Gaines Richardson, A. M 1854-60 

Alexander J. Quinche, A. M 1860-61 

Dahney Minor Scales 1866-67 

Alexander J. Quinche, A. M 1867-73 

F.A.Juny,S.T.D 1873-76 

Alexander J. Quinche, A. M 1876-82 

Charles Woodward Hutson 1882-89 

Joseph A. Fontaine, Ph. D 1889- 

GERMAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 

Same as the French. See above. 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

George Frederick Holmes, LL. D., president 1848-49 

Augustus B. Longstreet, LL. D., D. D., president 1849-56 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D., president 1856-58 

William D. Moore, A. M 1858-61 

Stanford G. Burney, D. D 1865-72 



184 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

John W. Shields, A. B., adjunct professor, acting 1872-73 

John Lipscomb Johnson, LL. D., D. D 1873-89 

Richard Marion Leavell, A. M 1889-90 

William Rice Sims, Ph. D 1890- 

PURE MATHEMATICS. 

Albert Taylor Bledsoe, LL. D 1848-54 

Frederick A» P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D 1854-56 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D., president 1856-58 

Jordan McCulloh Phipps, A. M 1858-61 

Claudius W. Sears 1865-89 

Henry Aubrey Strode 1889-90 

Alfred Hume, Ph. D 1890- 

ASTRONOMY. 

Albert Taylor Bledsoe, LL. D 1848-54 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D 1854-56 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. 1^., D. D., president and chancellor 1856-61 

Francis A. Shoup, A. M 1865-67 

Landon C. Garland, LL. D 1867-75 

Robert Burwell Fulton, A. M 1875- 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY (OR PHYSICS, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, ETC.). 

John Millington, M. D 1848-50 

Albert Taylor Bledsoe, LL. D 1850-54 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LIj. D., D. D 1854-56 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D., president and chancellor 1856-61 

Francis A. Shoup, A. M 1865-67 

Landon C. Garland, LL. D 1867-75 

Robert Burwell Fulton, A. M 1875- 

CIVIL ENGINEERING. 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D „ 1854-56 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D., president and chancellor 1856-61 

Francis A. Shoup, A.M. 1865-68 

Claudius W. Sears, professor of mathematics, acting 1868-76 

CHEMISTRY. 

John Millington, M. D 1848-53 

John C. Keeney, A. M 1853-54 

Francis J. Mettauer, M. D 1854 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D., acting 1854-55 

Edward C. Boynton 1855-61 

Eugene W. Hilgard, state geologist, acting 1865=66 

Eugene W. Hilgard, Ph. D 1866^:73 

R. H. Loughridge, Ph. D., assistant, acting 1873-74 

Landon C. Garland, LL. D., acting 1874-75 

Richard W. Jones, A. M., LL. D 1875-85 

Winn David Heddleston, assistant, acting 1885-86 

Woodville Latham 1886-89 

Richard W. Jones, A. M., LL. D 1889- 

AGRICULTURE. 

John Millington, M. D 1850-53 

John C. Keeney, A. M 1853-54 

Lewis Harper, LL. T> 1854 

Eugene W. Hilgard, Ph. D 1871-73 



THE UNIVERSITY OP MISSISSIPPI. 185 

GEOLOGY. 

John Millington, M. D 1850-53 

John C. Keeney, A. M 1853-54 

Lewis Harper, LL. D » 1854 

Edward C. Boynton 1855-61 

George Little, Ph. D., state geologist, acting 1866-70 

George Little, Ph. D ---.- 1870-74 

Richard W. Jones, A. M, LL. D 1875-82 

George Little, Ph. D 1882-89 

Richard W.Jones, A. M.,LL.D : 1889- 

MINERALOGY. 

Edward C. Boynton 1855-61 

George Little, Ph. D., state geologist, acting 1866-70 

Richard W. Jones, A. M., LL. D 1875-82 

NATURAL HISTORY (INCLUDES MINERALOGY). 

George Little, Ph. D 1 1882-89 

Richard W. Jones, A. M,, LL. D 1889- 

MENTAL AND MORAL PHILOSOPHY, LOGIC, AND POLITICAL SCIENCE. 

George Frederick Holmes, LL. D., president 1848-49 

Augustus B. Longstreet, LL. D., D. D., president 1849-56 

Nathaniel Macon Crawford, D. D 1856-57 

Frederick A. P. Barnard, LL. D., D. D., president 1857-58 

George W. Carter, M. A., D. D 1858-60 

Lucius Q. C. Lamar, LL. D 1860-61 

John N. Waddel, LL. D., D. D.. chancellor, acting 1865-66 

Lucius Q.C. Lamar, LL.D : 1866-67 

Francis Ashury Shoup, A. M - 1867-70 

James Adair Lyon, sr., D. D 1870-81 

James M. Long, A. M 1881-83 

John J. Wheat, D. D., professor of Greek, acting 1883-86 

John J. Wheat, D. D 1886-89 

William Rice Sims, Ph. D 1889-90 

Patrick Henry Eager, A. B. (Miss. Coll) 1890-91 

HISTORY. 

James Adair Lyon, sr., LL. D 1870-75 

Albert Hall Whitfield, A. M., assistant professor, acting 1872-73 

Alexander P. Stewart, chancellor 1875-86 

Charles Woodward Hutson, professor of modern languages, acting 1886-89 

William Rice Sims, Ph. D 1889-90 

Patrick Henry Eager 1890-91 

BELLES LETTRES, 

Richard Marion Leavell, A. M 1889-90 

William Rice Sims, Ph. D 1890- 

LAW. 

William F. Stearns, LL. D 1854-61 

Hon. James F. Trotter 1860-61 

Lucius Q. C. Lamar, LL. D - 1867-70 

Henry Craft, esq., titular....' .' 1870-71 



186 HISTORY OF EDUCATION. IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Hon. Jordan McCulloh Phipps, acting 1870-71 

Thomas Walton, LL. B 1871-74 

Edward Mayes, LL. D 1877-86 

Edward Mayes, LL. D., chairman and chancellor 1886- 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS. 

Alexander L. Bondurant, A. B. , Latin and Greek 1890- 

ASSISTANT PROFESSORS. 

Adolph Sadluski, modern languages 1850 

William A. Strozzi, modern languages 1850-51 

Lucius Q. C. Lamar, mathematics 1850-52 

Oscar M. Lieber, geology 1851-52 

Jordan McCulloh Phipps, mathematics 3852-53 

B. L. C. Wailes, geology 1852-54 

John M. Easter, Ph. D., geology 1854-55 

Eugene W. Hilgard, Ph. D., geology 1855-56 

Eugene A. Smith, Ph. D., geology .*. 1869-71 

Jordan M. Phipps, A, B., law 1870-71 

Eobert J. Guthrie, A. B., mathematics 1872-73 

Robert B. Fulton, M. A., physics 1872-75 

John W. Shields, A. b!, English 1872-73 

John B. Adger, M. A., chemistry 1872-74 

Martin W. Philips, M. D., agriculture 1872-75 

Robert H. Loughridge, Ph. D., geology 1872-74 

Albert H. Whitfield, M. A., Greek 1872-74 

Alexander Fox Moore, B. A., mathematics 1873-74 

Alexander L. Bondurant, A. B., Latin and Greek 1889-90 

John W. Johnson, M. A., English, mathematics, and natural history 1889- 

TUTORS. 

George T. Stainback, D. D., Greek and Latin 1855-56 

William Alexander Eakin, M. D., Greek 1856-57 

Charles Hawkins Lee, M. A., Latin 1856-57 

Robert M. Kimbrough, mathematics 1856-57 

William R. Barksdale, M. A., English and logic 1856-57 

Daniel B. Carr, mathematics and physics 1857-59 

Rev. W. T. J. Sullivan, English and iogic 1857-58 

Burton N. Harrison, physics 1859-61 

Robert H. Loughridge, Ph. D., chemistry 1868-72 

Edward Mayes, A. B., English 1869-70 

Robert J. Guthrie, A. B., mathematics 1869-70 

Alston M. West, A. B., Greek and mathematics 1870-71 

Robert J. Guthrie, A. B., mathematics 1871-72 

John W. Shields, A. B., Latin and English 1871-72 

Robert B. Fulton, A. B., physics 1871-72 

Albert H. Whitfield, A. B., Greek 1871-72 

John H. Davidson, A. B 1872-74 

William A. Alexander, M. A., high school 1875-76 

Louis L. Mclnnis, A. B., chemistry and natural history 1875-76 

Thomas D. Greenwood, A. B., chemistry and natural history 1876-77 

Samuel A. Witherspoon, A. M., Latin and modern languages 1876-79 

John W. Johnson, A. M., high school 1876-81 

Thomas W. Stockard, A. M., mathematics and English 1877-81 

James M. Buchanan, chemistry and natural history 1877-78 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 187 

William E. Martin, high school and chemistry and natural history 1877-81 

Arthur A. Walter, English 1877-78 

Lawson H. Snell, high school 1877-78 

James B. Walter, high school 1877-78 

Joshua W. Kilpatrick, A. B., chemistry and natural history 1878-80 

Edward C. Davidson, A. M., high school 1879-83 

Anselm H Jayne, A. B., high school 1880-82 

Frank E. Larkin, A. B., high school 1882-86 

John M. Steen, B. P., high school 1883-84 

Charles F. Smith, A. B., high school 1887-88 

John L. Johnson, jr., B.S., high school 1887-88 

Thomas O. Martin, B. S., high school 1887-88 

Jackson Reeves, A. B., B. S., high school 1888-89 

INSTRUCTOR IN ELOCUTION. 

Sally McGehee Isom 1885 

FELLOWS. 

John W.Provine, chemistry - 1888-90 

Thomas Ovid Mabry , chemistry 1890- 

Frank Clarke Holmes, natural history 1890- 

Paul Hill Saunders, mathematics 1890- 

Hubert Anthony Shands, English 1890- 

Lem Hall Kimmons, physics 1890- 

Alfonso Babbitt Amis, history 1890- 

PRINCIPALS OF HIGH SCHOOL, AND OF SUBFRESHMAN CLASS. 

Andrew E. Kilpatrick, A. B., high school 1874-75 

Lewis T. Fitzhugh, high school 1875-83 

Lewis T. Fitzhugh, subfreshman class 1883-86 

John W. Johnson, subfreshman class 1886-89 

ORGANIZATION. 

The University of Mississippi comprehends two general depart- 
ments — 

1. A department of science, literature, and the arts. 

2. A department of professional education. 

The former department includes twenty distinct schools and five 
courses of study, as follows : 

1. Latin language and literature, course four years. 

2. Greek language and literature, course four years. 

3. French language and literature, course two years. 

4. German language and literature, course two years. 

5. English language and literature, course three years. 

6. Belles-lettres, course one year. 

7. Pure mathematics, course four years. 

8. Physics, with acoustics and optics, course three terms. 

9. Astronomy, course one term. 

10. History, course one year. 

11. Political econiomy, (jourse one year. 



188 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

12. Mental and moral philosophyj course one year. 

13. Logic, course one term. 

14. Botany, course one term, 

15. Zoology, course one term. 

16. Mineralogy, course one term. 

17. Geology, course one term. 

18. Theoretical chemistry, course one year. 

19. Practical chemistry, course one year. 

20. Elocution, course one year. 
The courses of study are — 

A. The undergraduate courses, consisting of (1) course for the degree 
of bachelor of arts; (2) course for the degree of bachelor of science; (3) 
course for the degree of bachelor of philosophy. 

B, The postgraduate courses, consisting of (1) Course for the degree 
of master of arts; (2) Course for the degree of doctor of philosophy. 

The requirements for the bachelor's degrees are fully explained under 
the subtitle ''Eeorganization of 1889.'' 

POSTGRADUATE DEaREES. 

The degree of master of arts is conferred on bachelors of at least 
one year's standing on passing satisfactory examinations. The candi- 
date is allowed to select for his course of study any three of the fol- 
lowing schools or groups of schools: 

1. Greek language and literature. 

2. Latin language and literature. 

3. French and German languages and literatures. 

4. English language and literature, and belles-lettres. 

5. Pure mathematics. 

6. Physics, acoustics, optics, and astronomy. 

7. Chemistry, theoretical and practical. 

8. Botany, zoology, mineralogy, and geology. 

9. Mental and moral philosophy and logic. 
10. History and political economy. 

Applications for this degree from graduates of other institutions will 
be entertained, and a special course of study assigned in each case. 
The text- books to be used will be prescribed in all cases by the several 
professors on application. Applications for the degree must be made 
through the chancellor by the first Monday in l^ovember in each year. 

DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY. 

This is the highest degree offered by the institution. It will be con- 
ferred on the following conditions: The applicant must hold a bacca- 
laureate degree from this institution or from some other of at least 
equal grade; he must select three of the schools as the course desired 
subject to approval or rejection by the faculty, designating one of them 
as his major study. In those three schools (not more than two of which 



^ THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 189 

can be under one professor) the candidate must pursue a course of post- 
graduate study for at least three years, of which two must be in resi- 
dence. The work must be assigned by the respective professors in 
charge of the schools chosen. 

Ko school may be selected unless it shall have been included in the 
work pursued by the candidate in obtaining his baccalaureate. 

Every applicant must have at the outset a reading knowledge of 
French and German; if he have not, he must make up the deficiency 
within eighteen months, beginning their study at once; nor can this 
work be counted toward his degree. 

Ten weeks before he is examined for his 'degree he must present a 
dissertation showing original investigation in the line of his major 
study, which, if accepted by the faculty, must be published at his 
expense. 

At the conclusion of his course he is to be examined before the 
faculty, the examination being conducted by the professors under whom 
he shall have studied, but any member of the faculty may propound 
questions. 

HONORARY DEaREES. 

But one honorary degree is conferred, that of doctor of laws; and it 
will be conferred on none unless he shall have made a special study of 
either the common or the civil law. 

The Schools of Greek and of Latin. 

ADDISON HOGUE, pro/cSSOr. 

A. L. BONDUBANT, associate professor. 

As arranged at present the course in each school extends through four years, with 
five recitations a week. The first two years in each school are preparatory, and are 
not counted as any part of the regular university work with which a student must 
be credited in order to graduate. In both Greek and Latin the first yearns work 
begins at the very beginning, so that no previous knowledge of either language is 
required for entrance into this class. To enter any of the other classes the applicant 
is examined by one of the professors in charge, and is placed in the class in which 
he seems likely to get the most good. The aim in the aiicient-language course is to 
secure thoroughness in what is learned, rather than to go over a large extent of 
ground. 

SCHOOL OF GREEK. 

First year. — The work of this year is mainly devoted to thorough and persistent 
drill in the inflections and in the most elementary principles of syntax. At the 
same time the pupil is introduced to correct Greek reading almost from the very 
first day, the teacher translating for the class. A slight advance in the reading is 
made every day ; the teacher keeps the class informed as to the progress of the narra- 
tive, and encourages the beginner now and then to translate an easy sentence for 
himself. With the beginning of the second term, say toward the close of February, 
the class begins to translate, commencing where the teacher began the first day. 
The class feels somewhat at home here, and many difficulties are thus removed out 
of the beginner's path. 

Only the main inflections of Attic prose are taught io 1 his and the succeeding year, 
and the blackboard is freely used as an efficient aid. The few elementary principles 



190 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

of syntax that are taught the first year are given mainly in connection with the 
reading. Prose composition (English into Greek) is begun the second term and 
continued throughout the course. 

The books used the first year are Goodwin's Greek Grammar, Moss's First Greek 
Reader, and Hogue's Irregular Verbs of Attic Prose. Goodwin's Grammar is the 
only one used in any of the classes, but it is supplemented when needful by the 
teacher's notes. 

Second year. — The Attic inflections are reviewed, and more attention is paid to 
syntax. In the first term Xenophon's Anabasis is read (Kelsey^s edition), and in the 
second term Xenophon's Hellenika (selections from Xenophon by Phillpotts). The 
history of Greece U also studied, in Pennell's Ancient Greece. 

In the third year the book used is Boise and Freeman's Selections from Greek 
Authors. Extracts are read frofti Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, and Demosthenes. 
In connection with the authors read, the students are encouraged to read such parts 
of Grote's Greece as bear upon their Greek text. 

In the fourth year are read the Apology and Krito of Plato, the Panegyric Oration 
of Isokrates, and the Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophokles. 

The outlines of Greek literature are given partly by text-book, partly by lectures. 

The Greek lexicon recommended is the abridged Liddell and Scott. 

On the examination in both Greek and Latin the passages set for translation are 
taken not merely from what has been read during the term closed by the examina- 
tion, but from any Greek or Latin that has been read (by the class that is standing 
the examination) in any previous part of the course; or, an entirely new passage 
may be given. 

SCHOOL OF LATIN. 

The same principles and methods of instruction that have been explained above 
for the school of Greek are carried out in teaching Latin. The books used the 
first year are The Beginner's Latin Book, by Collar and Daniell; and Smith and 
Drisler's Principia Latina, Part II, which contains extracts from Caesar (simplified), 
and Viri Romse. 

From now on Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar is used by all of the classes. White's 
Latin-English Lexicon is recommended. Prose composition, begun in the last half 
of the first year, is now a regular part of the work. Roman history and Roman 
literature are taken up in the second year and studied at intervals during the 
remainder of the course. To the three higher classes a moderate amount of private 
reading (Latin) may be assigned. The authors read are given below: 

Second 2/ettr.— Caesar's Gallic War (Kelsey's edition), Cornelius Nepos, Sallust's 
Catiline, two of Cicero's orations against Catiline. 

Third year, — Cicero De Senectute and De Amicitia (Kelsey's edition), Virgil (Allen 
and Greenough's edition), Livy. 

Fourth year. — Livy continued, Tacitus, Horace, Plautus or Terence. 

N. B. — The right is always reserved to modify any part of the course as circum- 
stances may suggest. 

School of French. 

J. A. Fontaine, Professor. 

FIRST VEAR— FIRST TERM. 

The aim of this department is primarily to impart to the students a critical, and 
as far as possible, scientific knowledge of the language they are studying ; secondly, 
to enable them to make use of the spoken language as a means of communication. 
During the first term students have to acquire a correct and fluent pronunciation 
and thoroughly master the essentials of French grammar, the following points being 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 191 

especially insisted upon and constituting the basis for the first examination : Article : 
(its) forms, contraction, and use. Nouns : how to recognize their gender, form their 
plural, and use them partitively . Adjectives : their agreement with the noun, their 
formation of the plural, their place in the sentence. Pronouns : how to distinguish, 
first, between pronouns and pronominal adjectives ; second, between conjunctive and 
disjunctive personal pronouns; the importance of the latter in a sentence, both as 
to their use and place. Verbs: to be thoroughly familiar with the conjugation of 
auxiliary and regular verbs, and also of some of the most important irregular verbs; 
to know how to form and use the diiferent tenses, and, finally, be able to point out 
and illustrate the peculiarity of the French in its formation of negative and inter- 
rogative sentences, and its use of auxiliaries in intransitive and reflexive verbs. 

SECOND TERM. 

The second term is devoted to a systematic study of French irregular verbs, and 
to the acquirement of an extensive reading vocabulary. This double task is made 
easier and more profitable by comparing the French verbal system with that of the 
Latin and the French vocabulary with that of the Latin and English. About three- 
fourths of the time is spent in reading, and at the end of the year students are 
expected to read at sight French prose of average difficulty. 

Tex/s.— Practical French Government (with copious exercises). French reader 
and other texts suited for the first year. 

It is intended to have the class conducted in French as soon as students can be 
benefited by it. 

SECOND YEAR. 

The second year includes reading in literary, historical, and scientific French, 
together with French composition. It is thought best to acquaint the student first 
with the classical literature of Franco and conclude with the best models of French 
style and thought. About one-fourth of the time will be devoted to practical 
review of the grammar and drill on pronunciation and idioms. 

The practical side of this course is never lost sight of, but the mental training of 
the students, the development of their thinking and comparative faculties, the pro- 
motion of the knowledge of their own mother tongue, or of Latin by careful com- 
parison with a living language, with which they have so much in common, are 
regarded as features of pftpamount importance. 

School of German. 

J. A. Fontaine, Professor. 

The principles and methods involved in the study of French are also involved in 
that of the German, and what has been said of the former respectively applies to the 
latter. 

FIRST YEAR— FIRST TERM. 

Study of the German grammar; especial attention being paid to declensions, 
verbal system, and order of words. 

j-e^/s]— German grammar (Joynes-Meissner); reader, Joynes-Meissner or Whitney 
and other easy German texts. 

second year. ' 

Students are required to read literary, historical, and scientific German texts, the 
authors of the classical literary period receiving a special attention. Lectures will 
be given on the relation of the English with the German and on the historical devel- 
opment of the latter. 

Spanish and Italian are elective stttdies and classes are formed in those languages 
whenever necessary. 



192 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

School of English Language and Literature. 
William Rice Sims, Ph. D., Professor. 
Hubert A. Shands, B. A., Fellow. 

In this department provision is made for at least a three years^ course of study, one 
year thereof being considered preparatory. 

The design of the preparatory year is to qualify students who may be wanting in 
adequate preparation for admission to the freshman class of the university. 

The time is therefore chiefly occupied in thorough drill in the elementary branches, 
viz: Practical and critical parsing in English; inflection, derivation, and meaning 
of words; minute analysis of English sentences, both oral and written, including 
diagrams; written exercises as tests of x^enmanship; spelling; punctuation; the 
proper use of figures, both etymology and syntax; the essentials of good style, etc. 

Text-books: Butler^s New Practical and Critical Grammar; Eeed and Kellogg^s 
Higher Lessons in English ; Hill's Elements of Rhetoric. / 

The freshman and sophomore classes have each five recitations a week during the 
year. 

1. It is the aim of the professor to adapt the instruction in the freshman class of 
the first term to the wants of a large number of young men who attend college but 
one year. Those subjects, therefore, are taught which it is believed furnish the best 
practical knowledge of the language. English grammar, which all are presumed to 
have some acquaintance with before they enter this class, is search ingly reviewed. 
The commoner forms of syntax, as well as the nicer, are closely examined, and the 
reasons for preferring one form to another are carefully given. The qualities of a 
good style are discussed, and the various methods of composition are explained and 
copiously illustrated. 

Text-books: Bain's Higher English Grammar, Abbott's How to Write Clearly, 
Genung's Practical Rhetoric, Genung's Rhetorical Analysis. 

2. The freshman class of the second term begins the study of old English, without 
which it is not possible to have a thorough, scientific knowledge of modern English. 
And from the very beginning of the work of the class, to the end of the course in the 
sophomore year, the old is constantly used to explicate the new in its diflScult points 
of syntax, its anomalous word forms, its idioms and etymologies. The text-books 
are March's Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Reader, and Lounsbury's History of the 
English Language. But much of the work of this class is furnished directly by the 
professor, there being as yet no satisfactory text on the etymology of Saxon words. 

3. The sophomore class of the first term takes a further view of the language as to 
its historical development and philological relations, after which attention is directed 
mainly to the history and critical study of the literature of the language. 

Beginning with the writings of the middle English period, some attention is given 
to the works of Chaucer, after which the course is continued in the study of the 
poems of Spenser, Milton, Dryden, Gray, Burns, and others, with prose selections 
from Bacon, Milton, Addison, De Quincey, and Carlyle. 

Text-books: Carpenter's English of the Fourteenth Century, Shaw's New History 
of English Literature, Hale's Longer English Poems. 

For reference: Bacon's Philosophy of English Literature, Stedman's Victorian 

Poets. 

4. The sophomore clas§ of the second term continues the study of English literature, 
giving its chief thought to the works of Shakspeare, and concluding the course with 
the writers of our own country. 

The text-books are Hale's Poems (continued), Rolfe's and Hudson's Select Plays, 
Scudder's American Poems. 
For reference : Dowden's Mind and Art of Shakspeare, Stedman's Poet s of America. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 193 

School of Belles Lettres. 
William Eice Sims, Ph. D., Professor. 

The chief subjects of study in this school are literary history and criticism. The 
course is introduced by some examination of the fundamental principles and essential 
elements of literary criticisms in particular. As poetry is the highest form of any 
literature and constitutes a leading part of the several literatures of the world, its 
province and characteristics are also duly considered, and its peculiar domain and 
^true aim carefully discussed. 

With this preliminary preparation the class enters upon the study of the leading 
ancient and foreign classics, first taking a brief survey of each literature as a whole 
and then giving attention to the masterpieces of the best authors through translated 
specimens and critical comments by the most competent authorities. The literatures 
studied during the year are the Greek, Roman, German, French, Italian, and Spanish, 
with some notice of others not so prominent. 

From the beginning to the end of the course, the interdependence of these several 
literatures, and especially their influence upon the literature of our own tongue, are 
carefully noticed and duly emphasized. It is believed that the knowledge acquired 
in this school will be of special value to young men contemplating professional 
pursuits. 

The text-books used for the present are Botta^s Universal Literature, Kames^s 
Elements of Criticism, Shairp's Aspects of Poetry, and Wilkinson^s Classic Courses in 
English, with reference to Sismondi's Literature of Southern Europe. 

School op Pure Mathematics. 

Alfred Hume, Ph. D., Professor. 

Paul Hill Saunders, A. JB., Fellow. 

First year (in preparatory department) : This class pursues the study of arithmetic 
through both terms. 

Second year (in preparatory department) : This class studies algebra only in the 
first term, and algebra and geometry on alternate days in the second term. As in 
the studies of these classes the course begins at the beginning of the books used, 
no examination for entrance is required, unless the student enters late. 

Text books : Venable^s Arithmetic, Venable's High School Algebra, and Venable's 
Geometry. 

Third year: There is but one class, and this studies algebra and geometry, with 
recitations on alternate days throughout both terms. For entrance into this class 
the student is required to stand an examination on the first three books of geometry, 
and on algebra up to quadratics. 

Text books: Same as those of first year, with Bourdon's Algebra and the Profes- 
sor^s Notes on Algebra. 

Fourth year : This class studies in the first term plane and spherical trigonometry 
and surveying. The second term is devoted to conic sections. 

For entrance into this class the student is examined on the subjects of the second 
year. 

Text-books: Wentworth's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry and Surveying, 
Puckle's Conic Sections. 

Fifth year (optional) : This class recites three times a week. The first term is 
devoted to difi*erential calculus and the second term to integral calculus, with a 
short course in calculus of variations. 

Entrance examinations are on the subjects of the third year. 

Text-books: Todhunter's Differential Calculus and Courtenay's Calculus. 
21785— IfTo. 24 13 



194 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Students applying for degrees and taking mathematics in their course are not 
required to complete the fifth year, but work done in that year will be counted. ^ 

School of Physics. 

E. E. Fulton, Professor. 

Lem Hall Kimmons, Felloiv. 

Students enter the school of physics in regular course, at the beginning of their 
junior year if they have completed the fourth year of school of mathematics. 
Others may be admitted on examination. 

During the first year (graded as junior) five exercises per week in the first term 
are given to a course embracing the elementary principles of motion, and of the 
mechanics of solids, liquids, and gases. The subject of heat, acoustics, and optics 
occupy the second term. The first term of the second (or senior) year is given to 
the study of electricity, and to practical work in the physical laboratory. Ganot's 
Physics, or an equivalent is used as a text-book. 

In the general course in physics all topics are largely illustrated by experiment 
and lecture. In the practical course the aim is to teach the methods of physical 
investigation, and at the same time to enlarge the student's conception of topics 
previously studied. In this course special attention is given to the practical appli- 
cations of electricity, and to the solution of electrical problems. 

Students have the use of many of the best forms of instruments of precision, and 
have work in reducing observations and in solving problems requiring original 
measurements. 

When originally purchased (in 1857) the apparatus employed for the illustration 
of mechanical principles embraced not only every article which was then usually 
found in such collections, but many which were less common; especially models of 
machinery, and contrivances for exhibiting the various modifications and transfor- 
mations of motion employed in mechanics. The machines of Atwood and Morin for 
demonstrating the laws of falling bodies, purchased in Paris, deserve especial men- 
tion, as being unsurpassed in finish and accuracy, and provided with all the more 
recent improvements. The convertibility of the centers of suspension and oscilla- 
tion is illustrated by the reversible pendulum of Kater. The steam engine, to the 
construction and theory of which particular attention is given, is illustrated by 
working models, or miniature engines of various forms, embracing the stationary, 
locomotive and marine engines; and by dissected models in strong card-board, in 
which all the movable parts are visible, and may be put in motion. Separate 
models -of the valves, pistons, and other essential parts of the engine are also 
exhibited. 

The statical part of the mechanics of fluids is illustrated by the contrivances of 
Haldat, Mariotte and others, Bramah's hydrostatic press. Barker's mill, and by the 
various forms of hydrometer and areometer, the hydrostatic balance, and all the dif- 
ferent modes of determining the specific gravity of solids and liquids. In the illustra- 
tion of the dynamical laws the large apparatus of Venturi is employed for spouting 
fluids; and glass models of pumps of various forms, of the fire engine, of the inter- 



Jln his monograph on ^^The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the United 
States,^^ Professor Cajori has made a mistake apropos of this school. Quoting from 
the catalogue of 1857-58, to the effect that students were made to do exercises '^on 
large wall slates or blackboards," he says : " The fact that pains are taken to explain 
theterm as meaning Harge wall folates ^ rather tends to show that blackboards were 
then a novelty in Mississippi" (p. 224). This is an error. The expression is one of 
enumeration, not of definition. The university used both blackboards and wall 
slates. The room for mathematics is supplied with a number of large and fine 
elates, about 5 feet by 2 feet 6 inches, set in the walls. The lecture room for physics 
has a number set on easels. Both rooms have ordinary blackboards in addition. 



THE UNIVERSITY OP MISSISSIPPI. 195 

mitting fountain, of the fountain of Heron, of tlie Arcliimedean screw, and other 
hydraulic contrivances, are shown, together with the hydraulic ram of Montgolfier, 
and models of canal locks and of water wheels of different descriptions. All the 
forms of piston and valve employed in hydraulic machinery are also shown in sepa- 
rate models. 

In the subject of pneumatics the school is prepared to render the experimental 
illustrations very striking. A powerful air pump was constructed for the university 
by Ritchie, of Boston (whose instruments have secured so high and so deserved a 
reputation), on his Smithsonian model, with all his latest improvements, including 
receiver plates, both attached and detached, and capable of carrying exhaustion to 
the highest attainable degree. There is, also, a large variety of minor apparatus, for 
showing the downward, upward, and lateral pressure of the atmosphere, the resist- 
ance of the air to motion, the fall of light bodies in vacuo, the buoyant power of the 
air, the weight of air, evaporation in vacuo, and the freezing of water by evapora- 
tion; also, condensing pum;^s, condensing chambers of copper and glass, the^air gun, 
the air paradox, and various forms of fountain by rarefaction and condensation. 

The construction and theory of the barometer in all its forms is explained and illus- 
trated, and the instrument, as made by Green, of New York, and adopted by the 
Signal Service, and also Newman's standard barometer, as constructed expressly for 
the observatory of this university are exhibited, together with the mountain barom- 
eter of Gay Lussac, the sympiesometer, the aneroid barometer, and the metallic 
barometer of Bourdon. 

In the course of these expositions all the different forms of the thermometer are 
exhibited, including the metallic thermometers of Breguet and others, and the maxima 
and minima thermometers of Rutherford, of Negretti and Zambra, and of Walferdin. 
Also Melloni's delicate thermomultiplier, of which the theory belongs to a later period 
of the course. 

For the experimental illustrations of all of the interesting facts and principles of 
acoustics the apparatus of the university is complete, embracing every important 
instrument in the catalogue of Marloye, of Paris, whose name has so long been 
associated with this speciality, and who, since his retirement, has been replaced 
in this manufacture by Secretan, by whom the university was supplied. The collec- 
tion will, therefore, be found to contain all the ingenious contrivances of Savart, as 
for example, his monochord, his large apparatus for illustrating the sympathetic 
vibration of a column of air with a bell, his toothed wheel and spring, his system of 
parallel bars, etc., with a great variety of tubes, embouchures, organ pipes, plates 
and membranes for producing acoustic figures, diapasons of various pitch from CO 
upward, Wheatstone's arrangements for interference, the siren of Cagniard for regis- 
tering vibrations, Koenig's apparatus for monometric flames as applied to the analy- 
sis of sounds, to the determination of nodes in pipes, and for measurements based on 
interference of sounds. 

It is probable that, at the time of its purchase, the electrical apparatus of the 
University of Mississippi was superior to any similar collection in the United States. 
The principal electrical machine, constructed by Ritchie, has two glass plates, 6 
feet each in diameter, and in its dimensions is not surpassed by any in the world. 
The illustrations which it furnishes of electrical phenomena are correspondingly 
splendid. Batteries of a magnitude proportional to the power of the machine, 
prepared by Mr. Ritchie, accompany it. 

The collection embraces also a large torsion balance by Secretan, and a great 
variety of minor apparatus, such as condensers, electroscopes of different kinds, 
among which are those of Bohnenberger, Peltier (for atmospheric electricity), and 
Peclet, Coulomb's hollow sphere, Biot's spheroid with movable envelopes, Kinners- 
ley's electrical thermometer, electrical mortars and guns, model houses for firing or 
exploding by electricty, electrical rotations, dances, bells, etc., the electrophorus, 
Zambonfs dry piles, together with extensively varied and magnificent illustrations 
of electrical light. 



196 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The university has, in late years, been supplied with the apparatus necessary for 
instruction in the lines along which the science of electricity has developed. To the 
the original unique collection have been added models of the various practical forms of 
the telegraph and telephone, galvanometers of various patterns, amperes-meter, volt- 
meters, and other appliances needed for practical study; and a complete set of 
Crook^s tubes may be mentioned in this connection. 

The natural magnet is shown in its rude state, and also as mounted for experi- 
ment. A specimen of loadstone in possession of the school possesses a sustaining 
power of more than 75 pounds. 

The more recently discovered phenomena of diamagnetism, or the influence of 
magnets upon nonferruginous bodies, are demonstrated by means of a powerful 
apparatus constructed for the university by Ruhmkorff, of Paris. 

The university possesses a standard magnetometer and a dip circle, both made 
by Wurdemann after the style adopted by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. These 
are mounted in the magnetic observatory, a building specially constructed for such 
apparatus. 

In optics the laws governing the reflection of light, the formation of images by 
mirrors and lenses, the dispersion of light by refraction, its analysis and recomposi- 
tion, Newton's experiments upon the colors of thin plates, the phenomena of dif- 
fraction and of double refraction and polarization with the explanation of these 
phenomena upon the undulatory theory, the philosophy of vision, and the construc- 
tion of microscopes, telescopes, and optical instruments generally, successively 
receive attention. The application of optical principles to the explanation of 
meteorogical phenomena, such as the rainbow, halos surrounding the sun and moon, 
the moon's corona, parhelia, the mirage, looming, extraordinary refractions of the 
polar seas, etc., are made as occasion presents. 

For the experimental illustration of these subjects, the department is provided 
with a rich collection of apparatus, in which are to be found mounted mirrors and 
lenses of large size and of all kinds, including Fresnel's compound burning lens 
nearly 2 feet in diameter, solid prisms of various materials and forms, achromatic 
prisms, hollow prisms, and prisms of variable angle, Silberman's heliostat, Rochon's 
dispersion apparatus, Arago's, Norremberg's, and Biot's polarizing apparatus, photo- 
electric and solar polariscopes with numerous accompanying objects for exhibiting 
to classes the chromatics of polarization, the saccharimeters of Soleil and Mitscher- 
lich, Engel's ingenious models for the illustration of the wave theory, and double 
refraction, Pouillet's diffraction apparatus; also optical instruments of various 
kinds, the camera lucida, the camera obscura, the refracting telescope, the Grego- 
rian reflecting telescope, compound microscope by Spencer with objectives from 2 
inches to one-twentieth of an inch, binocular and double microscope by Grunow, 
the solar and photo-electric microscopes, the stereoscope, the magic lantern and the 
double lantern with polyorama, dissolving views and phantasmagoria, and a fine 
spectrometer, made by Steinheil, after the pattern used by Bunsen and Kirchoff. 
. For illustrating the structure of the eye and the laws of vision, models, and draw- 
ings on a large scale are introduced; and for the better demonstration of the laws 
of refraction, dispersion, diflraction, interference, luminous meteors, etc., use is 
made of oil paintings, exhibiting the phenomena, largely magnified. Besides the 
apparatus needed for producing these phenomena experimentally, the university 
possesses a unique collection, of such oil paintings, numbering nearly 100, illus^ 
trating the topic. 

School of Astronomy. 

E. B. Fulton, Professor, 
The second term of the senior year is given to the study of astronomy, theoretical 
and practical. Young's astronomy is used as a text-book in general astronomy. 
Students are taught practically the use of the transit and alt-azimuth instruments 
with the clock, with the simpler measurements and reductions of measurements made 
with these. 



THE UKIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 197 

ThraugliOTit the senior year, in both schools, three exercises per week are given 
to the work of the lecture room, and two exercises per week to practical work. 

For the illustration of the different topics in this science the university possesses 
considerable advantages^ which will be largely increased during the ensuing session. 

The celestial motions are beautifully represented by Barlow's magnificent planeta- 
rium, 11 feet in diameter— a piece of mechanism unrivaled in ingenuity, accuracy, 
and elegance. The optical apparatus furnishes also brilliant representations of the 
telescopic appearances of the planets, comets, and nebulae, and the 36-inch globe of 
Malby, of London, aifords very useful aid to the conception of astronomical problems. 

At present a portable transit instrument is available for observations of meri- 
dian passages, and a sextant will furnish means of making direct measurements 
of altitudes and arcs. Also a large theodolite, by Secretan, with complete vertical 
as well as horizontal circle, will serve as a model in explaining the construction of 
the astronomical altitude and azimuth and equatorial telescope. 

A contract has been made for the erection of a refracting telescope at the works of 
Sir Howard Grubb, near Dublin. It will be a twin equatorial, consisting of a 15-inch 
visual telescope, Inounted on the same support with a 9-inch photographic telescope. 
The instrument will be complete with the best mountings, including all the best 
devices for control, and with a 4-inch finder and all needed accessories for use with 
the eye or for photographic purposes. It is to be in position in April, 1892. It is 
after the plan (though on a smaller scale) of the twin equatorial at the Paris obser- 
vatory at Meudon, designed and used by M. Jannsen, and which has been character- 
ized as an observatory in itself. 

School of History. 

p. H. Eager, A. B, Professor. 
Alfonso B. Amis, Fellotv. 

First term: General sketch of mediaeval and modern history (Myers); geography 
and chronology (Labberton's Atlas). 

An entrance examination on United States history is reqnired in this school. The 
examination is elementary. 

Courses in Roman and Greek history are given in the schools of Latin and Greek, 
respectively, by the x^rofessors in charge of those schools. A recent act of the legisla- 
ture of Mississippi has incorporated the Mississippi Historical Society. The bill pro- 
vides that the archives of this society shall be located at this university. A prolific 
field for original research will thus be opened to students in the school of history . For 
the session of 1890-91 a post-graduate course will be offered in the school on Missis- 
sippi as a Province and as a Territory, based on the Claiborne collection of original 
manuscripts. 

School of Political Economy. 

p. H. Eager, A. B., Professor. 

First term, economics: F. A. Walker's Political Economy (third edition) ; notes by 
the professor on the history of political economy; notes on the history of United 
States tariff legislation, based on Taussig, with original reference work in Niles's Reg- 
ister, Congressional debates, public documents, and Wool Manufacturers' Bulletin. 
Written exercises by the class. 

Second term, civil government : Special attention is given to the Government of 
the United States, and an independent study is made of the government of the State 
of Mississippi. 

During the session of 1889-90 each member in the class in economics made an 
original investigation into the economic life of his own town or county. Ten of 
these dissertations were published, and they attracted widespread attention and 
favorable notice. A similar series is contemplated from year to year, and it is hoped 



198 HISTOEY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

tliat when taken together they will form a valuable exhibition of the economic con- 
dition and resources of Mississippi. 

The same class were favored with tw^o lectures by Chancellor Mayes on taxation in 
general, and in Mississippi. 

School of Mental and Mokal Philosophy. 

P. H. Eager, A. B., Pro/es«or. 

First term: HilFs Elements of Psychology, with occasional lectures by the pro- 
fessor and written exercises by the students. Brief historical review. 

Second term: Calderwood^s Handbook of Moral Philosophy, with occasional 
lectures by the professor and written solutions of ethical problems by the stu-, 
dents. Toward the close of this term is given an outline course in the evidences of. 
Christianity. 

School OF Logic. . 

P. H. 'Eag'E.r, A'.B., Professor. 

Second term : Deductive logic, Tigert's Handbook (foiirth edition) ; inductive logic, 
notes by the professor. Frequent practical exercises throughout the course. 

School of Bqtany. 

K. W. Jones, Professor. 

Frank Clarke Holmes, B. S., Felloto. 

Five times per week during second term. Gray^s School and Field Book of Bot- 
any, Bessy^s Botany, Chapman's Flora of the Southern States. Excursions are 
made into the woods and fields, specimens are gathered from them and from flower 
gardens, analyzed, classified, and preserved. The facilities for illustration consist 
of microscopes, herbarium collected by the geological survey, a suite of crypto- 
gamous plants, and the use of fresh plants gathered by instructor and students. 

The library contains many and various volumes, pamphlets, scientific journals 
which the student is encouraged to consult. 

School of Zoology. 

K. "W. Jones, Professor. 
Frank Clarke Holmes, B. S., Felloto. 

Five times per week during first term. Text books : Orton^s Zoology, Packard's 
Entomology, with frequent reference to *' Insect Life, ^^ and other sources of infor- 
mation. 

Dissection, mounting, and other practical work required. 

This school is rendered more interesting and intelligible by maps showing the 
geographical distribution of animals, by anatomical charts and various drawings, 
by a manikin, many animal skeletons, a large number of mounted specimens, a good 
number preserved in alcohol; also by a collection of vertebrates, which is increased 
every year by specimens from the geological cabinet, and the *'Budd Collection.^' 
This collection is the result of twenty-five years of labor, and is believed to be 
unsurpassed in this country. It was made by Dr. B. W. Budd, of New York City, 
and contains a rich exhibit of marine, terrestrial, and fluviatile shells. There are 
over 400 genera, upward of 5,000 species, and more than 20,000 individual shells, 
many of which are believed never yet to have been described in works on conchology. 

School of Mineralogy. 

R. W. Jones, Professor. 

Five times per week first term. Dana's Manual, Brush's Determinative Mineral- 
ogy, E. S. Dana's Text-book. The study is conducted so as to make it valuable for 
mental training and useful practically. 



IHE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 199 

Crystallography is studied thorouglily and practice given with goniometers. 

The student handles specimens, familiarizes himself with their physical properties 
so as to know them on sight. In addition to this each student is taught to use the 
blowpipe and simple methods in the wet way for recognizing minerals by their 
chemical properties. 

The Markoe collection embraces a rare and elegant collection of minerals, pur- 
chased in 1857 of Mr. Francis Markoe, of Washington City, and pronounced at that 
time to be inferior in quality to none in the world. It has been enlarged by a hand- 
some addition purchased from Dr. A. E. Foote, of Philadelphia, also by a fine col- 
lection of minerals from New Mexico in 1884, and by various nun or additions. ■ 

School of Geology. 

R. ~W. Jones, Professor. 

Five times per week second term. LeConte's elements with assignment of special 
readings in various works and articles in the library. 

There is a stiidy of the .whole province of geology and a more special study of the 
geology of Mississippi. ' 

Along with the study of phenomena is a constant inquiry into causes; many 
important germane questions are discussed, and emphasis is laid on the conclusion 
that the known facts and established laws of this science do not contradict the 
word of OocF. - ' . . : - , : 

As far as time allows the instructor i)oints out carefully the economic bearings of 
botany, zoology, mineralogy, and geology. 

Hitchcock^s large geological map of the United States, geological map of Missis- 
sippi and of the adjacent States, and maps and charts of the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey, all furiiish means of illustrating this school. 

There is a general collection of rocks and fossils representing more or less com- 
pletely the several geological ages, while the collection of the agricultural and 
geological survey of Mississippi, embracing over 3,000 specimens of the rocks, fossils, 
minerals, marls, and soils of the State, affords the student an opportunity found 
nowhere else of rendering himself personally familiar with the geological and agri- 
cultural features not only of Mississippi, but in a great degree also of the adjoin- 
ing States. 

Schools of Theobetical and of Practical Chemistry. 

E. W. Jones, Professor. 

Thomas Ovid Mabry, Fellow. 
These schools offer : , 

1. A course in general experimental chemistry, in which are discussed in order th^ 
elements and their most important compounds, their properties and uses, the laws of 
chemical combination, the conditions of chemical action, chemical theories, value, 
periodicity. 

This part occupies the first term of the first year. During the second term a short 
time is devoted to chemistry applied to industries, and the remainder of the ter.m to 
organic chemistry. 

Instruction is by text-book, and parallel lectures fully illustrated by materials and 
experiments. 

Text-book: C. L. Bloxham (sixth edition), published by Churchill. This text- 
book may be changed. 

Class meets five times per week throughout the session. 

2. A course in practical and analytical chemistry, embracing (a) general manipu- 
lations, (6) blowpipe exercises, (c) qualitative analysis, {d) quantitative analysis. 
This course occupies the second year. 

This class spends from six to ten hours per week in laboratory work. 

Students are well prepared to teach chemistry in high schools and colleges, and 
are well grounded for the study of medicine and pharmacy, as well as for the further 
prosecution of chemistry as a specialty. 



200 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

The lecture room and the laboratory are large, and the supply of material and 
apparatus is good. Students are encouraged to take post-graduate work. 

School of Elocution. 
Miss Sally McGehee Isom, Instructor. 

The object of ihis school is to produce eiFective readers and speakers; to substi- 
tute simple, natural methods of expression for the faulty delivery which commonly 
prevails in the reading circle, the college, the pulpit, on the platform and the stage. 

The course of instruction covers thoroughly the entire range of expression, neither 
neglecting its simplest methods, nor stopping short of its highest. The aim is to 
supply to those who use the voice a course as scientific and thorough as can be found 
in any phase of education, and to induce those who have no professional purpose in 
view to enter this course of study, which, while eminently conducive to bodily health, 
will add a valuable result.of personal accomplishment. 

The scope of the work may be indicated by the following general outline : Physical 
training, respiration, vocal culture, articulation, orthoepy, gestures, the laws of 
inflection and emphasis, analysis in reading, dramatic and practical reading, artistic 
and oratorical recitations. 

Text-books : J. W. Shoemaker's Practical Elocution, Shoemaker's Best Things from 
Best Authors, and Single Plays of Hudson's (or Eolfe's) School Shakespeare. 

The Delsarte System of Oratory, by Stebbins, will be used as a text-book in the 
last term. 

This branch is wholly optional in all courses. 

Literary Associations. 

The Phi Sigma and Hermsean Societies are literary in their character, and were 
established immediately after the organization of the university. They hold their 
meetings during the forenoon of every Saturday, for the purpose of improvement in 
debate, declamation, and composition. They are managed by the students; each 
society framing ifcs own constitution and by-laws. The anniversaries of these 
societies are held on the 5th of May and second Friday in April, each year, respec- 
tively, when an oration is delivered by a member of the society, selected by its 
members, and usually from the senior class of that year. The ^'Anniversarianships" 
are highly prized by the students, and are eagerly sought. ^ 

PROPERTY. 

The university property consists of a section of fine, roHing upland, 
partly within the limits of the town of Oxford, bisected by the IHinois 
Central Eailroad. The depot grounds were donated to the railroad out 
of this section. The land, except about 80. acres, is yet in the woods. 

The university buildings, gronped about the campus, near the center 
of the section, consist of — 

1. The lyceum, in which are the chemical laboratory and the lecture 
room ] the museum, and the geological display room, and lecture room 
of natural history^ six other lecture rooms^ the chancellor's office and 
the young ladies' waiting room. 

2. The library building, an attractive structure of two stories in 
brick, just completed — four rooms. 

3. The observatory, in which are the lecture room of the schools of 
physics and astronomy, the storeroom of physical apparatus, the phys- 
ical laboratory, the astronomical tower, the transit room, and the 
residence of the professor. 

1 Catalogues of 1857 and 1890. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 



201 



4. The cliapelj devoted to the daily public worship, and the public 
exhibitions; in the third story, containing the halls of the two literary 
societies; the second story being taken up by the chapel galleries. 

5. The steward's hall, so called because of its former uses long since 
abandoned. It is now used for the recitation rooms of the sub-fresh- 
man class and as a residence for two of the professors. 

G, 7, and 8. Three domitories, each containing three halls, and thirty- 
six rooms (each hall containing twelve). 

9 and 10. Two double houses, three stories high, constituting the 
residences of four of the professors. 

11 and 12. The residences of the professors of chemistry and of 
Greek, the latter a framed structure. 

13. The magnetic observatory. 

14. The gymnasium (frame). 

15. The carpenters' shop (brick). 

16 to 23. Eight frame dwellings of various styles, in which, however, 
the university has only a reversion after the termination of leases yet 
to run from thirty to eighty years. 

The entire property is worth about $300,000. 

There is also a handsome two-story brick house built by the Delta 
Psi Fraternity for a chapter house. They hold by a qualified fee from 
the university, the condition being its continued use for that i3uri)ose. 

THE ENDOWMENT 

is the seminary fund which is treated elsewhere. The amount of the 
fund as recognized by the State is $544,061.23; the yearly interest 
drawn quarterly, is $32,643. 

THE STATE APPROPBIATIONS. 



The State recognized the indebtedness to the seminary fund, and 
settled it on the basis set forth above, in 1880, Prior to that year the 
appropriations made in aid of the institution had been as follows : 



1846 and 1847 $50,000.00 

1848 4,000.00 

1849 ■ 11,701.03 

1850 12,450.08 

1851 5,384.40 

1852 26,427.45 

1853 14,213.27 

1854 and 1855 33,999.36 

1856 41,094.33 

1857 , 39,221.40 

1858 39,808.93 

1859 38,117.19 

1860 37,524.93 

1861 35,551.19 

1865 6,226.75 



1866 $25,102.38 

1867 20,964.81 

1868 39,415.19 

1869.... 28,551.19 

1870 38,551.19 

1871 47,551.19 

1872 ' 50,000.00 

1873 50,000.00 

1874 50,000.00 

1875 35,000.00 

1876 21,000.00 

1877 39,000.00 

1878 29,979.51 

1879 30,020.49 

1884, special appropriation ... 3, 000. 00 



202 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

TUITION AND OTHER EXPENSES. 

Tuition is free to the world in the department of science, literature^ 
and the arts; these students pay an incidental fee each year of $10. 
Law students i)ay an annual tuition fee of $50, but no incidental. 

Dormitory rooms are free to all students. Each student is taxed 
yearly $2.50 for coal for lecture and other i)ublic rooms; additional $10 
coal fee on such as room in dormitories. 

Day board ranges from $8 to $12 i)er month; board with lodging 
from $12 to $18. 

ALEXANDER M. CLAYTON, FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE TRUSTEES. 

Judge Clayton was born in Campbell County, Ya., oii the 15th of 
January, 1801. He received but the common classical: school ediida- 
tion. After a period of preparation in a law office at Fredericksburg 
he was admitted to the baT*in.l823. He entered upon the practiteeat 
Louisa Court-House; and there, in 1826, married a Miss Thomas. Hisi 
early professional prospects were good, but he soon removed to the 
town of Clarksville, Tenn. In that new lield he immediately estab- 
lished a reputation for ability, and acquired a large and profitable 
practiccr He formed a partnership with a Mr. Turley, which was con- 
tinued until thstt gentleman was raised to the bench. Here, in.the year: 
1832, Mr. Clayton had the misfortune to lose his wife. 

He was appointed by President Jackson United States judge for the 
Territory of Arkansas, but resigned and returned to Clarksville after 
only one year's service. In 1837 he moved to Mississippi and settled 
on a plantation near the village of Lamar, in Marshall County, which 
he called Woodcote, and where, at intervals, he continued to reside 
until his death. His planting enterprise was successful, but Judge 
Clayton did not abandon the practice of his profession. In 1842 he 
was elected to the high court of errors and appeals to fill a vacancy 
caused by the resignation of Judge Trotter, and in 1844 was reelected 
for a full term. In this honorable position he made a great reputation. 
His term expired in 1851, and he was a candidate for reelection, but 
as he took a prominent part in polities he was defeated with his party, 
and returned to the practice. He then formed a copartnership with: 
Hon. J. W. C. Watson, of Holly Springs. 

President Pierce appointed Judge Clayton consul at Havana, without 
solicitation, but his health failed and he soon returned to his home. 
He removed to Memphis shortly afterwards, and there formed a partner- 
ship with Judge Archibald Wright and D. M. Currin. 

He was a member of the Charleston and Baltimore conventions, and 
having returned to Mississippi, was in 1861 elected a delegate from 
Marshall County to the secession convention. 

He prepared the address which set forth the reasons for the secession 
of the^ State. Se was one of the seven delegates to the Montgomery 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 203 

convention. He was a member of the Provisional Congress of the 
Confederate States, and as such rendered most efficient service. 

He was afterwards appointed Confederate district judge for Missis- 
sippi, and held that position until the close of the war. He was then 
raised to the circuit bench of the State, but was removed from office 
by General Ames in the reconstruction. He never afterwards held 
public office. 

He always took great interest in the cause of education and in all 
public enterprises. He was made a. trustee of the State University 
upon the establishment of that institution, was first president of the 
board of trustees, and until his death, with me or two short intervals,^ 
maintained the relationship of trustee to. that institution.^ He was 
also a chief promoter of the construction of the Mississippi Centr^al 
Railroad, and was tor several years one of its directors. - . ^ > 

His legal attainments were com prehensve and i)rofound, and .as a 
constitutionariawyer his abilities were preeminent. - . . ! > . 

Judge Clayton was' always 'a- devotee of the pure -and fundam<3ntal 
principles of the American Constitution strictly construed^' He died in 
October, 1889, in his eighty-ninth y^ear. .,:.', 



: . JACOB THOMPSON. ,: \ 

Hon. Jacob Thompson was born in Caswell County, K C, on the 15tli 
of May, 1810. His father, Mcholas Thompson, was descended from a 
a family which emigrated from England to Pennsylvania more than 
two centuries ago. 

Mr. Thompson prepared for college in Hiilsboro, ll^T. C. ; entered the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in his seventeenth year, and 
graduated in 1831 with the first honor. On the day of his graduation 
he was appointed a tutor in the university, and discharged the duties 
acceptably for eighteen months, when he resigned and commenced the 
study of law in the office of Judge John M. Dick, of Greensboro. 
Eeceiving his license as attorney and counsellor in 1835, ^he removed ta 
Mississippi in the same year and established himself at Pontotoc, where 
the United States land office had just heen opened, after the Chickasaw 
cession. / . . 

The first public question which divided that community was the 
proposition for the State to indorse $5,000,000 of the Union Bank bonds, 
and a speech by Mr. Thompson in opposition to that measure introduced 
him to public life. In 1837 arose the controversy over the admission 
of the Chickasaw counties to representation in the legislature of that 
year. Mr. Thompson championed the party claiming representation, 
triumphed in the debate on the subject, and was selected to draw up 
the address to the Chickasaw. counties. ^ . . 

In the year 1838 -he married Miss Catherine A. Jones, daughter of 
Col. JohiiBi Jones,, of Lafayette County, one of. the first settlers in' that 
portion of the §tate, 



204 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

In 1839 the question of tlie deposit banks was the great issue o" th'^ 
hour. They had suspended specie payments, and the Democratic 
party claimed that they should resume or forfeit their charters. The 
bankSj notwithstanding their suspension, were thought to have great 
popular strength, and the assault on them was regarded as a struggle 
almost desperate. Yet, accepting the Democratic nomination, Mr. 
Thompson, after a heated campaign, was elected to the lower Honse of 
Congress. 

In 1841 Mr. Thompson was again a candidate for Congress. There 
was a local issue paramount to all others. The Union Bank had become 
bankrupt. The bonds of the bank, to the amount of $5,000,000, had 
been indorsed by the State. They had been defaulted, and the State 
was called on to pay as indorser. The governor had refused payment 
on the ground that the bonds were issued in violation of the constitu- 
tion, and that the State was neither legally nor morally bound ; and 
an appeal was made on this question to the people. Mr. Thompson 
was called on for his views, and sustained the governor with great 
clearness and force. He was reelected. 

He was again reelected in 1843, and for a fourth term in 1845, Pend- 
ing the canvass for this last reelection. Governor Brown offered him 
the unexpired Senatorial term of Mr. Walker, who had resigned when 
appointed to the Cabinet of Mr. Polk, but the offer was declined. 

In 1847 and 1849 he was again returned for his fifth and sixth terms, 
making twelve consecutive years in that service. 

In 1850 the compromise measures were passed which admitted Cali- 
fornia as a State, provided Territorial governments for Kew Mexico, 
Utah, and Arizona, and defined the northern boundary of Texas. Out 
of the complications arising from those measures grew Mr. Thompson's 
first political defeat. All his ticket went down before the storm. 

During the Administration of Mr. Pierce Mr. Thompson was offered 
the consulship to Cuba, an important office, and then considered a most 
profitable one, but he declined it. In 1855 his name was laid before 
the party as a candidate for the United States Senate; but there were 
other aspirants, and to preserve the harmony of the i)arty it was deter- 
mined in the caucus to nominate Mr. Davis, who was not a candidate. 

In 1856, being a delegate to the Cincinnati convention,, he supported 
the candidacy of Mr. Buchanan, and after the election President 
Buchanan invited Mr. Thompson into his Cabinet as Secretary of the 
Interior. He accepted the post, and entered on its duties in March, 
1857. When Mississippi seceded from the Union, Mr. Thompson, on 
the 9th of January, 1861, sent in his resignation, and returned to his 
home in Oxford, Miss. 

During the war he served for short periods in various military capaci- 
ties — as volunteer aid on the staff of General Beauregard in the Shi- 
loh campaign; as lieutenant- colonel in Ballantine's regiment; as chief 
inspector, on General Pemberton's staff', in the campaign about Yicks- 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 205 

burg. After the fall of Yieksburg he returned home and served in 
two sessions of the legislature as representative from Lafayette County. 
In 1864 he was sent to Canada on a secret mission by the Confederate 
authorities. 

After the war was over he spent several years in Europe with his 
family. On his return he removed from Oxford, Miss., to Memi^his, 
where he took no part in politics, but actively engaged in business 
until his death, in 1885. 

During his active life Mr. Thompson was a zealous supporter of all 
movements of educational character. He served as a member of the 
board of trustees of the university from 1844 to 1864, with one interval 
of four years, and was the second president of that body, succeeding 
Judge Clayton and serving as such until the law making the governor 
of the State president ex ofi&cio went into operation. 

AUGUSTUS B. LONaSTREET, PRESIDENT. 

Augustus Baldwin Longstreet was the son of William Longstreet, 
an inventor of steam machinery, a native of Kew Jersey. The son was 
born in Augusta, Ga., on the 22d of September, 1790. 

He was early sent to school, but made little progress in study, and was more expert 
as a cotton picker, a wrestler, and a marksman. His mother, however, kept Mm 
resolutely to his tasks, and, becoming at length associated at school with George 
McDuffle, the influence of the latter gave him a relish for books. He was graduated 
at Yale College in 1813, began the study of law at Litchfield, Conn., and was admitted 
to practice in Georgia in 1815. About this time he married Miss Frances Eliza 
Parke, of North Carolina, with whom he lived happily until her decease, in the year 
1868. In 1821 he represented the county of Greene in the legislature ; in 1822 he was 
made judge of the superior court of Ocmulgee circuit, and in 1824 was a candidate 
for Congress with every prospect for success, when he withdrew from the canvass la 
consequence of the death of a child. This event deeply impressed him with reli- 
gious feeling, and it was his custom from that time to open his court with prayer. 
Declining reelection to the bench, he returned to the bar, and was especially dis- 
tinguished for his efforts and successes in criminal cases. In 1838 he entered upon the 
ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church, and was stationed in 1839 in Augusta^ 
which was then visited with unusual malignity by yellow fever, but he did not leave 
his post. In that year he was elected president of Emory College, which office he 
held until 1848, when he was invited to the presidenojs of Centenary College, Loui- 
siana. This position after one year he exchanged for the presidency of the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, which he resigned in 1856, designing to retire to private life. But 
in the following year he accepted the presidency cf the South Carolina College. ^ 

This station he filled until the breaking out of the late civil war. 
With his presidency of the South Carolina College terminated his 
public life. On the cessation of hostilitie.s he returned to Oxford, 
Miss., drawn thither by the fact that both of his daughters lived there. 
Here he resided until his death, on the 9th of July, 1870. His last 
illness was not painful, nor long protracted. As life passed away he 
lay quietly in full possession of his mental powers, counting his own 

^New American Encyclopedia, title ''Longstreet.'^ 



206 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

pulse and commenting on its failing power. He died in the fullest 
assurance of a Ohristain faith. 

From an early period of life Judge Longstreet was accustomed to write for news- 
papers, magazines, and reviews, and many of his speeches before literary societies, 
charges to juries, and sermons have been published. His inaugural address on assum- 
ing the presidency of Emory College, his baccalaureate to the graduating class of the 
South Carolina College (1858), and a sermon on infidelity before the Young Men's 
Christian Association are among his best performances. He extended his reputation 
Iby his ^^ Letters to Clergymen of the Northern Methodist Church" on the subject of 
slaverj', by his speech in the convention at Louisville, Ky., tor organizing the South- 
ern Methodist Church, by his '^Letters from Georgia to Massachusetts," and by an 
able review of the decision of the Supreme Court in the case of McCulloch v. The 
State of Maryland. His miscellaneous writings include many of a humorous character. 
The first of his publications was a letter purporting to come from two convicts under 
a sentence of death who had broken gaol and escaped. His peculiar vein of humor is 
conspicious in the Georgia Scenes, a volume of sketches which has passed through 
numerous editions. Many of his papers in periodicals, as the Magnolia Magazine, 
the Southern Literary Messenger, and the Methodist Quarterly, have not been col- 
lected. A novel from his pen, entitled Master .William Mitten, or the Youth of 
Brilliant Talents who was Ruined by Bad Luck, appeared serially in the Field and 
Fireside, a literary journal of Georgia, and was reproduced in a volume during the 
late war.^ 

The following eloquent tribute was paid to the memory of tliis Chris- 
tian gentleman and teacher by Chancellor Waddel on the occasion of 
the quarter-century celebration of the university, in 1873 : 

The more familiar title— that by which he was best known among his acquain- 
tances and his oldest friends— was ^Mudge Longstreet.^' He was a Georgian. His 
name was a familiar household word in my native home as far back as my early 
youth. He was a pupil of my father's celebrated ^^Williugton Academy,^' in South 
Carolina, which he himself has immortalized in the chapter of the Georgia Scenes 
headed ^'The debating society.'^ There he was fitted for Yale CoHege, where, in the 
year 1813, he graduated in a class of 70. Subsequently he took his course in law 
at Litchfield, Conn., at the celebrated school of Tapping Eeeve and James Gould, 
Tinder whose instruction so many distinguished men of the South pursued their early 
legal studies. Having entered upon the caVeer of an attorney at law in his native 
St*ate, with prospects unusuaHy bright, he soon rose to the highest rank, and stood 
among the foremost of a profession in which his compeers were such men as Berrien, 
Cobb, Dawson, and many others of abilities equally splendid. He rapidly achieved 
such fame, and won for himself such reputation as a finished and eloquent orator, 
that he could always commtind as large an audience as any man in the State, and 
perhaps larger than could any other man. 

Under the powerful influence of God's Holy Spirit, when at the very height of 
his fame and popularity he abandoned the profession of law and the pursuit of 
politics, and yielding to the chastening hand of his Heavenly Father in a deep and 
sore affliction— the loss of an only son— he accepted with a humble and devout spirit 
what he believed the call of God to the holy ministry. While engaged in this 
exalted service he was called by his church to the presidency of Emory College, at 
Oxford, Ga., where, without ceasing at all the functions of a gospel minister, he added 
to them the kindred duties of a preceptor of youth and occupied this position for 
thirteen years with credit, honor, and usefulness. 

Called again to preside over Centenary College, in Louisiana, he remained there 
only five months, when, finding the field one wholly unsuite d to his views, he 

iThe New American Encyclopedia, title ^^Longstreet.'' 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 207 

resigned and returned to Georgia. Hardly had lie reached his native State when he 
received the intelligence from official and private sources at once that he had been 
elected unanimously to the presidency of the University of Mississippi— not having 
been a candidate for the office. Here his career was eminently successful. Enter- 
ing upon the duties of his office in September; 1849, for seven years he gave his 
best services to the institution, aiid in the unparalleled prosperity of the university 
reaped the truest, richest, and most gratifying reward for all his unwearying and 
faithful toils. 

On his entrance upon the duties of his office he was met by the two difficulties to 
which allusion has already been made, viz : First, the bad repute of the university 
for order and discipline, and, second, the reputation which was unjustly given to 
the institution, that its tendencies were toward infidelity. The result of the second 
session of the university (tbe first of the new administration) was hardly to be 
considered a success in all respects, there being in attendance during the whole 
year only 76 students. 

The x>eople of the State, however, soon discovered tbat there was at the helm a 
master spirit, and year by year the patronage steadily increased until the number 
S64 was reached. Although this number was attained during the session after his 
resignation, I have always maintained that it was due to the wise administration of 
President Longstreet, which had gained for the university the confidence of the peo- 
ple of the State, and the impulse thus imparted to the institution continued to 
operate after he had left it. The resignation of this pure-minded, upright, and able 
college executive took effect in July, 1856, and I may take occasion, at this point of 
his record, to present a double estimate of him as he appears to me as a public ser- 
vant and as he was known to me in the sacred retirement of private life. 

(1) As A Public Servant. 

His character was adorned not merely with a morality current with the world, but 
with the enduring yet chastened luster of Christian juirity. He preserved his dig- 
nity and self-respect even when giving full flow to his excellent humor. He was 
vigilant without being oifensive; he succeeded in impressing students with the 
belief that he was solicitous only for their highest interest. He was eminently 
selfpossessed, keeping ever full command of himself. He governed without any 
ostentatious display of the machinery of government. He possessed in a remark- 
able degx'ee the faculty of swaying and controlling a student body during exciting 
scenes. This much as to his official traits. No less estimable and attractive were 
his characteristics. 

(2) In Private Lij'e. 

Genial aud cordial in his temperament, he was possessed of a deep and subtle vein 
of rich humor, which was irresist-ible in its cheerful and even mirthful influence. In 
his heart there was no malice or bitterness. His wit partook not in the slightest 
degree of sarcasm. He was charitable in his judgments, liberal in his views, and 
public spirited in his relations to all around him. His opinions in religion and pol- 
itics were none the less decided, for all his tenderness to the creeds of others. There 
was no dogmatism about him, nor any timidity in expressing his views. As a 
preacher he was solemn, earnest, and instructive. As a writer his style was chaste 
and beautiful. As a man, then, "take him all in all," his character will bear the 
closest scrutiny, both in his public and in his private life. He was a kind husband, 
an affectionate father, a humane master, a considerate neighbor, a genial companion, 
an affable teacher, a wise counsellor, a man of faith and trust in God, enjoying to a 
degree that was remarkable the assurance of his acceptance with his Heavenly 
Father. When, on the 9th of July, 1870, he closed his long and useful life of 79 
years, 9 months, and 18 days, he died in faith, and left as a legacy to his descendants 
a spotless reputation and the example of a transcendently noble life. 



208 HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

FREDERICK A. P. BARNARD, PRESIDENT AND CHANCELLOR. 

Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard was born in Sheffield, Berkshire 
Oounty, Mass., on the 5th of May, 1809. His father was Eobert Foster 
Barnard, a lawyer, who had married a Miss Augusta Porter. 

Dr. Barnard^s first instruction was received at home; afterwards at 
Saratoga Springs, F. Y., and at Stockbridge, Mass. He entered Yale 
College in September, 1824, pursued a classical course, and graduated 
in 1828. 

Adopting education for his pursuit in life, after graduation he taught 
for a few years in the preparatory school called the Hartford Grammar 
School, at Hartford, Conn. He was then, for one year, a tutor in Yale 
College. Then he engaged as an instructor of the deaf and dumb at 
Hartford, whence he was transferred to an institution of the same 
character in Kew York City. While holding this position he published 
an analytic grammar. 

When the faculty of the University of Alabama was reorganized in 
1837 he was elected i)rofessor of mathematics and natural philosophy, 
which chair he held until 1848, when he was transferred to that of 
chemistry and natural history. 

During this period, in 184G, Governor Martin, of Alabama, appointed 
him astronomer to a commission organized to determine the boundary 
between that State and Florida. His report was adopted as a basis 
for settling the matters in controversy by the legislatures of both 
States. 

In the year 1847 he was married to Margaret McMurray, of Ohio. 

In September, 1854, he was elected professor of mathematics, physics, 
and civil engineering in the University of Mississippi, which position 
he accepted, filling also the chair of chemii^try ad interim for one year* 

In June, 1856, President Longstreet resigned, whereupon Dr. Bar- 
nard was elected to the Presidency, and accepted it. In 1858 the style 
of the office was changed to that of chancellor. Dr. Barnard continuing 
to be the incumbent. 

During his residence in the South Dr. Barnard wrote largely for the 
periodical press, published many papers on topics of educational and 
scientific interest, and delivered many public addresses. In 1858 he 
prepared an elaborate report on the history, methods, results, and 
value, practical and scientific, of the United States Coast Survey. In 
1860 he was a member of the astronomical expedition sent to Cape 
Chudleigh, in Labrador, to observe the solar eclipse. He was elected 
president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
in August of the same year, and held that office until August, 1866. 

Meanwhile the war broke out, and when the students formed a com- 
pany called the University Grays, for service in the Confederate Army, 
Chancellor Barnard opposed the movement on the ground that they 
were too young. His opposition was overborne by the enthusiasm of 
the period. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 209 

The college was completely dispersed by the attack on Fort Sumter 
and the excitement consequent thereon. Chancellor Barnard tendered 
his resignation, but the trustees, being hopeful of a resuniption of col- 
lege labors in the fall, persuaded him to withliold the resignation at 
least until that time. 

The fall came. Only two or three students presented themselves, 
and the trustees consented to the chancellor's resignation. However, 
he was urged to perform one final service. This was to consider and 
to report to the legislature on the practicability and expediency of 
establishing a military school on the foundation of the university. 
With this in view, he visited the military schools of South Carolina 
and Virginia, and prepared and submitted to the legislature of 1861-62 
a most instructive and elaborate report, which was published in the 
house journal of that body. Nothing came of the movement. It was 
Dr. Barnard's last labor for the university, and that makes it memo- 
rable there. 

Dr. Barnard's intention in resigning was to go North, but he was 
unable to obtain permission to leave the Confederate States. Finally 
reaching Washington, he was for some time engaged in astronomical 
work under the director of the Naval Observatory. In the spring of 
1863 he received an appointment as assistant in the Coast Survey, and 
was placed in charge of the map and chart department. In the act of 
Congress passed in 1863, incorporating the National Academy of 
Sciences, he was named as one of the original incorporators. In 1874 
he was chairman of the physical section of the Academy, and from 
1874 to 1880 was foreign secretary. In May, 1864, he was elected pres- 
ident of Columbia College, which office he hpld until the year 1888. In 
December, 1866, he was appointed one of the Government commis- 
sioners to visit and report on the universal exposition of 1867 at Paris. 
His contribution to the reports of that exposition forms the third vol- 
ume of the series and is very elaborate. In 1878 he was appointed 
assistant commissioner-general to the exposition of that year, after the 
close of which he received the cross of an officer of the Legion of Honor 
from tlie French ministry. In 1876 he was appointed one of the board 
of judges of the International Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia 
on instruments of precision. In 1872 he published a volume on the 
Metric System of Weights and Measures (third edition, enlarged, 1879). 
He prepared part of Field's Outlines of a Code of International Law 
(1872), and of Harper's First Century of the Kepublic (1876). During 
the twenty years preceding his death he contributed various papers 
on scientific, educational, and economic topics to public journals and 
to the proceedings of the various societies with which he was con- 
nected. From 1873 to 1877 he was editor-in-chief of Johnson's Cyclo- 
paedia. He received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from 
21785-^No. 24 14 



210 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Jefferson College in Mississippi in 1855, and the same degree from 
Yale College in 1859. ^ 
He died in the city of Kew York, April 27, 1889. 

JOHN N. WADDEL, CHANCELLOR. 

John Newton Waddel, D. D., LL. D., youngest son of Rev. Dr. Moses Waddel, of 
South Carolina, was horn April 2, 1812, at Willington, S. C. He prepared for the 
University of Georgia, at Athens, Ga., and graduated at that institution August 5, 
1829. He joined the Preshyterian church in 1839, in Green County, Ala.; was 
taken under the care of the Preshytery of Tuscaloosa in the same year; was licensed 
hy the Preshytery of Mississippi, Septemher 15, 1841, and was ordained hy the 
Preshytery of Tomheckhee, Septemher 23, 1843. He was first settled as preacher at 
Mount Herman, Smith County, Miss.; then at Mount Moriah, Newton County, 
Miss., alternating with Montrose, Miss. This continued until 1848, when, removing 
to Oxford, Miss., he supplied the church there, in conjunction with Hopewell church, 
near Oxford. Here he continued until 1857. He then supplied Lagrange church, 
where he was associated with Dr. J. H. Gray. After acting as the agent of the 
Synod of Alahama for estahlishing the orphan asylum at Tuskegee, Ala., he sup- 
plied Oxford church again from 1865 to 1872, partly with Hopewell church. In 1874 
he removed to Memphis, Tenn., and supplied as his last charge Lauderdale Street 
church until 1879. 

Dr. WaddePs work has heen largely connected with literary institutions, in all of 
which he has won a high reputation. He taught the academy at Willington, S. C, 
from 1830 to 1834, and taught another academy from 1841 to 1848 at Montrose, Miss. 
He was then elected professor of ancient language in the University of Mississippi, 
where he served until 1857. He was then called to Lagrange Synodical College as 
professor of ancient languages, serving as such until 1860, when he was made presi- 
dent of the same college, which office he held until the college was closed hy the 
war. In 1865, called to the University of Mississippi as chancellor, he served in 
this capacity until 1874. Resigning to arccept the secretaryship of education of the 
Southern church, he served in this office until 1879, when he accepted a call to the 
chancellorship of the Southwestern Preshyterian University, at Clarksville, Tenn. 
This position he occupied until the year 1887, at which time, oppressed hy the hur- 
den of gathering years, he resigned. 

Dr. Waddel was moderator of the general assemhly of the Southern Presbyterian 
church in its meeting at Baltimore in 1868. His whole ministry has heen one of 
great activity and widely extended usefulness. Blessed with a vigorous constitution 
and until the last few years with fine health, he has done an unusual amount of 
service in all his different charges. As a preacher he is always evangelical, instruc- 
tive and attractive. He is eminently conservative in all of his doctrinal views, and 
may he regarded as a representative man of the Southern church. It is, however, 
as an educator that he has won his widest reputation. Much of his life has heen 
spent in this department of work. In the Instruction of youth and in the govern- 
ment of collegiate institutions he seems to have inherited the genius of his dis- 
tinguished father. Eminently wise in counsel, judicious and practical in all his 
methods, he has never failed to secure the respect, confidence, and affection of young 
men in all the institutions of education with which he has heen connected. There 
is prohahly no man in all the Southern church who could he placed before him in 
this respect. Nor are there many in all the country who to an equal degree possess 
those high qualities of thorough scholarship, practical wisdom, good sense, firmness, 
and affability which make the popular and efficient college president.^ 

Dr. Waddel has been thrice married. The first wife was Miss 



1 Compiled from Autobiographical Sketch in archives of the University of Missis- 
sippa, Vol. I, Supplt. to Encyc. Brit., title, " Barnard." 

2 Presbyterian Encyclopedia, title^ ^* Waddel.'' 



THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. 211 

Martha Ann Eobertson, a native of Abbeville district, Soutb Carolina. 
The marriage was celebrated in Greene County, Ala., on the 28th of 
November, 1832. This lady was the mother of all his children. She 
died at Oxford, Miss., October 3, 1851. His second wife was Miss 
Mary Ann Werden, a native of Massachusetts. They were married in 
Berkshire County, Mass., on the 24th of August, 1854. The lady died 
of consumption on April 10, 1862. The third wife was Mrs. Harriet 
Augusta Snedecor (n^e Godden), of Lexington, Miss. This lady is 
still living. 

ALEXANDER P. STEWART, CHANCELLOR. 

Alexander P. Stewart was born in Eogersville, Tenn., on the 2d of 
October, 1821. His father was William Stewart, of Scotch-Irish birth; 
his mother was German, and her maiden name was Elizabeth Decherd. 

When he was 10 or 11 years of age his parents removed to Win- 
chester, Tenn., and there he was put to school in Carrick Academy. 
He was appointed cadet at West Point in 1838. There he graduated 
in 1842, and was appointed second lieutenant in the Third Artillery. 
After service of one year on the coast of North Carolina, he was 
returned, iu 1843, to the Military Academy, as an assistant to Prof. 
Albert E. Church, of the department of mathematics. 

In 1845 Lieutenant Stewart resigned on account of impaired health. 
He was then chosen professor of mathematics and natural philosophy 
at the Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn. He held this position 
and a similar one at the Nashville University until the outbreak of the 
civil war. 

In 1861 he was appointed by Governor Isham G. Harris as major of the 
artillery corps in the army organized by the State of Tennessee. 
During the summer of that year the army of Tennessee was trans- 
ferred to the service of the Confederate States. In November, 1861, 
Major Stewart was appointed a brigadier- general of the Confederate 
Army. He was promoted to be a major-general in 1863, and a lieuten- 
ant-general in 1864. 

He was at Columbus, Ky., and took part in the battle of Belmont in 
November, 1861. He joined the army of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston 
at Corinth, Miss., in 1862, and remained with that army until the close 
of the war. He was at the battle of Shiloh, was in Bragg's Kentucky 
campaign, took part in the battles of Perry ville, Murfreesboro (Decem- 
ber, 1862), Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge, in 1863. He took 
part in the Georgia campaign of 1864, under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston; 
in the siege of Atlanta, the campaign into Tennessee, the battle of 
Franklin, and the retreat, under Hood. He was with Joseph E. John- 
ston in North Carolina, and at the battle of Calls Farm, in 1865. 

It is wholly unnecessary to characterize the military record of 
General Stewart. Achieving in three years the highest grade possible 
but one, his fame as an effective, stanch, and thoroughly reliable com- 
mander is more than national, and finds its expression on almost every 
page of the brilliant and terrible record of the armies of the West. 



212 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

On the cessation of hostilities General Stewart returned to Lebanon, 
Tenn., and resuming service in Cumberland University, remained 
there a year or two. 

In 1874 he was elected chancellor of the University of Mississippi, 
which office he held until July, 1886. He theu resigned, and after a 
brief sojourn in St. Louis, and another in Colorado, removed to Los 
Angeles, Cal. He now (1891) resides in St. Louis, Mo. 

EDW^ARD MAYES, CHAIRMAN AND CHANCELLOR. 

Edward Mayes was born in Hinds County, Miss., on the 15th of 
December, 1846. His father, Daniel Mayes, was a native of Virginia, 
but grew to manhood in Kentucky, whence, after serving on the circuit 
bench and in the law professorship of Transylvania University, he 
removed to Jackson, Miss., and engaged in the practice of law, in 1839. 

Mr. Mayes, the subject of this sketch, was prepared for college by 
various teachers of primary and preparatory schools in Jackson. In 
the session of 1860-61, he attended at Bethany College, Virginia (now 
West Virginia). Driven home by the outbreak of the civil war, he 
engaged as a merchant's clerk until the destruction of Jackson by the 
Federal troops in May, 1863. He then taught school as assistant to a 
Mr. Eay, in Carrollton, for three or four months. 

In April, 1864, he volunteered as a private in Company H, of the 
Fourth Eegiment of Mississippi Cavalry, Mabry's Brigade, in which 
capacity he served until the termination of the war. 

In October, 1865, he entered the freshman class of the Universit;^f 
Mississippi, graduating with the degree of A. B. in three years, having 
been advanced one year. In 1869 he received the degree of B. L. from 
the same institution. In the session of 1869-70 he taught in the uni- 
versity as tutor of English, 

On the 5th of May, 1869, he was married to Miss Frances Eliza 
Lamar, daughter of Prof. L. Q. C. Lamar, of the law department in the 
university (late Mr. Justice Lamar of the United States Supreme Court), 
and granddaughter of Dr. A. B. Longstreet, second president of the 
university. 

In 1871 Mr. Mayes began the practice of law at CofPeeville, Miss., 
but in May, 1872, removed to Oxford, where he has resided ever since. 

In July, 1877, he was elected to the law professorship in the univer- 
sity, and has occupied that chair from that date until now. 

In August, 188 >, on the reorganization of the faculty of the university 
and the resignation of Chancellor Stewart, he was elected chairman of 
the faculty by that body, and in June, 1889, the olfice of chancellor hav- 
ing been reestablished, he was elected to fill it. 

He was a member for the State at large of the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1890, and was chairman of the committee on bill of rights and 
general provisions. 

Mr. Mayes is the writer and compiler of this history. 



Chapter X. 



THE AGRICULTURAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

A.S early as the year 1838 an agricultural and geological survey of 
the State was agitated. 

To the legislature of that year was presented a memorial from Jef- 
ferson College and the Wasbington Lyceum, praying for the inaugura- 
tion of such a survey by the State. It was favorably reported on by a 
special committee, but without any further result. 

Governor McNutt, in his annual message of 1839, urged the desira- 
bility of such a work, and a bill to that end was introduced by Mr. 
Mellen, passed the house, but failed to become a law. 

Again, in his message of 1840, Governor McNutt urged the subject. 
Nothing came of his messages, apparently. What effect they may have 
had in implanting in the public mind the seeds of thought on the sub- 
ject can not now be told. 

In the year 1849 Dr.. James B. 0. Thornton, formerly a professor in 
Centenary College (q. v.), and then resident in Eankin County, addressed 
to Governor Matthews a lengthy and able letter on this subject, which 
is to be found in the house journal for 1840, page 31. That letter was 
supported by a memorial from the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. These documents the governor transmitted 
to the legislature with his annual message, in which he urged the 
adoption of their suggestions, and in which he called the attention of 
that body to the fact that in Alabama such a survey had commenced 
under the J)atronage of the university of that State. 

The legislature thereupon passed an act, approved March 5, 1850, to 
the following effect : 

1. That the further sum of $3,000 be, and the same is hereby, semi-annually appro- 
priated, subject to the draft of the president of the board of trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi, to be applied by them to the purchasing of books and apparatus, 
and the payment of the salary of a professor and assistant professor of agricultural 
and geological sciences in said university: Provided, That one-half only of the 
amount of said appropriation shall be made from the revenue in the treasury and the 
other half shall be made out of the sale of the lands belonging to the seminary fund 
hereafter to be sold as provided by law. 

2. That the authority which shall be required by the treasurer for the payment to 
the trustees shall be the warrant of the president of the board of trustees drawn in 
favor of any person whatsoever. 

3. That at least one-half the amount herein appropriated shall be expended in 
making a general geological and agricultural survey of the State, under the direc- 
tion of the principal professor, to be appointed under the first section of this act. 

213 



214 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI, 

4. That the survey herein provided for shall be accompanied with proper maps 
and diagrams and furnish full and scientific descriptions of its rocks, soil, and min- 
erals and of its botanical and geological productions, together with specimens of the 
same, which maps, diagrams, and specimens shall be deposited in the State library, 
and similar specimens shall be deposited in the State university and such other lit- 
erary institutions in this State as the governor shall direct: Provided^ That the sur- 
vey shall be made in every county in this State. 

5. That the trustees of the State University shall cause a report to be made annu- 
ally to the governor, to be by him laid before each session of the legislature, setting 
forth generally the progress made in the survey hereby required. 

This act was amended on the 3d of March, 1852, in such wise as to 
require a zoological collection instead of a geological one, and to pro- 
vide further that a room should be set apart in the State capital at 
Jackson for the deposit and safe keeping of such specimens as might 
be collected during the progress of the geological survey; that the 
rooms when fitted up should be under the charge of the State geological 
society (which should be authorized to employ the State librarian as 
curator), and should be open to the public. 

I'he university was then, as it is now, a State institution. The act 
of the legislature was, therefore, a command. There was and could be 
no question as to acceptance of the task imposed on it. 

Accordingly at the next meeting of its trustees, held at Oxford in 
July, 1850, the following action was taken : The professor of chemistry 
was relieved of the duties of the chair of natural philosophy and astron- 
omy, which he was then discharging, and required to perform the duties 
of a professor of geology and chemistry and their practical application 
to agriculture. An assistant professor of geology was provided for and 
required to perform the duties assigned by the act of 1850 in making a 
geological survey, and to make quarterly reports to the principal pro- 
fessor. Appropriations were made for the purchase of instruments for 
the survey, for books and materials foi" making the necessary diagrams 
and maps, and for general expenses; and the secretary of the board 
was ordered to correspond with scientists in order to select the 
assistant.^ 

At the July meeting, 1851, Mr. Oscar M. Lieber was elected assistant 
professor. On the 14th of January, 1852, however, the board being in 
special session at Jackson, he resigned, having merely commenced a 
reconnoissance of the State, of which no report was made.^ 

On the same day, Mr. Benjamin L. 0. Wailes, of Adams County, then 
a professor in Jefferson College, was elected to fill the vacancy. 

Professor Wailes entered forthwith on the performance of the duties 
assigned to him. These duties, after his appointment, were somewhat 
augmented by the amendatory act of 1852, already noticed, whereby a 
room in the capitol was set apart and placed under his charge, for the 
better preservation of the collections in natural history, which, as the 
State geologist, he was required to make. 

1 Minutes of board, vol. 1, pp. 127, 128, 135. 

2 Ibid., pp. 156, 170; V^ailes^s Agriculture and Geology of Mississippi, p. xiii. 



AaRICULTURAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 215 

In the prosecution of his work a considerable portion of the State 
was soon traversed, with a view of gaining such general knowledge of 
its character as would best guide and direct the subsequent more 
detailed and minute examination. 

More than 7,000 miles were traveled by him during the years 1852 
and 1853. He made collections amounting to several thousand speci- 
mens. The character, peculiarities, and productions of the different 
sections visited were observed and noted.^ 

While Assistant Professor Wailes was engaged in this work, on the 
13th of July, 1853, Dr. Millington, his principal professor, resigned. 
This event, occurring at a period so nearly approaching to that at 
which a report of the progress of the survey was required to be made 
to the legislature, devolved on Professor Wailes the duty of making the 
report.^ This additional burden, unexpected though it was, proved 
most fortunate for the reputation of the professor. 

His report was laid before the board of trustees at their special 
meeting in Jackson, on the 9th of January, 1854. The board trans- 
mitted it to the governor, who sent it to the legislature, then in session, 
accompanied by a message recommending that it be printed. 

Thereupon was passed the act of March 1, 1854. This statute pro- 
vides as follows : 

1. That 2,000 copies of the report of Prof. B. L. C. Wailes, State geologist, be 
printed, under his supervision, in quarto form, and in such manner and with such 
illustrations and plates therein given as his excellency the governor shall deem 
appropriate and necessary for its illustration. * * . * 

2. That for the further and more efficient prosecution of the survey, analyses of 
the marls, soils, mineral waters, and the chief agricultural productions of the State 
shall be made at the University of Mississippi, as the trustees may designate; and 
the State geologist may, from time to time, furnish such marls, soils, and waters as 
may be required for analyses, and shall receive in return from the chemist full and 
precise reports of all analyses which may be made; and specimens of the marls and 
soils shall be preserved in convenient glass bottles in the State cabinet and in the 
cabinet of the university, properly labeled with the chemical character of the 
substance and the locality from which the same was obtained. 

3. That the said geologist shall make collections of specimens to illustrate the 
mineral character and paleontology of the State, in addition to the zoological pro- 
ductions which by law he is now required to collect, and to cause them to be suit- 
ably arranged and preserved in the State cabinet and that of the university ; and 
any duplicates that remain may be distributed by him among such of the incorpo- 
rated colleges as may apply for them. 

4. That the sum, not to exceed $2,500, be appropriated out of any money in the 
treasury, to be drawn upon the requisition of the governor, for the purpose of car- 
rying into effect the provisions of this act.^ 

The admirable report of Professor Wailes deserves the highest praise. 
It is divided into six principal titles, viz: An historical outline, land 
titles, agriculture, geology, fauna, and flora. It is accompanied and 

iWailes's Agriculture and Geology of Mississippi, p.xiii. 

2 Ibid., p. XV ; Minutes of the board, p 202. 

3 Wailes's report, pp. 360-362. 



216 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

illustrated by numerous colored engravings. For a fuller explanation 
the following extracts are made from the introduction: 

"" "" * Of the plan of this report it will be seen that with the sanction of 
approved precedents it has been considered that a sbort preliminary sketch of the 
discovery and early history of the country, not hitherto separately written, would 
not be out of place. * * "" As a subject of interest to the landed proprietors of 
the State the chapter on land titles was considered as germane to the subject and 
entitled to the short space which it occupies. 

An attempt has been made to give a view of the early agriculture of the country, 
derived mainly from the accounts received from many of our older inhabitants, with 
whom I have conferred, aided by my own recollections. In the details given of the 
different agricultural productions, the mode of cultivation, and the machinery for 
preparing these, I have been similarly aided. * * * The tables of agricultural 
and other statistics have been prepared from the best sources, and will form matter 
for convenient and useful reference. 

At this stage of the survey, and in the first, and as it may be termed preliminary 
report, the notice of the geology and other departments of natural history will 
necessarily present a mere outline, and can not assume that form and shape which 
will properly be given them in a final report. Such an arrangement has been 
adopted, however, as far as these subjects are embraced, as will, it is believed, give a 
reasonably comprehensive and familiar view of those departments of the report. 

Of the fauna and flora of the State, in the notice that has been taken of them, my 
own observations have been directed by the best available authorities, and in the 
former department, among others, the works of De Kay and of Audubon and Bach- 
man, among the most recent published and, by inference, the most complete and cor- 
rect, have been consulted. The aid of distinguished naturalists also has been 
liberally afforded, and I have to acknowledge my indebtedness and express my 
thanks to Professors Agassiz and Baird, and to Mr. Conrad, for their contributions to 
this department of the report. • The catalogues furnished by them, although not so 
complete or perfect as they will hereafter be made, have the stamp of authenticity 
and accuracy to recommend them. I should be remiss were I to omit to acknowl- 
edge the obligations I am also under to Dr. Leidy and Mr. Cassin, of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia. 

As to the illustrations which accompany the report, the limited means appro- 
priated to the survey, and the dearth of artistic skill available in this quarter, have 
made me dependent upon the early, imperfect, and self-taught attainment of draw- 
ing, and which, having been almost wholly unpracticed for nearly thirty years, 
makes an apology necessary for their rude and unsatisfactory execution. 

In making the collections required, the cases in the State cabinet attest that a 
reasonable progress has been made with the means appropriated to this object, and 
upward of a thousand duplicates have been deposited in the university at Oxford 
for its cabinet. 

Meanwhile, at their January meeting, 1854, the board of trustees 
had established a chair of agricultural and geological science, independ- 
ent of the chair of chemistry. It was made the duty of the professor 
to direct and superintend the survey; to analyze soils, marls, mineral 
water, and such other mineral substances as might be proper to be 
analyzed for the benefit of the State or of its citizens; to lecture the 
students on natural history, and to enter the field with the assistant 
professor for active work whenever his duties at the university should 
permit. 

On the same day Lewis Harper, LL. D., a native of Hamburg, Ger- 
many, then teaching near Greenville, Ala., was unanimously elected to 



AGRICULTURAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 217 

the professorship.^ Mr. John D. Easter was appointed assistant. He 
serv-ed only until July, 1855, when he resigned, and was succeeded by 
Eugene W. Hilgard, Ph. D. (Heidelberg), who subsequently became 
State geologist. Professor Wailes, in the meanwhile, was absent from 
the State superintending the publication of his report. There was 
some question as to whether the act of 1854 making provision for that 
work did not by implication sever his relation with the survey and the 
university by the demands of the new duty, but in 1856 that proposi- 
tion was settled, by resolution of the board, in the negative.^ 

Professor Harper's report, in an incomplete condition, was laid 

before the board of trustees on the 16th of January, 1856. It was 

. determined to deliver it into the hands of the governor, according to 

law.^ The governor, in turn, sent it to the legislature on the 6th of 

February, accompanied by a special message, in which he said : 

The report of Professor Harper herewith submitted contains much valuable infor- 
mation, shows a high degree of scieutific attainment on his part, and gives evidence 
that when the work is completed it will be one of great value to the public. The 
present report is only preliminary and partial, and is not designed at this time for 
publication, but to be embodied and published in the general report when com- 
pleted.^ 

For the reason, presumably, that the report was incomplete, nothing 
was done about it by that legislature. 

On the 19th of August, 1856, the board of trustees requested Profes- 
sor Harper to make out and hand over to the board his report of the 
survey, as far as the same had progressed, by the first Monday of 
December following, at "which time his connection with the survey 
and with the university shall cease." This removal seems to have 
been caused by a personal difference between the professor and the 
president of the university,*^ 

The report, when completed, was laid before the legislature of 
1856-57 ', there was a reference to a committee and a favorable report 
by that body. 

Thereupon was passed the act of the 31st of January, 1857, which 
provided for the publication of 5,000 copies of the report under the 
direction of the governor. This was done during the year. 

The outline of the report is as follows : 

There is, first, a geographical description of the State. Then follows 
a geological geography of the State. The professor then treats in 
great detail the Carboniferous formation, the Cretaceous formation, the 
Tertiary formations, and the Quarternary formations. Each of these 
principal topics is considered from the threefold point of view; of a 
lithological and palseontological description, of its national economy or 
materials for manufactures, and of its agriculture. Numerous notes 

1 Minutes of the Board, Vol. I, pp. 209, 210. ^ House Journal, 1856. 

2 Ibid, pp. 240, 244. 5 Minutes of the Board, p. 319. 
3Ibid.,p.256. 



218 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

of a miscellaneous character are appended: On the origin of the Mis- 
sissippi Eiver, mines in Mississippi, kaolin, terra cotta, coprolites, 
petrifactions, artesian wells, rust in cotton, etc. It is, however, a crude 
and unsatisfactory work 5 evidently prepared by a man who was beyond 
his depth. 

Meanwhile, at the January meeting, 1856, of the board of trustees, 
a very important question had been raised as to the relations between 
the survey and the university, and a committee had been appointed to 
inquire into the expediency of disconnecting the two. The committee 
reported as follows : 

Under our present law and according to the existing system we have a principal 
and assistant professor of agricultural and geological sciences. 

The fund appropriated by the State being wholly inadequate to pay the salaries 
of these two professors and keep them in the field, the trustees of the university 
elected a principal professor whose salary was paid partly out of the money appro- 
priated by the State for the survey and partly out of the university funds. He 
became, of course, a professor in the university and was assigned his appropriate 
duties. 

The assistant professor was selected with the approbation of the chief professor 
and kept in the field under his direction. That system did not work satisfactorily, 
because we found we were necessarily compelled to rely on the assistant instead of 
the principal for the geological report of the State. 

It became imperative, therefore, to send the principal professor into the field. 
Being paid by the State and by the university, each of course claim his services, so 
that the professor is part of his time in the field, which takes him away from the 
college, and part of his time in the lecture room, which necessarily arrests the 
survey. 

The duties of the geologist in the open field and in the lecture room are quite 
distinct, and in our opinion ought not to be imposed on the same man. If our State 
wants a geological survey made in any reasonable time it must make an adequate 
appropriation, select men to take the field, responsible directly to the State and its 
officers, and leave the university and its trustees to direct their entire attention to 
the subject of education; and in pursuance of this view we recommend the adoption 
of the following resolution: 

Besolvedf That in the opinion of this board it is inexpedient longer to continue 
the geological survey of the State under the direction of the trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi. 1 

For the reasons assigned, the act of January 31, 1857, was so framed 
that, besides providing for the publication of Harper's Eeport, as related, 
it provided also — 

First. That the act of 1850, so far as it in any way connected the sur- 
vey with the university, be repealed. 

Second. That the survey should be prosecuted to its completion by a 
State geologist, to be appointed by the governor. 

Third. That the State geologist should keep his office in the city of 
Jackson. 

Fourth. That appropriation be made for the purchase of necessary 
apparatus. 

Fifth. That the State geologist enter on the duties of his office on the 
first Monday in March, 1857. 

1 Minutes of the board, pp. 259-260. 



AGRICULTQRAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 219 

It has been claimed that this severance between the survey and the 
university— -which, as just shown, was a change of front on the part of 
the legislature— was the result of the strenuous efforts of Professor 
Harper, who in the meanwhile had beeu discharged from the university, 
as stated above. 

Proceeding under this statute, the governor appointed ex-Professor 
Harper to the office of State geologist. He took possession of that 
office in March, 1857, resigning in October following. 

In 1858 he was succeeded by Prof. E. W. Hilgard. This gentleman, 
after serving about one year as assistant professor, had relinquished 
tlie situation and in 1856 taken work at the Smithsonian Institution. 
Returning promptly on his appointment, he entered at once on the 
duties of his office. Probably we have not had in the State a man more 
accomplished than Dr. Hilgard. 

Under an authority given by the governor, and by permission of the 
trustees. Dr. Hilgard promptly transferred all the apparatus and the 
laboratory of the survey from Jackson, where Dr. Harper had it, to a 
front room in the main building of the university, and thus the survey 
was again practically, though not officially, restored to its original con- 
nection with that institution. Without this restoration the work could 
not have been successfully conducted under the meager appropriation 
of the act of 1857. 

Dr. Hilgard at once took the field. In passing through the State he 
found that the survey had become extremely unpopular. This resulted 
from dissatisfaction with Professor Harper's work and report, and so 
intense was the feeling that he often found it difficult to obtain informa- 
tion or even civil answers to inquiries. Feeling that if something were 
not done to retrieve the situation the coming legislature would proba- 
bly discontinue the work, Dr. Hilgard, after consultation with Gov- 
ernor Mc Willie, wrote a short '' Report on the condition of the geological 
and agricultural survey of the State of Mississippi,'' of 22 pages octavo, 
which was printed by executive order and circulated prior to the meet- 
ing of the legislature of 1858-59. This report discussed, first, the need 
of the survey and its advantages; second, the causes of the slow and 
unsatisfactory progress lately made; third, the similar work in other 
States, and closed with a recommendation for the repeal of the law 
locating the office of the survey in Jackson and for the restoration of 
the office of assistant geologist, with a more reasonable compensation. 
There was a stormy scene in the legislature. Those members who 
had been instrumental in passing the act of 1857 were sore, and espe- 
cially eager to have the survey wiped out. A special investigating com- 
mittee was appointed. Without giving Dr. Hilgard a hearing it 
reported a bill to abolish the survey. In presenting the report the 
chairman of the committee inveighed fiercely against the alleged inso- 
lence exhibited in Dr. Hilgard's report and *'his attempt to coerce the 
legislature by forestalling public opinion." The report of the commit- 
tee would probably have been adopted but for Dr. Hilgard's persistence 



220 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

in securing a personal interview with the chairman, at which a better 
understanding was reached. After this the bill to abolish was not 
called up, and the legislature adjourned without any action.^ 

By an act of the legislature, approved February 8, 1860, the collec- 
tion in natural history made previous to 1855 by Professor Wailes and 
deposited in the room of the capitol devoted to that purpose was trans- 
ferred to Jefferson College and placed in the cabinet of that institution 
for use by the professors and students. 

Dr. Hilgard's official report was made to the legislature of 1859-60. 

The following is an outline of Dr. flilgard's report. The work is 
divided into two general heads and several subordinate titles; 

I. The Geological Features of the State: 

a. The Orange sand formation. 
h. The Carboniferous formation. 

c. The Cretaceous formation. 

(1) The Eutaw group. 

(2) The Tombigbee sand group. 

(3) The Eotten limestone group. 

(4) The Eijjley group. 

d. The Tertiary formations. 

(1) The Northern lignitic. 

(2) The Claiborne group. 

(3) The Jackson group. 

(4) The Vicksburg group. 

(5) The Grand Gulf group. 

e. The Quaternary formations. 

II. The Agricultural Keport for the State : 

a. The principles of rational agriculture, 
ft. The principles of agricultural chemistry. 
c. The agricultural features of the State. 

(1) The Northeastern prairie region. 

(2) The Flatwoods region. 

(3) The Yellow loam region. 

(4) The Northern river counties. 

(5) The Southern river counties. 

(6) The Central prairie region. 

(7) The Longleaf pine region. 

(8) The Seacoast counties. 

The zealous and scientific labors of Dr. Hilgard rehabilitated the 
survey, and by an act of this legislature, approved February 10, 1860, 
it was provided that an assistant State geologist should be appointed 
by the governor^ that the sum of $545 be appropriated to meet the 
expense of fitting up a chemical laboratory for making analyses in the 
prosecution of the survey 5 that 5,000 copies of Dr. Hilgard's report 
be published under the direction of the governor, with such diagrams 
and maps as he might deem necessary for its illustration 5 and, finally, 
that the State geologist might, at his election, keep his office at or near 
the State University, and remove thither his collections and laboratory .^ 

1 MS. of Dr. E. W. Hilgard. 2 Laws of 1859-60, p. 475. 



AGRICULTURAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 221 

Dr. Hilgard immediately took advantage of this last provision, and 
thenceforward the university was his ofladal as well as his actual head- 
quarters so long as he remained in Mississippi. 

The report was printed in Jackson by the State printer, but was 
sent to St. Louis for binding. Pending that work the civil war broke 
out. The binder kept it safely through the war, however, and in 1867 
it was distributed by order of the legislature.^ 

Of course the war was a serious interruption. By an act passed at 
the special session of August, 1861, the appropriations made for the 
purpose of carrying on the survey and all laws authorizing the survey 
were suspended until twelve months after the close of the war, except 
$1,200 per annum to be continued for the salary of the geologist and 
for the purchase of chemicals, etc., for the making of the analyses of 
soils. 

Shortly after the passage of the last-named act, and during a portion 
of the winter of 1861-62, the chemical labors (analyses of soils, etc.), which 
had until then progressed as usual, were snspended in order to complete 
the arrangement, labeling, and cataloguing of the collection, now con- 
sisting of about 3,000 specimens, among which were about 400 soils and 
marls representing the agricultural resources of the State outside of 
the Mississippi bottom, not yet explored. To the respectable aspect 
of the collection so arranged their preservation during the subsequent 
Federal occupation was chiefly owing. V\^hen the Confederate army 
retreated from Abbeville, in 1862, Dr. Hilgard remained at Oxford in 
order, if possible, to prevent the wanton destruction of the collection 
belonging to the State. It was in one of the dormitory buildings, apart 
from the university collection. The doctor obtained from the Federal 
provost-marshal an order protecting the collections, laboratory, etc., 
but it was only by unceasing personal vigilance that he could prevent 
serious injury to both. The university buildings were occupied as a 
Federal hospital, and the State collection was ordered to be removed 
to make room for the sick. Dr. Hilgard, however, so far succeeded in 
interesting the post surgeon in its preservation that a detail of carpen- 
ters was furnished him, by whose assistance the collection was removed 
to the observatory building, to which the shelves also had been 
removed. On the whole, very little damage was done.^ 

The collection in the capitol at Jackson was not so fortunate. There 
the shelves and cases seemed to have been swept with the butts of 
muskets, and the floor was strewn with broken specimens and shat- 
tered jars. 

Dr. Hilgard remained in the oflftce of State geologist during the war, 
directing, as far as possible, the efforts to make salt and saltpeter out 
of such material as the State afforded, and completing the analyses of 
soils collected in the progress of the survey. 

' House Journal of 1862-63, p. 92; Laws of 1866-67, p. 497. 

'^Hilgard's report to legislature, House Journal, 1862-63, Appendix, pp. 89-91. 



222 



HISTOKY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



When the war terminated, and the '^twelve months thereafter/' fixed 
by the act of 1860, had expired, the survey revived ipso facto, and on 
the basis of that act. But while that year was passing the university 
had been reorganized, and on the 25th of October, 1865, the trustees, 
instead of electing a professor of chemistry, geology, and mineralogy, 
requested Dr. Hilgard to discharge the duties of that chair ad interim, 
and this he did. 

In July, 1866, Br. George Little, formerly professor of natural sciences 
in Oakland College, was appointed assistant geologist, and shortly 
thereafter took the field for a detailed exploration of the loess region, 
from Eodney to its farthest point in Louisiana. 

In October, 1866, Dr. Hilgard accepted the chair of chemistry in the 
university, and resigned the office of State geologist. Dr. Little was 
appointed to succeed him. At the same time the trustees requested 
Dr. Little, as State geologist, to lecture the students on geology and 
agriculture at such times as he should not be engaged in the field work 
of the survey. To this request the doctor acceded, and for several 
years lectured on those subjects. 

The assistant geologist at this period was Dr. Emanuel Tillman, who 
was followed by Col. George M. Edgar, now president of the Arkansas 
Industrial University. 

In the autumn of 1867 Dr. Little made a personal reexploration of 
the section of Tertiary strata afforded by the Chickasawhay Eiver, 
between Enterprise and Winchester. No field work was done in the 
year 1868. In JSTovember of that year, however, the office of assistant 
geologist was most fortunately conferred on Dr, Eugene A. Smith, of 
Alabama (and now State geologist of that State), who had then just 
returned from his §tudies in Europe. 

Dr. Smith's first important work was in the Yazoo bottom, and in the 
year 1869 he traversed it, zigzagging from the river to the bluff', from 
near Yicksburg to the river's head near Memphis. A report of this 
important exploration was made by him at the Indianapolis meeting of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was pub- 
lished in the volume of proceedings for 1871 (p. 252). The outcome of 
his observations is that ^'the true river deposits of any considerable 
thickness are mostly confined to narrow strips of land lying on both 
sides of the Mississippi, and of the bayous and creeks, and of ancient 
channels since filled up, while a large proportion of the superficial area 
of the bottom, including some of the most fertile lands, is derived from 
clays of older formation, into which these beds have been excavated." 

In October, 1870, Dr. Little was called to the chair of geology and 
natural history in the university, and resigned his office of State geolo- 
gist, when Dr. Hilgard, in order to prevent the survey from either being 
discontinued or committed to wrong hands, again assumed that office, 
taking it, however, without severing his relation with the university, 
and without compensation, and with a distinct understanding that he 
was to be under no obligation to take the field in person. 



AGRICULTUBAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 223 

Through these changes Dr. Smith coBtinued his active work. At the 
end of May, 1871, he undertook to trace across the State the ^'Silicious 
Claiborne '^ belt. His route lay from Leake County, southeasterly, to the 
Alabama line, along the northern contact of the problematic ''red hills'^ 
and yellow sandstones with the lignitic formation; thence westward in 
the more southerly portion of the belt to the border of the Yazoo Bot- 
tom. In this trip he traced the connection and established the equiva- 
lence of the ferruginous formation as a local feature with the sandstones 
of Neshoba and Newton counties, and again the undoubted connection 
of these with the characteristic burstones of Lauderdale. The strati- 
graphical relation of these beds to those of the Jackson group were 
then traced by him down the edge of the bluff to Yazoo City, forming 
the third complete section across the Eocene, observed in Mississippi. 
In September, 1871, Dr. Smith resigned his office, accepting the chair 
of geology and mineralogy in the University of Alabama. His succes- 
sor in office was Mr. R. H. Loughridge, of Texas, who had for some 
time previously acted as Dr. Hilgard's assistant in the department of 
chemistry. 

Mr. Loughridge prosecuted the chemical work of the survey during a 
part of the year 1872, and Dr. Hilgard was preparing another report 
covering the work done since the report of 1860, when by a ruling 
of the then auditor of public accounts the survey appropriation was 
withheld: and thus in the autuom of 1872 the work was peremptorily 
stopped. 

That work has never been revived since, although the act of 1860 has 
never been legally rescinded. The last enactment on the subject to be 
found in the statutes of the State is that of the 20th of March, 1873, 
which makes the State geologist ex officio professor of the agriculture 
and geology of the State, in the State University. 

In June, 1873, Dr. Hilgard resigned his chair in the university to 
accept one in the University of Michigan. Dr. Loughridge continued 
in charge as assistant until October, 1874, when he also resigned to 
accept the position of geologist to the newly organized department of 
agriculture in Georgia. Thus passed off the scene the last of the active 
workers in the survey. 

In the year 1875 the State geologist and the survey disappeared— 
passed out of sight. They seem not to have been formally and openly 
discontinued, but to have been subjected to a sort of legislative lettre 
de cachet. For quite a number of years the State expenditures had 
been provided for by appropriations of the most general nature — in 
lump sums 5 for instance, in 1871, the sum of $600,000 "to defray the 
expenses of the several departments of the State government." The 
State officers would distribute these sums as the statutes elsewhere 
found authorized. In 1875, however, an entirely new policy was 
adopted. The appropriation bill itemizes all the disbursements, and in 
the list was not included any estimate for the salary of the geologist or 



224 HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

the expenses of the survey. The one and the other seem thereby to 
have been most effectually "• frozen out.'' At all events, they disappeared. 

In conclusion, however, it may well be said that the work was 
finished. The geological features of Mississippi are not varied or nu- 
merous. The labors of the survey were pressed sufficiently far to 
approach nearer to completion than in any other Southern State, except 
Alabama; and certainly are as full as will ever be needed forany prac 
tical use. That work was, at the time of the survey's extinction, very 
much further advanced than is shown by the publications. Several 
years of active labor remain unpublished, except so far as it has been 
included by Dr. Hilgard in a monograph on Mississippi in volume 5 
of the Census Eeport of 1880. 

In fact. Dr. Hilgard's work in connection with this survey has given 
direction to his life, and (with that in LouisiaDa) has formed the basis 
of all his subsequent labors, both in geological and in agricultural sci- 
ence. In the matter of agricultural investigation, his Mississippi experi- 
ence led him to conclusions still combated by many in regard to the 
functions of soil ingredients and the practical value of chemical and 
mechanical analyses of soils. He has, however, seen no reason to 
retract anything of what he then maintained. On the contrary, he 
claims to have found confirmation and encouragement in his later 
researches.^ 

Finally, it remains to say that no instrumental topographical work 
was ever done in connection with the survey, partly because the law 
made no provision for it, and partly because the continually recurring 
violent barometric changes during the working season render the use 
of the aneroid, so useful elsewhere, very unsatisfactory where rapid 
WQrk is to be done by a single person. The railroad levelings then 
available were fully used, and were omitted from the report of 1860 
simply from considerations of brevity and economy. 

PROF. E. W. HILaABD. 

This gentleman, well known to the scientific world and to farmers as the director 
of the California Experiment Station, was born in Zweibriicken, Rhenish Bavaria, 
January 5, 1833, of distinguished parents. The elder Hilgard, becoming dissatisfied 
with the Government, resigned the chief -justiceship of the court of appeals and 
emigrated to America, settling on a farm near Belleville, 111., where the subject of 
this sketch had a thorough schooling in all the details of agriculture, and where he 
received a superior education from his father. When 16 years old he went to Europe, 
and studied at Heidelberg, Zurich, and at the Academy of Mines at Freiberg in 
Saxony, taking the degree of doctor of philosophy at Heidelberg in 1853, at the age 
of 20. After two years in Spain and Portugal, he returned to America in 1855, to 
take charge of the chemical laboratory of the Smithsonian Institution, and lectured 
on chemistry at the National Medical College. 

In 1858 he was appointed chief geologist to Mississippi, having, however, been 
connected with the geological survey for some years previously. As State geologist 
his work was vigorously pushed forward, and in 1860 was printed his Report on the 

1 Letter of Dr. Hilgard, December 13, 1888. 



AGRICULTURAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 225 

Geology and Agriculture of MissiBsippi, though not actually published until after 
the war. No other State report contains so much original matter, presented in such 
a clear and orderly manner, as this. Up to the time of publication of this report, 
the whole subject of the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the Gulf States and of tlieir 
soils was, with the exception of the information contained in the two reports of 
Ttlomey on Alabama, practically in darkness. In the light of Hilgard's Mississippi 
report, the study of the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations of the other Gulf States 
becomes a comparatively easy task. 

In 1860 he made a second trip to Spain and married at Madrid the daughter of 
Col. Manuel Bello, of the Spanish army. During the war Professor Hilgard was 
mainly assigned to the duty of preserving the collections at the University of Mis- 
sissippi at Oxford. Continuing also the office work of the survey so far as his 
connection with the Confederate "niter bureau" permitted, he took a prominent 
part in scientific matters connected with the Confederate army, and at the close of 
the war resigned as geologist to become professor of chemistry in the Mississippi 
University. 

His interest in geology did not cease with his becoming professor of chemistry, 
and many of his most important contributions to the science of geology were made 
during the period from 1865 to 1873. We need mention only his papers on the Qua- 
ternary Formations of the Gulf Region; his Geological Reconnoissance of Louisiana; 
his articles on the Mississippi River, and its Delta and Mudlumps; his Geological 
History of the Gulf of Mexico, all of which are authorities on the subjects of which 
they treat. In the Mississippi report the soils of the State are, for the first time, 
adequately treated, and this was the beginning of a long line of study and investi- 
gation of the chemical and physical properties of soils, continued up to the present 
time and still in progress. Some of the results of these investigations have been 
published from time to time, such as: Soil Analyses and their Utility; Objects 
and Interpretation of Soil Analyses; Silt Analyses of Soils and Clays; Silt Analyses 
of Mississippi Soils; Flocculation of Particles. 

These titles will show that the position of the author in regard especially to the 
utility of chemical analyses of soils, first taken in his Mississippi report, has been 
consistently maintained through all these years. When the Mississippi report was 
published, with the exception of Dr. Peter, of Kentucky, Dr. Hilgard was about the 
only scientific man in the United States whohfeld that it was possible to form any reli- 
able estimate of the fertility of a soil from its chemical analysis. In the works above 
quoted, and particularly in the great work done by him for the Tenth Census, on cotton 
culture in the United States, the author has demonstrated that the chemical and 
physical analyses of our virgin soils properly interpreted, together with accurate 
observations of the timber growth, and other characters of these soils in their 
natural condition, furnish the data from which it is perfectly feasible to ascertain 
both their agricultural value and their proper treatment in cultivation. Hence he 
is a warm advocate for agricultural surveys, for the benefit of farmers, and is con- 
stantly urging upon the General Government to give proper attention to the bearings 
of geology upon agriculture, and to study the soils in their natural conditions while 
it is still possible to do so. 

One of the results of this long and laborious series of investigations has been to 
carry conviction to the minds of a number of the scientific men of the country, and 
at the present time Hilgard has a strong support both in this country and in Europe, 
where his work is well known and as much appreciated as it is here. 

An ingenious worker and an expert glass blower, he constructed himself much of 
the apparatus used by him in his lectures and in his soil investigations. His appa- 
ratus for the mechanical analysis of soils is the best of its kind, and appears to have 
overcome the dif&culties which previously made such analyses valueless. It is 
largely used in Germany where that class of careful and thorough-going investiga- 
tions is more frequently carried on than here. 

21785— No. 24 15 



226 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

While Dr. Hilgard was in charge of the chemical department of the University of 
Mississippi, laboratory work was first introduced as part of the course of instruction 
in chemistry. This course, though for a long time entirely optional, was taken by a 
number of students, some of whom have since risen to distinction, and have spread 
the teachings of Hilgard into other States. 

In geology, Hilgard was a close and accurate observer, and the sagacity with which 
he interpreted all the facts coming under his observation and appreciated their bear- 
ings upon the geological history of the gulf region can be fully understood only by 
one who has himself studied the same territory. 

In 1873 he accepted the chair of geology and natural history at the University of 
Michigan, but the climate proving too severe for his health, he accepted the pro- 
fessorship of agricultural chemistry at the University of California, and in the spring 
of 1875 moved with his family to Berkeley, Cal., where he has since resided. 

One of Professor Hilgard's greatest works was his report on the cotton production 
of the United States for the Tenth Census, in which undertaking he was given full 
latitude. With the aid of the State geologists and other qualified men of the cotton 
States, his report embraces not only the results and discussions of the census returns, 
but also descriptions of the physical and agricultural features of each of the fifteen 
States concerned. These volumes exemplify the plan according to which he would 
have the whole country described for the benefit of the agricultural population. 

Professor Hilgard has been a frequent contributor to the scientific and agricultural 
press. As may be inferred, he is a man of the people as well as of science, and is an 
indefatigable worker. 

The writings of Professor Hilgard are characterized by great force and clearness 
of expression and a sprightliness of style that make them all pleasant reading. As a 
correspondent, whether on scientific or personal matters, his bright fancies and 
delicate touches of fun make him the peer of Thackeray. 

In conversation, he is bright, animated, and sympathetic, with a quickness of appre- 
hension that puts him in possession of your meaning almost before it is expressed in 
words. 

Professor Hilgard is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of other 
scientific bodies. In 1884 the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by the 
University of Mississippi. The same was received by him from Columbia College on 
the occasion of the celebration of the centennial anniversary of that institution in 
1887. Subsequently, in the same year, the same honor was conferred upon him by 
the University of Michigan, at the celebration of its semicentennial anniversary.^ 

1 Sketch by Professor Smith, State geologist, Alabama. 



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AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 



Chapter XL 



THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 

Post-office, "Agricultural College, Miss." 

THE AGRICULTURAL LAND-SCRIP FUND. 

This fund, prominent in the history of several of the State institutions, 
is a donation of the United States Government. 

On the 2d of July, 1862, was approved an act of Congress entitled 
"An act donating public lands to the several States and Territories 
which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts." It gave to each State an amount of land equal to 
30,000 acres for each Senator and Eepresentative in Congress to which 
it was entitled under the census of 1860. The proceeds of the donation 
were directed to be " invested in stocks of the United States or of the 
States, or of some other safe stocks, yielding not less than 5 per cent 
interest; and shall constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which 
shall remain forever undiminished; and the interest from which shall 
be inviolably appropriated to the endowment, maintenance, and sup- 
port of at least one college, where the leading object shall be, without 
excluding other scientific and classical studies or military tactics, to 
teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the 
mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may 
respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and profes- 
sions of life." 

By a joint resolution of the Mississippi legislature, approved October 
30, 1866, this offered donation was accepted by the State on the terms 
and conditions prescribed, and the governor was requested to take the 
steps necessary to secure the same. On January 24, 1867, in his mes- 
sage to the legislature then in session. Governor Humphreys says : 

On the 24 th of November, 1866, I addressed a letter to the Commissioner of the 
General Land Office at Washington City, informing him of the acceptance by the 
legislature of Mississippi of the terms of the grant of land by Congress for the 
establishment of an agricultural and mechanical college, and requested to be informed 
if any further legislation was needed to secure the scrip. I have received no reply 
to this communication. I understand, however, that the Federal Government has 
suspended further issuance of the scrip to any of the Southern States.^ 

The grant was refused to the State on the plea that the time within 
which application should have been made had elapsed. In April, 1871, 

1 Senate Journal, 1866, Appendix, p. 95. 

227 



228 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Governor Alcorn visited Washington, in order to bring the subject more 
strongly before the honorable the Secretary of the Interior. The Secre- 
tary suggested action by the legislature 5 that being made satisfactory, 
he thought he would issue the scrip. Governor Alcorn then returned to 
Jackson and recommended the act which was approved May 13, 1871.^ 
The substance of the act is this: 

1. The governor was authorized to receive the scrip and receipt for 
it; also, by the consent of the lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, 
and attorney-general, or a majority of them, to sell the scrip fo^ cash 
at a minimum of 60 cents on the dollar, and to invest the proceeds in 
bonds of the United States or of the State, bearing not less than 5 per 
cent interest. 

2. These bonds should be a perpetual fund, whose principal shall 
remain forever undiminished, save so far as authorized by the act of 
Congress. 

3. That the bonds should be placed in the State treasury for safe- 
keeping, two-fifths to the credit of the University of Mississippi and 
three-fifths to the credit of a university to be dedicated to the education 
of youths of color, and the interest therefrom be paid to the two uni- 
versities in the proportions specified, on condition that they shall each 
establish, and apply the said interest to the maintenance of, a college 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts, including a machine shop, model 
farm, a chemical laboratory, and a chair of agricultural chemistry.^ 

On the same day Alcorn College was incorporated for the education 
of colored youth, and section 9 of its charter vested in it the ownership 
of the three-fifths of the fund, as above stated.^ 

This disposition of the prcfceeds of the scrip seems to have been satis- 
factory to the Secretary. Says Governor Alcorn further: '^On account 
of delay at the office of the Secretary of the Interior at Washington, 
the scrip was not ready for delivery until the 21st of September follow- 
ing, at which time I received at the office of the Secretary of the Interior 
1,312 pieces of scrip, amounting to 209,920 acres/ 

In July, 1871, the scrip was sold at 00 cents per acre. The purchaser 
paid in installments, and by the 1st of January, 1874, the entire amount, 
$188,928, had been paid. This amount had been invested in State 
bonds and deposited in the treasury: To the credit of the University 
of Mississippi, $95,000 thereof were assigned; to that of Alcorn 
University, $123,150. 

By a fortunate purchase of State warrants in 1874, at a discount, with 
the proceeds of bonds which had matured and been paid, followed by 
an exchange of the warrants for other State bonds, the fund was 
increased to $227,150. 

' Governor Alcorn to Governor Powers, House Journal, 1872, p. 303. 

2Lawsofl871, p. 704. 

3 Ibid., pp. 716-720. 

^Governor Alcorn to Governor Powers, supra. 



AORICULTUBAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 229 

Up to January 1, 1875, the interest on the bonds was paid in the pro- 
portion of three-fifths to the Alcorn University, and two-fifths to the 
University of Mississippi j but the general appropriation bill of that 
year required the interest to be thereafter divided between the two 
institutions equally, which was done. 

Meanwhile the whole fund had been in the utmost peril. There was 
no Planters' Bank this time to devour every charitable fund in the land; 
but there was a railroad in nubibus equally seductive and dangerous. 

On the 18th of April, 1873, was approved "An act to aid in the con- 
struction of the Yicksburg and Nashville Eailroad.'' The substance of 
it was that this fund, with another, should be exclusively devoted to 
the construction of that railroad, to be paid over at the rate of $8,000 
per mile for each completed mile on the receipt of the company's obliga- 
tion therefor, bearing 8 per cent interest, secured by a deposit of the 
company's first-mortgage bonds of equal amount. 

The issuance of the funds to that company under the act was enjoined, 
but the injunction was finally dissolved by the supreme court, on the 
idea that it was for the State to determine the question of the propriety 
of the investments thereof as well as the safety of them 5 and the 
legislative decision on those points was final. 

But in the act itself there was a saving clause. It provided that if 
at any time the legislature should deem the securities of the company 
insufficient the company might be compelled to give such additional 
securities as might be demanded. 

The injunction had served to delay the matter, at all events. The 
foregoing decision was rendered at the October term, 1875. Legal 
remedies having failed, some other recourse had to be resorted to in 
order to save this great interest. Accordingly, in his annual message, 
of date 4th of January, 1876, Governor Ames says to the legislature: 
'*I also recommend the repeal of so much of an act entitled ^An act to 
aid in the construction of the Yicksburg and Kashville Eailroad,' 
approved April 18, 1873, as surrenders to the Yicksburg and IsTashville 
Railroad Company, under certain conditions, trust funds known as the 
3 per cent and the agricultural land scrip, which amount to some 
$320,000." The governor then sets forth at considerable length the 
reasons for that recommendation. 

Pursuant to this suggestion an act to secure the funds was passed 
and approved April 1, 1876. It declared the securities ofiered by the 
company insufficient (here came in the saving clause), and directed that 
before any of said funds should be delivered to the company it should 
deposit, as additional collateral, State bonds to an amount equal to the 
sum demanded,- that if the company should fail to comply, within sixty 
days from the passage of the act, with the foregoing provisions, so far 
as related to the amount due on the completion of the first 5 miles of 
the road, none of the funds should ever be paid over to it,- that if the 
company failed to comply with the foregoing requirements all the bonds 



230 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

and warrants belonging to the fund should be canceled, as paid, and 
the State debited with their amount on the treasurer's books. ^ 

Needless to say that the company never complied with the conditions 
of the act, and the fund was saved. That was a foregone conclusion. 

THE AamCULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE ESTABLISHED. 

On the 28th of February, 1878, was passed and approved "An act to 
establish and organize agricultural and mechanical colleges, and to 
regulate the government of the same.'' Its main provisions were: 

1. To reorganize Alcorn University into an agricultural college, under 
the name of ''The Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College of the 
State of Mississippi." 

2. To establish an agricultural college for the education of the white 
youth of the State, to be known as ''The Agricultural and Mechanical 
College of the State of Mississippi." 

3. To set apart for the use of the two colleges, in equal proportions, 
the interest of the agricultural land scrip fund, thereby excluding the 
University of Mississippi from any further participation in that fund. 

The principal provisions of the charter are, so far as they relate to 
this institution, as follows : 

First. The hoard of trustees are granted all the power that is necessary and 
proper for the accomplishment of the trust reposed iu them, viz, the establishment 
and maintenance of a first-class institution, at which the youth of the State of 
Mississippi may acquire a common-school education and a scientific and practical 
knowledge of agriculture, horticulture, and the mechanic arts; also of the proper 
growth and care of stock, without, however, excluding other scientific and classical 
studies, including military tactics. They are also authorized to regulate the course 
of study, rates of tuition, management of the experimental farm, the manner of 
performing labor, and the kind of labor to be performed by the students, together 
with the course of discipline necessary to enforce the faithful discharge of the 
duties of all officers, professors, and students. 

Second. They are further required, immediately after their organization, to pro- 
ceed to procure, bj purchase or donation, a site for the location of the said Agricultural 
and Mechanical College, with an experimental farm thereto attached of not less 
than 160 acres of land. In the selection of the said site and experimental farm the 
trustees shall look to the convenience of the people of every section of the State, 
the proximity of the proposed site to other public institutions supported in whole 
or in part by the State, with a view to giving the preference to localities least 
favored heretofore, and also the facilities for going to and from said college, the 
advantages and disadvantages of the different sites proposed, and shall locate the 
same at the place where most advantages are offered. 

Under this requirement the institution was located at Starkville, in 
Oktibbeha County, the citizens of that town contributing to it the 
sum of $9,000. 

The half of the fund secured to this institution by the charter was 
$113,575. Of this amount $15,000 was used in the purchase of lands 
for the college site and fields, leaving in hand the balance of $98,575, 
paying an interest total of $4,928.75, which is all that is derived from 
this source. 

1 Laws of 1876, p. 64. 



AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 231 

LEaiSLATIVE SUPPORT. 

By the terms of the Federal act donating the lands to the States, no part of the 
land-scrip fund or the interest derived from it can bo used, directly or indirectly, 
under any pretense whatever to the purchase, erection, preservation, or repair of 
any building or buildings, as the income from the fund can only be used as far as it 
goes toward meeting other expenses. The State, by accepting the gift, incurs the 
obligation to provide buildings, equipments, and the additional support necessary. 
The State has liberally carried out its obligations, and by appropriation has provided 
the necessary buildings, grounds, equipment, and support. 

The appropriations made by the State have been as set forth in the 
following table: 



1880 $85,000 

1882 120,000 

1884 65,000 



1886 $50,000 

1888 35,320 

1890 58,760 



The large appropriations of 1880 and 1882 were made to provide the 
necessary grounds, buildings, and equipment, and to provide for the 
support of the college until the winter of 1883-84. The last three were 
given for general support. The great reduction of 1888 was due to a 
feeling of discontent which had become quite prevalent in the State 
because of heavy expenditures and alleged high taxation, which pro- 
duced quite a general cutting down of appropriations. 

THE RESULTS OF REDUCED APPROPRIATION. 

The previous success of the college was conceded and the large attendance had 
attracted universal attention, and so soon as the action of the legislature was known 
the authorities of similar institutions in other States at once hegan holding out 
inducements to the faculty to leave the institution, offering large increase of salary. 
As a result, four professors, two assistant professors, and six tutors left for better- 
paying positions. The institution was also so unfortunate as to lose one professor by 
resignation and another by expiration of detail (United States officer), making a 
change in the faculty and assistants of fourteen in little over one year. In one 
chair (agriculture) there were three professors during that period, involving a 
change of management incident to the personality of the three gentlemen, doing 
away with responsibility as to results and destroying the accuracy of experiments, 
for they were also employed by the experiment station. Tempting offers for changes 
to other States were also made to other members of the old faculty, but they elected 
to stand by the institution, believing a more liberal policy would be adopted for the 
future. 

The reduced appropriations put it out of the power of the trustees to fill the 
vacancies with experienced professors, and they had to employ young graduates of 
the college (mostly) in the places of the trained men who had contributed so much 
to making the institution a success. It was found, however, that even these young 
graduates could not be retained at the reduced salaries. One was taken at a salary 
of $2,000 by a railroad company and put in charge of a model farm in Georgia; 
another to a better paying position in a permanent business. 

These sudden and rapid changes amounted almost to a reorganization of the col- 
lege. The two sessions have been a period of great strain, retarding and setting 
back the progress and usefulness of the institution. To have come out with a full 
college attendance is proof of its real worth, its thorough organization, and the 
unselfish labor of its trustees and faculty. It has demonstrated fully by actual test 
that a man or commodity is worth what lie or it will bring ou the market. * * * 



232 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

To prevent a complete disorganization of the college the board of trustees 
arranged for the president and members of the faculty to perform certain duties in 
connection with the experiment station, and to have their salaries supplemented 
out of the station fund. This arrangement not having -svorked satisfactorily to the 
college employees or to the station, will have to be changed, except in one or two 

CRS6S. 

DESTRUCTIVE PIRES. 

The college, after going through two years of the severest strain it could be sub- 
jected to, had, at the beginning of the session of 1889-90, four destructive fires The 
two-story college barn was burned the week of the opening (September 22)- the 
president's house October 15; the lower college barn (2i miles off) October 23 and 
the mess hall for students November 16. In the nine previous years the coUe^^e had 
not had a single fire involving any loss. This alone would indicate that the burn- 
mg was incendiary. 

The losses by those fires amounted to $10,000. There was $2,500 insurance on the 
mess hall and $500 on range and fixtures. The insurance will replace the lower 
story of the mess hall and the range, and this was done. 

THE OBJECTS AND PURrOSES OF THE COLLEGE. 

The acts of the General and State governments plainly define the objects of the 
college. The ^4eading object'^ must be 'Ho benefit agriculture and the mechanic 
arts; should studies be taught, other than such as relate to these interests, they 
are to be considered secondary, and rather as means by which to comprehend more 
readily the sciences underlying agriculture and the mechanic arts. 

The instruction at this college must be such as to educate and direct the minds 
and tastes of students to agriculture, horticulture, care and growth of stock man- 
agement of farms, manner of performing labor, and to the mechanic arts The col- 
lege is not to be in the strictest sense either literary, classical, or military; but 
rather, it is to be a college in which the industrial classes shall be given a general 
education combined with such scientific and practical knowledge as will make them 
familiar with the nature of the objects and the forces with which they have to deal. 
This necessitates that special stress should be laid on such sciences as underlie agri* 
culture, viz, chemistry, botany, geology, zoology, entomology, physiology, mechanics, 
mathematics, physics, etc. To understand these sciences properly a very liberal cul- 
ture, especially in English, is requisite. The various conditions contributing to an 
intelligent understanding of agriculture as a science and an art comprehend an 
education as broad and liberal as that needed in mastering any profession. This 
education, however, must of necessity differ in kind. Students, whose education is 
intended to promote the interests designated in the acts, must omit some studies 
taught in other colleges, looking to general or special training. This education, 
too, is to be practical and industrial; students must not only be familiar with farms 
and labor, but they must also labor themselves, and in this labor find a part of their 
education, the object of which is to create a taste for agricultural pursuits, and to 
fix and preserve habits of industry. * * * 

The trustees have established a preparatory and a collegiate course, which will 
afford the youth of the State ample means of acquiring, in accordance with the law, 
a thorough, elementary education and a scientific and practical knowledge of agri- 
culture, together with a theoretical knowledge of the mechanic arts. * * * 

It is the only college or school in the State that instructs in the theory and prac- 
tice of agriculture. This instruction is given to every student, commencing with 
the elementary principles of agriculture which are taught to preparatory stu*dents. 
By easy gradation, as they advance in general culture, the college classes rise to the 
mastery of the sciences which underlie agriculture and the mechanic arts, and thus 
become well grounded in botany, geology, chemistry, anatomy, physiology, and 



AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 233 

veterinary science; gaining, in fact, a thorough understanding of the application 
and relation of such sciences to agriculture, considered both as a science and as an 
art. In addition to the class-room instruction, students work on the farm, in the 
barns, in the creamery, in the garden, and on the grounds, thereby applying what 
they learn from bocks and lectures and fixing this knowledge more clearly and 
firmly in their minds. 

The State has not yet given the means for properly instructing the students in the 
mechanic arts, although th6 board of trustees has asked for shops for wood and iron 
works, and their necessary equipment. ^ ' 

COURSE OF STUDY. 
Preparatory Department. 

English grammar and composition, penmanship, declamation, arithmetic, elements 
of bookkeeping, algebra to equations of the first degree, geography. United States 
history, and agriculture. 

Text books : Patterson's Elements of Grammar and Composition, Raub's Practical 
English Grammar, Thomson's Complete Arithmetic, Maury's Manual of Geography, 
Barnes's Brief U. S. History, Peck's Manual of Algebra, GuUey's First Lessons in Agri- 
culture, supplemented by lectures. 

Collegiate Department. 

freshman. 

First ierm.— Drawing, algebra, English, natural philosophy. 
Second term, — Algebra, English, agriculture, horticulture. 
Third iferm.— Etymology, algebra, bookkeeping, English, history. 
Declamations and compositions through the entire session. 

SOPHOMORE. 

First term. — Chemistry, drawing, geometry, rhetoric. 

Second <erm.— -Rhetoric, geometry, chemistry, geology. Preparation of addresses 
on scientific and industrial subjects. 

Third <erm.-— Trigonometry, agriculture, botany, chemistry. Delivery of addresses 
contesting for places at commencement. 

JUNIOR. 

First ferm.— Surveying, anatomy and physiology, horticulture, Constitution of 
United States (6 weeks), criticism (6 weeks). Preparation and delivery of addresses 
on scientific and industrial subjects. 

Second term. — Mechanics, chemistry, veterinary science, political economy. Prepa- 
ration and delivery of addresses on scientific and industrial subjects. 

Third ^erm.-— General history, military science and tactics, entomology, mechanics. 
Preparation and delivery of addresses, contesting for places at commencement. 

Afternoon work in chemical laboratory, and with steam engine, 10 hours per week, 
November 15 to February 15. 

SENIOR. 

First «erm.— Literature, zoology, drawing, chemistry. Preparation and delivery of 
addresses on scientific and industrial subjects. 

Second term.- Bota>iij, civil engineering, literature, chemistry. Preparation and 
delivery of addresses on scientific and industrial subjects. 

Third ^erm.— Agriculture, astronomy, moral science (6 weeks). Preparation and 
delivery of addresses, contesting for places at commencement. 

i Catalogue of 1890-91. 



234 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Post graduate. 

Biology,— My cologj J fertilization and cross fertilization, relation of insects and 
plants, histology, zoology, including embryology, with monthly written discussions, 
under direction of professor of biology. 

Agriculture. — Principles of stock breeding and feeding, theory of drainage, culti- 
vation, curing and marketing crops, improvement of soil and manure supply. The 
student will be required to take charge of field and feeding experiments, dairy and 
general farm work, under direction of the professor of agriculture. 

horticulture. — Pomology, floriculture, landscape gardening, forestry, geographic 
botany, econonomic hotany, management of greenhouses, under the direction of 
professor of horticulture. 

Chemistry.— Chemistry applied in the analysis of soils, plants, foods, animal tissues 
and products, feeding, water and other drinks, under the direction of the professor 
of chemistry. 

English. — k course of reading in English prose and poetry, embracing entire works, 
logic, and mental science, with monthly written essays, under the direction of the 
professor of English. 

Mathematics. — Analytical geometry, differential and integral calculus, applied 
mechanics, and civil engineering. 

Degrees. 

The degree of Bachelor of Science is conferred upon students who complete the 
college curriculum by passing all the required examinations. 

The degree of master of science is conferred on any student who has taken the 
bachelor's degree in this college or in any other college with equivalent courses, and 
who pursues and completes the post-graduate course herein prescribed. 

Each candidate for the master^s degree will be required to take the course in 
English, under the direction of the professor of English, and any one of the scien- 
tific courses the candidate may select. The amount of work to be performed must 
be equivalent to two years^ work in the undergraduate course and will be deter- 
mined by the faculty ; and the degree will be conferred only after the candidate 
shall have passed an approved examination and shall have written a thesis on some 
subject connected with his industrial or scientific course which shall be accepted by 
the faculty. 

While these post-graduate courses are open to the graduates of other colleges, such 
students will be required to pay the usual matriculation fee ; and in case chemistry 
or biology is selected, each student will be charged for the chemicals and materials 
used. 

At the last meeting of the board of trustees the honorary degree of master of pro- 
gressive agriculture, M. P. A., was established. 

Departments op Instruction. 

agriculture. 

J. H. CoNNBLL, Professor and Superintendent of Farm. 

It is the purpose of this department to give such practical and theoretical instruc- 
tion to all students of the college that the accumulated facts and experience will do 
much to give a fair understanding of all the workings of a diversified farm following 
various lines of work and conducting important experiments with field crops, forage 
plants, stock food, etc. 

Class-room instruction is given to freshman, sophomore, and senior classes by 
text-book and lectures to each. 

Freshman class (second term). — History, characteristics, and care of the breeds of 
live stock, and their adaptation to the South. Elements of stock feeding and 
dairying. 



AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 235 

Sophomore class (third term). — Breeding live stock, principles of drainage, excess 
of soil water affecting crops, surface and subsoil drains, laying tile and sewer pipe, 
hillside ditching, contamination of wells and cisterns, washing soils, field lessons in 
farm machinery, cultivation and rotation of crops, farm buildings. 

Senior class (third term). — Principles and practice of stock feeding, selection of 
foods, rational feeding, manures, essential elements, application, green manures and 
composts, adaptation of crops to soil, special crops, diversified farming, intensive 
versus extensive farming, farm economy. 

Instruction in this department is not limited to the class room. Knowledge is 
gained hy the student in the regular work in the fields and in an intimate associa- 
tion during the entire course with a large and well-equipped stock farm, with 400 
acres of cultivated land, many pure-bred cattle, a creamery in active operation, with 
all of which he comes in contact. 

The department in all its branches is under the immediate supervision of the pro- 
fessor of agriculture, which fact affords opportunities to illustrate by actual prac- 
tice the theories taught in the class room. 

The compulsory student-labor system is made a prominent feature, and is consid- 
ered educational, not only in teaching the student how to do certain things, but 
also in making him familiar with the various industrial operations of the institution 
by becoming interested in them. 

To assist in meeting expenses students are required to labor from two to three 
hours each day, at 8 cents per hour, three to five days in the week, limited by money 
appropriated for this purpose. This is compulsory to the extent that each student 
must perform a prescribed minimum amount of labor. AVith ordinary weather this 
will enable the student to earn about $25 a year. Some students have earned as 
much as $50. Money so earned must be credited on their account for board. 

Students can also labor on Saturday, and very frequently they can work longer 
than three hours daily during the week. Those who do this earn much more, and it 
goes far toward meeting their expenses. 

To illustrate the varieties of breeds a herd is provided, enabling the student to 
become familiar with the work of caring for several hundred animals, as well as to 
study the peculiarities of the various breeds. 

Opportunity is given the student to compare the ** theory ^' of agriculture with the 
"practice; '^ he soon becomes an interested oritic, and is enabled to judge with con- 
siderable accuracy as to the value of the principles taught in relation to the art. 

At the close of the course in agriculture, questions pertaining to the details of the 
entire work of the farm constitute a part of the regular examination. 

DAIRY HUSBANDRY. 

A special course in dairy husbandry is provided, covering the theory of breeding 
dairy stock, feeding for milk, and of making and shipping milk, cream, butter, and 
cheese, and the practical method of working in different sections of the country. 
On written application practical work in the college creamery, combined with the 
study of principles, will be given free to students and others who desire to fit them- 
selves for taking charge of creameries in the State. 

Means of illustration. — Corn, cotton, hay, and live stock are the products of the 
1,200 acres comprising the farm. Students are brought in immediate contact with 
300 head of cattle, including Holsteins, Jerseys, Herefords, Devons, and Galloways; 
a full and complete outfit of farm machinery and implements, including steam 
engines, cane mill, evaporator, feed mills, fanning mill, ensilage cutter, Kemp's 
manure spreader, reaper, mowers, hay loader, roller, grain drills, corn and cotton 
planters, and a variety of plows, harrows, and cultivators for one, two, and three 
mule teams, from the principal manufacturers of the country ; the growing of crops 
adapted to this latitude; experiments with corn, cotton, ensilage, grasses and ma- 
nures. Access is given to all the results reached by the various experiment stations 



236 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

of the United States, as well as those of the State station located at this college; to 
a working creamery, with full outfit of the best machinery, including the De Laval 
cream separator. Butter is made and forwarded to market daily during the year. 

The library contains works of reference on all branches of agriculture and allied 
sciences, and the reading room is supplied with the best agricultural papers and 
periodicals published in the country, 

HORTICULTUKE. 
Ben. W. Saffold, Acting Professor and /Superintendent of Garden and Orchards. 

Instruction in horticulture is given by text-books, supplemented by lectures, dur- 
ing the first two terms of the collegiate year. 

Freshman class (second term).— Instruction in the class room is given on the fol- 
lowing topics : Preparation and location of garden and orchard lands ; the prepara- 
tion and application of manures, and the adaptability of different fertilizers to the 
crops of the truck farmer; drainage of garden lands; construction and management 
of hot beds and cold frames; how and when to plant; different methods of propa- 
gating plants ; description of the more common insects injurious to fruits and veg- 
etables, and how to control them. 

Junior class (first term). — Instruction in class room is given on the following 
topics : Garden, orchard, and nursery economy ; varieties adapted to different soils 
and latitudes; improvement of plants; pruning and training of trees and vines; the 
best method of harvesting, packing, and shipping fruits and vegetables; when and 
where to ship ; preservation of seeds ; management of greenhouses ; care of orna- 
mental grounds ; propagation and culture of forest trees. 

While at work in the garden and orchard the students become familiar with the 
growth and habits of the different plants cultivated, thus getting practical and 
valuable information that could not be obtained in any other way. 

BIOLOGY AND GEOLOGY. 

G. C. Creelman, Acting Professor. 

Sophomore class (second term). — Anatomy and physiology are taught by lectures, 
illustrated by skeletons, mounted and unmounted; models, manikins, fine life-sized 
drawings, colored from nature; alcoholic preparations and dissections, showing the 
comparative structures of the organs of sense, digestion, circulation, respiration, 
locomotion, etc., their situation, their appearance in health and disease, their inter- 
dependence and their relation to hygiene. 

Third term : Botany, structural, physiological, descriptive, and economic, is taught 
practically, the class making dissections under the microscope and analyzing from 
70 to 100 fresh plants. 

Junior class (G.TstteTm). — Geology is taught in its relations to lithology, miner- 
alogy, soils and its agricultural, architectural, and other economic applications. 

Second term : This term is occupied by lectures on breeds, breeding, and manage- 
ment of sound and sick animals, with examinations of them by the class. 

Third term : Economic entomology, text-book supplemented by lectures. 

Senior class (first term). — To zoology, in its various phases of development from 
the microbe to man, one hour is given daily. 

In these studies students have the use of skeletons, plates, thousands of speci- 
mens, twelve high-power compound microscopes of modern construction, and recent 
improved accessories. 

Second term : The study of botany is resumed with special reference to develop- 
ment, tissues, morphology, and microscopic organisms in their relations to health 
and disease. 



AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 237 

CHEMISTRY. 
W. L. HCTTCHINSON, Professor. 

Instruction in this department is given by means of lectures, illustrated by experi- 
ments, recitations in text-books, and practical work in the laboratory. The course 
of study embraces general chemistry, agricultural chemistry, and industrial chem- 
istry. 

Sophomore class (entire session). — This class studies general chemistry (five hours 
per week). This study embraces the principles of chemistry, the history, prepara- 
tion, and properties of the elementary forms of matter, the manufacture and uses of 
their most important compounds, and organic cheruistry. Qualitative analysis is 
studied the last term. 

Junior class (second term and six weeks of third term). — This class studies agri- 
cultural chemistry (five hours per week). This embraces a study of the origin and 
constitution of soils, the composition, growth, and the feeding of plants, and the 
manufacture and application of fertilizers and manures. Qualitative and quanti- 
tative analyses constitute the practical work of this class. 

Senior class (entire session). — This class studies industrial and agricultural chem- 
istry (five hours per week). Plant growth, fertilizers, stock feeding, the occurrence 
of ores and minerals, the extraction of metals, their properties and uses ; the prepara- 
tion of articles for food and drink, for clothing, for heating, adorning, etc. ; the 
chemistry of combustion and of multiple efiect evaporation ; the analyses of soils, 
fertilizers, and feeding stuffs constitute the study and work of this class. 

A fee of $5 per year is charged each student in the analytical laboratory to cover 
expense of chemicals, gas, etc., used by students. 

Each student in the laboratory is furnished with a complete set of apparatus for 
performing experiments and making analyses. Any apparatus broken by student is 
charged to him. 

The freshman class is given a three months' course in physics. 

ENGLISH. 
W. H. Magruder, Professor. 

The primary object of this department is to give the student a practical knowl- 
edge of English, and with it the liberal culture that necessarily follows a thorough 
study of language. 

To this end it proposes — 

1. To give (a) a critical knowledge of our vernacular in its grammatical and idio- 
matic constructions; to give (b) a general knowledge of its etymological history and 
the history of its relation to other languages; and to give (c) such knowledge of the 
history of its literature as can be acquired in the short time allowed for its study. 

2. To present an outline of the history of general literature ; and to teach the ele- 
ments of criticism, and their practical application. 

3. To give an accurate knowledge of English history, and a general knowledge of 
the history of the world. 

To accomplish the purpose stated above the following course of study has been 
adopted : 

Freshman class.—ln the freshman year the English sentence is carefully studied 
for two terms in its simple, complex, and compound forms; in its punctuation, its 
analysis/ its style, and its relation to the other sentences of the paragraph. 

During the third term the history of the English people is studied topically. By 
means of maps and lectures, by discussions and debates, and by the use of a variety 
of text-books, interest in this important study is sought to be awakened and main- 
tained. 

During the same term the class pursues the study of English etymology in con- 
junction with the history of our tongue. 



238 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Lectures on elocution are given during the first term; and letter writing, the 
reproduction of lectures, composition, and declamation are exercises which are 
required weekly throughout the entire session. 

Ancient biography constitutes the collateral reading of this class, special promi- 
nence being given to the biographies of scientific men and of men who have influenced 
the industries of the world. 

Sophomore class. — During the second collegiate year the sophomore class pursues 
the study of rhetoric for two terms (first and second), discussing the subject of (1) 
style (a) under the various subdivisions of concord, clearness, unity, energy, and 
harmony in the construction of the sentence; and (&) the origin and use of figures; 
(2) they review punctuation and capitals; (3^) they study the diff"erent kinds of com- 
position; and (4) they acquire the principles of real, logical, verbal, and aesthetic 
criticism in literature — the whole being practically applied during the third term 
in the preparation of addresses on industrial topics. These addresses are delivered 
before the faculty and the corps of students competing for places at commencement. 

Modern biography constitutes the collateral reading of this class, under the same 
limitations as in the freshman year. 

Junior class. — In the first term the juniors review the etymological history of the 
English language and its relation to other languages, studying at the same time the 
history of its literature, and thus is given to the student simultaneously a knowledge 
of the changes through which our language has passed and the authors who illus- 
trate the different periods. 

In the second term they study the history of universal literature, the object being 
to give only a bird's-eye view of this vast field. 

In the third term universal history is studied by this class, the text-book being 
supplemented by lectures, maps, and illustrations of various kinds. 

One original address on an industrial or scientific subject is delivered before the 
faculty by every member of the class each term; and each month one extended 
essay on an assigned subject is read by every member before the class, and is criti- 
cised by the class and by the professor. 

Collateral reading is confined to English and American classics. 

Senior class. — During the second term of the fourth year the members of this class 
study criticism five hours per week. The instruction is given by text-books, lec- 
tures, and the reading, in class, of some standard work. 

Instruction in political economy (first term) and in constitutional law (six weeks 
of last term) is for the present given to the senior class by the professor in charge 
of the department of English. 

During the session seven extended essays on assigned subjects are read by each 
member before the class, and these essays are criticised by the class and by the pro- 
fessor. Two addresses (each) on industrial or scientific subjects are delivered 
before the faculty and corps of students, and one address (competing for a place at 
commencement) is delivered by each member of the class before the faculty. 

Post-graduate class. — During the first term of each year the study of logic or psy- 
chology is pursued, the one alternating with the other. The remaining terms are 
devoted to the reading of English classics, which are reported upon monthly by 
means of written essays. 

MATHEMATICS. 
B. M. Walker, Professor. 

The object of this department is to furnish thorough and practical instruction in 
the branches of pure and applied mathematics which it embraces. 

Freshman class (three terms). — This class studies algebra the entire session, devot- 
ing the first term to the fundamental operations of algebra, equations of first degree, 
and the solution of groups of simultaneous equations; the second and third terms 
to formation of powers, radical equations, ratio and proportion, and general theory 
of equations. 



AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 239 

This class has also a coui'se in bookkeeping during the third term. In this study 
the students write up as many exercises as time will permit, thus making the course 
as practical as possible. 

Sophomore class (three terms). — This class studies plane and solid geometry during 
the first and second terms, with numerous exercises for original solution. The third 
term is devoted to plane, analytical, and spherical trigonometry, with applications. 

Junior class (three terms). — This class studies surveying during the first term. 
The use of the field instruments for the surveyor and engineer is carefully explained 
in the section room and minutely illustrated on the field. The class is then care- 
fully instructed in the best methods of land, city, trigonometrical, topographical, 
and mining surveying, leveling, railway curves, and underground traversing. 

The field notes, obtained from actual field work by the students, are used in 
teaching how the office or indoor work is done. 

The students themselves use the instruments, make the measurements, calculate 
the areas, plot the work, and construct the maps. 

During the second and third terms this class studies analytical geometry and 
mechanics. The former is short and given by lectures. Mechanics is then studied 
the remainder of the session. The composition, resolution, and equilibrium of 
forces, rectilinear and periodic, curvilinear and rotary motion, elementary machines, 
and mechanics of liquids and gases, with original exercises, are carefully studied. 

Senior class (two terms). — This class has no mathematics the first term. 

The second term and half the third are devoted to the study of civil engineering. 
The instruction is given partly by lectures and partly by the use of a text-book. 

The adjustments of mathematical instruments, strength of materials, roof and 
bridge trusses, railway curves, excavations and embankments, suggestions as to 
field work and location projects, and track problems are carefully and minutely 
studied. The students handle the instruments and make all the measurements and 
calculations and draw their own plans and maps. The remainder of the session is 
devoted to astronomy. 

The instruction in the department of mathematics is conveyed partly by lectures 
and partly by the systematic study of approve<l text-books. The progress of each 
student in the different classes is tested constantly by his being called upon to apply 
the principles acquired to the independent solutions of original problems. 

MILITART SCIENCE AND TACTICS. 
Lieut. John V. White, Mrst Artillery, 77. S. A., Professor. 

THEORETICAL INSTRUCTION. 

Junior class (third term). — Recitations and lectures in the drill regulations of the 
U. S. Army, the preparation of the usual reports and returns pertaining to a com- 
pany, the organization and administration of the U. S. Army, and the elementary 
principles governing in the art of war. 

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION. 

Sophomore cZass.— Service, etc., of the field piece (artillery). 

All classes.— Infantry drills, including schools of the soldier, company, and battal- 
ion, ceremonies, target practice, guard duty, etc. 

ARMS AND AMMUNITION. 

Two 3-inch field guns. 

Two hundred and fifty Springfield rifles, cal. .45, and infantry accoutrements. 

Ball and blank cartridges for small arms and blank cartridges for field pieces. 

Buildings and Grounds. 

The college buildings are situated on both sides of the branch of the Mobile and 
Ohio Railroad, which extends from Artesia to Starkville, 1^ miles from the latter 



240 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

place. Tlie grounds about the buildings are being rendered as attractive as possible 
by the laying out of drives and the planting of grass and ornamental and shade 
trees. 

The academic building, 127 by 70 feet, has three stories and a basement. The 
upper story consists of six rooms used as class rooms by the professors of agricul- 
ture and horticulture, the instructors in the preparatory department, and the 
instructor in drawing. The second story consists also of six rooms; serving as class 
rooms for the professors of English and mathematics, except- one reserved for the 
safekeeping of the mathematical instruments. The first floor contains the chapel 
or assembly room, and the offices of the president and secretary. In the basement 
the horticulture department has its grafting room and tool rooms. 

The dormitory, 275 by 140 feet, is a three-story building capable of accommodating 
250 students. The first floor contains the library, museum, lecture room of the 
professor of biology, commandant's quarters, and writing room. On the second floor 
are students' rooms and the guardroom and armory. The third floor consists wholly 
of rooms occupied by students. 

The chemical laboratory is a two-story brick building, well ventilated, and sup- 
plied with convenient fixtures, gas, and water. The lower story, consisting of seven 
rooms, is used for practical analytical work for the State and for the experiment 
station. The second story, consisting of five rooms, is used for class instruction. 

The mess hall, 80 by 60 feet, is a one-story frame building, containing a large 
dining hall for 300 students ; and to the rear of this, the kitchen, bakery, and store- 
rooms used by the steward are situated. 

The hospital is a one-story frame building, containing four large and four small 
rooms. 

Besides these there are residences for the president, professors of agriculture, 
chemistry, English, mathematics, horticulture, preparatory department; also for the 
director of experiment station, secretary, surgeon, and steward. 

The value of land, buildings, and equipment is about $188,617. 

THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

By an act of Congress approved March 2, 1887, an annual sum of 
$15,000 was donated to each State for the establishment of an agricul- 
tural experiment station in connection with such college or colleges as 
might have been established in such State under the act of July 2, 1862. 
In States having two such colleges the fund is to be divided, unless the 
legislature shall direct that all of it shall go to one. On the 31st of 
January, 1888, the legislature of Mississippi passed an act accepting 
this donation, directing the whole fund to be expended under the direc- 
tion of this institution, and authorizing the trustees to set apart for 
the use of such station so much of the land and other property of the 
college as they may, from time to time, deem necessary. 

Although a department of the college, the work of the station is entirely distinct, 
the station having its separate working force, its own teams, buildings, tools, etc., 
and accounts of its expenditures being sent to the Secretary of the Treasury at 
Washington for final approval. The work of the station furnishes continual object 
lessons to the students, and in this way is an advantage to the college. The farm 
department is especially benefited by the station work, as it is thus relieved of the 
large amount of experiment work which was formerly required, and which involved 
great expenditure of time and money, while the station finds its work furthered in 
many ways by its location at the college. 



AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 



241 



The act establisliing the station requires (section 4) the publication of an annual 
report and bulletins as often as once each guarter. Up to this time the station has 
published one annual report and ten bulletins, which are sent free of charge to all 
farmers in this State who apply for them, and to which reference is made for further 
details of the station work. These publications have been as follows : 



Date. 


Subject. 


1. Mar 21 1888 


Organization. 
Cotton worm. 


2. May 20, 1888 


3. June 20,1888 


Analyses of commercial fertilizers. 
Marls of Mississippi. 
Pertilizers. 


4. Nov. 7, 1888 


5. May 20, 1889 


6. June 25,1889 


Charbons. 


7. June 20,1889 


Hay presses. 

Stock feeding. 

Diseases of sheep and calves. Bitterweed. 

Dishorning. 

First annual report. 


8 . Aug. 30, 1889 


9. Aug.30,1889 


10. Oct. 10, 1889 . 


Feb. 1,1889 





FARMERS' INSTITUTES AND OUTSIDE WORK. 

The board of trustees have for several years set aside $500 and directed the faculty 
to hold ''farmers^ institutes'^ with the farmers in the different parts of the State, 
and to otherwise assist the farming interest of the State. There has been great 
demand for this kind of work — more than the faculty could do or than the money 
set aside for this purpose would warrant. At these gatherings of the farmers the 
faculty or individual members discussed such topics as the farmers themselves 
selected and thought would most benefit their respective localities. These meetings 
have been productive of good in inculcating a more careful system of farming. The 
correspondence of the members of the faculty on agricultural topics and in supply- 
ing desired information is a very considerable part of the duties to be performed by 
the college. The institution is really every year becoming more and more an official 
bureau of information to the farming interests of the State. 

DISCIPLINE. 

A military organization and drill is ona of the features of the institu- 
tion. The discipline is directly administered by an officer of the United 
States Army, a graduate of West Point, detailed for that service. 

MILITARY EQUIPMENT. 

The college received from the United States 150 stand of cadet rifles 
and accouterments and 2 rifled cannon; from the State, 100 stand of 
cadet rifles and accouterments — total, 250 stand. 

LIBRARY AND READINGS ROOM. 

The library is totally inadequate to the wants of the college at its 
present stage of progress. It includes 3,099 volumes, of which about 
one-half are United States department reports. The reading room is 
supplied with many of the papers published in the State, and about 
$130 is spent annually for magazines and periodicals, including agri- 
cultural and scientific journals suited to the technical character of the 
institution. 

21785— No. 24 16 



242 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

ATTENDANCE OF STUDENTS. 

The institution was opened to students October 6, 1880. The follow- 
ing is a schedule of attendance: 



Session. 


1 


1 


o 

1 

O 


5 


1 


! 


i 

H 


1 


1 
1 


1880-81 


267 
154 
169 
135 
150 
227 
95 
108 
136 
140 


73 
86 
81 
55 
71 
70 
77 
62 
79 
74 


14 
40 
27 
26 
24 
40 
32 
30 
33 
39 










354 
304 
317 
257 
291 
415 
276 
286 
318 
330 




1881-82 


10 
16 
15 
12 
18 
24 
17 
14 
19 






14 
15 
14 
22 
48 
26 
44 
33 
34 




1882-83 


9 

12 
12 
12 
15 
22 
18 
13 


....„ 

3 
5 
11 


8 
9 
11 
11 
16 
22 
14 
13 


1883-84 


1884-85 


1885-86 


1886-87 


1887-88 


1888-89 


1883-90 




Total attendance 
















3,148 
1,832 




Attendance of individual students. . . 
























!'"""" 











Only students from Mississippi are received. The institution 
not been able to accommodate all the students from Mississippi who 
desired to attend, and many have been, consequently, turned away. 
Under the law, 300 students are entitled to free tuition; and this 
accommodation of the college is equally distributed among the counties 
of the State on the basis of the educable white boys in the respective 
counties. This rule is observed, with the modification that it does not 
exclude from attendance such other students as shall pay tuition fees. 
The reception of pay scholars is not allowed to exclude the free scholars. 



FACULTY. 

Gen. Stephen D. Lee, president ; J. H. Oonnell, B. Sc, professor of 
agriculture; B. W. Saffold, B. Sc, acting professor of horticulture; 
G. C. Creelman, B. S. A., acting professor of biology; W. L. Hutchin- 
son, B. Sc, professor, and eJ. S. Meng, assistant, of chemistry; W. H. 
Magruder, A. M., professor, and J. M. White, M. Sc, assistant, English; 
B. M. Walker, M. Sc, professor, and Lieut. John Y. White, U. S. A., 
assistant, and J. O. Herbert, B. Sc, instructor, of mathematics; Lieut. 
John Y. White, U. S. A., commandant and professor of military science 
and tactics; S. M. Tracy, M. S., director of experiment station; Dabney 
Lipscomb, A. M., professor, J. C. Herbert, B. Sc, assistant, and J. T. 
Manier, B. Sc, and W. A. Fort, B. Sc, instructors of preparatory 
department; E. L. Dimitry, instructor in drawing; A. M. Maxwell, 
instructor in writing. 

From its establishment until now this institute has been under the 
very able and energetic administration of Gen. Stephen D. Lee, late of 
the Confederate States Army, and of the United States Army before 



AGEICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 243 

the civil war, a graduate of the United States Military Academy at 
West Point.^ 

BIOGRAPHY. 

Stephen Dill Lee was born in Charleston, S. C, September 22, 1833. 
His great-grandfather was one of forty distinguished citizens of Charles- 
ton confined on a prison ship at St. Augustine, Fla., by the British 
during the Revolutionary war. His grandfather was IJnited States 
judge for South Carolina under President Monroe. He graduated at 
the United States Military Academy at West Point in the class of 1854^ 
served in United States Army till 1861, in the Fourth Artillery 5 was 
first lieutenant and regimental quartermaster when he resigned to 
enter the Confederate Army. 

In 1861, he was appointed captain in the Confederate States Army. 
When Fort Sumter fell he was at Charleston, on the staff of General 
Beauregard. He went to Virginia in command of a light battery in 
Hampton's Legion from South Carolina j was rapidly promoted to colo- 
nel of artillery, serving in battles of Seven Pines, Savage Station, Mal- 
vern Hill, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, and numerous minor engage- 
ments. He came into prominent notice at Manassas and Sharpsburg 
when he, among the first, used artillery massed instead of by single 
batteries. He was made brigadier-general in liTovember, 1862, at the 
close of the first Maryland campaign, and was ordered to the western 
army and stationed at Yicksburg on the Mississippi River. Here he 
commanded the heavy artillery battef ies and the supporting brigade of 
infantry in the city. In December, 1862, Sherman attempted to capture 
the city by a rapid movement down the Mississippi from Memphis. He, 
almost without a day's warning, appeared at the mouth of the Yazoo 
River and succeeded in landing an army of 30,000 troops within 7 miles 
of the city. At the time there were not exceeding 5,000 troops, includ- 
ing heavy artillery, in the city. General Lee was at once detached, with 
all the available infantry (about 3,000) and two light batteries, to hold 
him in check until reenforcements could arrive. He fought Sherman at 
the junction of Chickasaw and Willow bayous, 5 miles from the city, and 
signally defeated him with a loss of 2,000 men killed, wounded, and miss- 
ing, the Confederate force sustaining a loss of about 100. This defeat 
and the arrival of reenforcements compelled Sherman to reembark his 
army on his transports and abandon the expedition. General Lee par- 
ticipated in the defense of Yicksburg, being engaged in the battle of 
Champion HiUs and during the siege of the city. He surrendered with 
the garrison to General Grant, July 4, 1863. He was immediately ex- 
changed, and was promoted to be major-general August, 1863, and was 
placed in command of all the cavalry in Mississippi, Alabama, East 

1 Agricultural and Mechanical College Catalogues for 1881-1890; biennial reports 
for 1883, 1885, 1887, and 1889. This chapter is mainly a compilation from those 
publications. 



244 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Louisiana, and West Tennessee. He was made lieutenant-general in 
August, 1864. His service was mainly in Mississippi, organizing cavalry 
commands and repelling raids. He relieved Lieutenant-General Polk 
in command of the Department of Mississippi, Alabama, East Louisiana, 
and West Tennessee, when that officer joined Gen. J. E. Johnston in 
the spring of 1864 at Dalton, carrying with him all the infantry in his 
old department. In July, 1864, he commanded the Confederates in the 
drawn battle at Harrisburg, near Tupelo, Miss., where with cavalry he 
met A. J. Smith with superior forces^ consisting of his veteran infantry 
corps and a brigade of cavalry. He also confronted Sherman in his 
expedition from Yicksburg to Meridian. In July, 1864, he left the 
Mississippi Department and was assigned to the command of Hood's 
corps at Atlanta, when that officer relieved General Johnston in com- 
mand of the Army of Tennessee. He was in the battle on the left 
of Atlanta, 28th of July, and also at the battle of Jonesboro with his 
corps. He accompanied Hood in his Tennessee campaign. A part of 
his corps (Johnston's division), was engaged in the battle of Franklin. 
He commanded the right of the army in the battle of ISTashville, and 
repulsed the Federals in their attack on Overton Hill. When the army 
was routed his corps covered the retreat the afternoon of the rout, and 
all during the succeeding day and until a rear guard was organized 
from the other corps and Forrest's cavalry. The Federals made most 
persistent effi)rt to rout his corps, but failed. General Lee was wounded 
on the day after the route while with the rear guard. He surrendered 
with Joe Johnston's army in Forth Carolina at High Point. General 
Lee returned to Columbus, Miss., at the close of the war, where he had 
married Miss Eegina Harrison a few months before the collapse of the 
Confederacy. He has been engaged in farming since the war and has 
been identified with the agricultural interests of the South. He repre- 
sented the counties of Lowndes, Oktibbeha, and Clay in the State 
senate of Mississippi for two years. In 1880 he was placed at the head 
of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Mississippi when it was 
organized, and has been its president ever since. The college is a suc- 
cess, and that success is largely due to his faithful and wise adminis- 
tration. 




INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE AND COLLEGE, 



Chapter XII. 



THE INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE AND COLLEGE. 
A STATE OOLLEaE FOR GMRLS — THE STRUeGLE. 

The question of State aid for the establishment of a large and 
powerful college for females was first propounded and extensively agi- 
tated in this State, it is believed, by Miss Sallie Eola Eeneau. This 
young lady lived in Grenada. 

Governor McEae, in his message in 1856, says: 

The proposition for the establishment hy the State of a female college, for the 
thorough and accomplished education of the daughters of the State, has been 
brought prominently and interestingly before the public, and to the notice of the 
executive, by Miss Reneau, a young lady of accomplishment, intelligence, and talent, 
educated in this State, a resident of Grenada, engaged in the business of female 
instruction, and devoted to the intellectual advancement of her sex. I commend 
the subject to the favorable consideration of the legislature.^ 

On the 26th of January Mr. Drane, the member from Choctaw, intro- 
duced in the senate an able and elaborate memorial from Miss Eeneau, 
praying for the endowment and establishment of a State college for 
girls. 

This memorial and the governor's indorsement procured the passage 
of the bill for the establishment of a State female college. This act, 
approved February^20, 1856, provided that the college should be estab- 
lished under that name, and that it should be located in Yalobusha 
County. Unfortunately, however, the achievement of this charter was 
a barren victory. There was no endowment. The college was never 
enabled to assume any effective form. 

Miss Eeneau, in order to overcome that obstacle, caused to be framed 
and presented to the Congress of the United States, in December, 1860, 
a bill for the purpose of endowing the college with 500,000 acres of the 
unsold public lands in the State. The bill was not acted on, but 
remained on the calendar of the House so late as the year 1872.^ 

In the year 1872 Miss Eeneau was again at work. She obtained the 
passage by the legislature of that year of '^An act to amend the charter 
of the University of Mississippi at Oxford, and for other purposes." 
Its principal feature was that the State Female College of Mississippi 
(the corporation of 1856) should be received as a female department of 
the university, under the name of <' Eeneau Female University of Mis- 
sissippi at Oxford.'' The governor was directed by the act to transmit 



1 Senate Journal, 1856, p. 22. 2 Laws of Mississippi, 1872, memorial, p. 127. 

245 



246 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

to Congress a memorial, which was incorporated in the bill, designed 
to revive the old application of 1860 in reference to the grant of lands.^ 

In the House, on its final passage, a proviso was inserted which- for- 
bade any expenditure at the cost of the State until Congress should 
act favorably 5^ and since the trustees of the university had no funds 
of their own a.vailable for such a purpose, the whole scheme now rested 
upon the course of Congress on the memorial. Nothing was done, and 
the affair fell stillborn. 

Miss Keneau, however, did not yet despair. In 1873 there was passed 
another bill 5 this time to incorporate the ^^ Keneau Female University 
of Mississippi at Sardis.'' This act was of the usual type of college 
charters. There was nothing special in it, which, indeed, was its 
trouble. Again there was no appropriation, and the school remained 
among the nebulae. 

Here Miss Reneau seems to have given it up for a hopeless under- 
taking. Shortly afterwards she removed to Tennessee and there prose- 
cuted her vocation as teacher. It was a pity that she did not reap the 
reward of such faithful and long-sustained effort in a cause so noble. 
Her chief obstacle was that she was ahead of the times, and yet, as it 
turned out, so very little ahead. At the least, the people of the State 
should remember her for her great good will. 

Although Miss Reneau was thus baffled and finally left the State, 
yet the cause was not lost. One fully worthy to be her successor took 
up the struggle and proved more fortunate in the issue. Every Mis- 
sissipian will have anticipated the appearance here of the name of 
Mrs. Annie C. Peyton, of Copiah County. 

This excellent lady was born in Madison County on the 12th of 
September, 1852, the daughter of a Mr. Coleman. She graduated at 
Whitworth College in June, 1871, and on the 7th of August, 1873, 
married the Hon. E. G. Peyton, jr., son of Hon. E. G. Peyton, sr., who 
was then chief justice of the supreme court, and had been a citizen of 
this State since the year 1820. 

Mrs. Peyton's first effort was to bring about the adoption of Whit- 
worth College as the State Female College. Section 9, Article VIII, 
of the State constitution, provided that '^No religious sSct or sects 
shall ever control any part of the school or university funds of this 
State." It was therefore necessary to sever the connection between 
the college and the Methodist Church, South, and to transfer the prop- 
erty in the college to the State. She presented to the conference which 
met at Meridian in December, 1879, a memorial to that end, which was 
well received. But it was determined to be impracticable, aside from 
the wish of the conference, because of the fact that the terms of the 
bequest under which the property was held imposed as a condition of 
the tenure that it should remain under the control of the conference. 



1 Laws of 1872, p. 125. ^ House Journal, 1872, pp. 669, 690, 801. 



INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE AND COLLEGE. 247 

ISTotwithstattding the discouragement of this failure, Mrs. Peyton 
continued her labors. She obtained the passage of a bill for the State 
Female College through the senate in the legislature of 1880, but the 
papers were then lost and it failed to pass the house. But the agita- 
tion was continued. Over the pseudonym of "A Mississippi Woman" 
she published numerous articles in the Clarion, all urging the one point. 
She procured the publication, in pamphlet form, in August, 1881, of 
an elaborate and strong address by Dr. G. S. Roudebush, then professor 
of English in the Agricultural and Mechanical College, favoring the 
highest education of women, and in separate schools. 

The papers of the State joined in the movement, and the Democratic 
State convention which met in Jackson, August, 1881, unanimously 
adopted the following resolution: 

Besolved, That as Mississippi has made liberal provision for the education of all 
of her sons, this convention declares it to be the highest duty of the legislature to 
establish, with an ample endowment, a State institution for the education of our 
daughters. 

Another unsuccessful attempt was made in the legislature of 1882. 
When the legislature of 1884 met, Hon. J. K. McXeely, of Hinds 
County, introduced a bill, prepared by Mrs. Peyton, providiug for the 
establishment of '<a State normal and industrial school for the white 
girls of Mississippi.'^ Shortly afterwards Hon. J. McC. Martin, of 
Claiborne County, introduced in the senate a bill for the "Industrial 
Institute and College." This bill made more liberal provision than the 
one drafted by Mrs. Peyton, and she and her coworkers immediately 
abandoned their own and rallied to the support of the Martin bill. 
Thus, by a pull all together, its passage was secured by a majority of 
only 1 in the senate, the act of incorporation being approved March 
12, 1884. • 

THE CHARTER. 

The principal provisions of the charter are these: 

1. An industrial institute and coUege is estabUshed for the education of white 
girls in the arts and sciences, to be known as the Mississippi Industrial Institute 
and College for the Education of White Girls of the State of Mississippi in the Arts 
and Sciences. 

2. The governor was authorized to appoint trustees, with the copsent of the senate 
one from each Congressional district and two from the State at large. ' 

3. The trustees were vested with the usual powers of corporations, including the 
power to own, purchase, and sell property, real, personal, and mixed. 

4. That the governor and State treasurer should be, respectivelv, president and 
treasurer of the board. 

5. That the object of the school should be the giving of education in the arts and 
sciences, m normal school systems, in kindergarten instruction, in telegraphy ste- 
nography, and photography J also in drawing, painting, designing, and engraving in 
their industrial applications ; also in fancy, practical, and general needlework : also in 
bookkeeping, and such other practical industries as may, from time to time, be mm^ 
gested to the trustees by experience or tend to promote the general object of the 
institution, to wit, fitting girls for the practical industries of the age. 



248 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

6. That the trustees should appoint a president, professors, and such other officers 
as they deem proper; fix salaries, make by-laws, regulate rates of tuition and disci- 
pline, and divide the course of instruction into departments, so as to secure the best 
possible instruction in all of said studies. 

7. That the trustees should organize as soon as possible after appointment, and 
immediately thereafter proceed to procure by purchase or donation a site for the 
institution. 

8. That so soon as the institution should be prepared to receive students in three 
or more departments the trustees should apportion to each county its quota of 
scholars on the basis of the number of educable white girls in the counties. The 
scholars to be commissioned by the various county superintendents of public educa- 
tion, with the approval of the boards of supervisors. The presentation of such cer- 
tificates to entitle the holders to admission into the institute, with all its privileges. 

9. The sum of $20,000 per annum each year for the years 1884 and 1885 was appro- 
priated for the purposes of the act. 

Entering promptly on the discliarge of their duties, the board visited 
a large number of places that had bid for the institute. They finally 
accepted the offer of the city of Columbus, which was to donate to the 
college the property of the Columbus Female Institute and city bonds 
to the amount of $50,000, running from one to six years, without 
interest. 

On the 1st of October, 1884, Prof. Eichard W. Jones, then (and since 
1875) professor of chemistry in the University of Mississippi, was 
elected president. On the 19th of February, 1885, Professor Jones 
entered on the duties of that office with a view to organization, laying 
out the plans of the institution, stating and formulating its purposes 
and scope, all of which the trustees had committed to him, subject to 
their approval. President Jones served as a member of the building 
committee, the two others being James T. Harrison, esq., and Dr. J. J. 
Thornton. 

PROPERTY. 

The college owns two lots : 

First. The original plat of ground donated by the city of Columbus, fronting 
Washington street on the south side for 1,050 feet and extending back 1,060 feet. 
Being beautifully shaded and embracing about 20 acres, it affords ample facilities 
for exercise. 

Second. A lot 165 feet square on the north side of Washington street and imme- 
diately facing the first lot, devoted to the president's residence. On these lots are 
valuable buildings. 

The dormitory is a massive brick structure, three stories and a mansard high, 175 
feet front, and running back 170 feet. It has a large and well-arranged, well lighted 
and ventilated dining room, capacious kitchen for preparing the meals, smaller 
kitchen for instruction in cookery, washing room, room for soap making, boiler room, 
ironing room, bathroom, water-closets, 76 well built and ventilated rooms for sleep- 
ing, and a parlor, with capacity for about 200 boarders. The bedrooms are neatly 
furnished. 

Connected with this building by a covered passage is the new chapel building, 
which is three stories high, well and strongly built. This has a large assembly 
room, president's oface^ secretary's office, eight recitation rooms, chemical and phys- 
ical laboratories, and storage rooms, all arranged with full regard to convenience, 
health, and efficient work . 



INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE AND COLLEGE. 249 

These two buildings have all the modern conveniences ; they are warmed through- 
out by steam. The dormitory is supplied with hot and cold water for use in the 
kitchen, dining room, and bathrooms; both buildings are supplied with water by 
mains and pipes from the city waterworks. The dormitory is lighted with city 
gas. The chapel is lighted by electricity. An easy running and safe elevator has 
been introduced into the dormitory. 

A frame building was upon the grounds when the property was 
donated to the State. It has been moved back 150 feet in the rear of 
the present brick chapel, been remodeled and improved, and has twenty- 
five rooms. It is devoted to music, to painting, and industrial arts. 
Steam has been introduced into it also. 

The college was opened for the reception of students October 22, 1885. 
The greatest practical difficulty was found to be the desire and expec- 
tation of many students and their parents to acquire industrial train- 
ing and skill without the needful general academic instruction, but the 
faculty succeeded in correlating the industries to the academic work so 
as to bring about practical adjustments and excellent results. The 
requirements in accurate scholarship for passing from one class to 
another were made very explicit, positive, and high. 

The following extracts from the report of President Jones, made to 
the board of trustees in December, 1887, will explain the principle of 
the institute's organization : 

COLLEGIATE EDUCATION, NORMAL TRAINING, AND INDUSTRIAL PREPARATION. 

To develop largely and according to the demands of thoroughness any one of these 
departments is a great work, hut to successfully carry forward all three of them side 
hy side so as not to have conflict, so that neither one would encroach upon the other, 
and so that a student might derive henefit from more than one at a time, is a task 
that has heen essayed hy no other institution. The, measure of success which has 
attended our efforts to work out a satisfactory result has heen in the highest degree 
gratifying. Our patrons have almost unanimously expressed themselves as highly 
pleased with our methods, our efforts to secure scholarly accuracy and industrial 
skill, whilst our pupils that have gone out from the normal department have given 
evidence of the value of the instruction they have received in the art of teaching. 

We may safely claim, for it is accorded to us hy the highest educational authori- 
ties, that the plan of the college rests upon a rational, philosophical hasis. It 
recognizes first of all, and in all departments of life's activity, the value of general 
intelligence, the value of mental discipline, the value of trained power of thought, 
the value of the acquired power of steady application, the value of professional 
skill, the value of special industrial dexterity. 

The college is designed to fit woman for particular spheres and lines of work, to 
open up to her new avenues to employment and to wider and more varied modes of 
usefulness. Whilst we emphasize the value of the industrial arts, we at the same 
time teach that to he successful in its aim the hand that is skilled in art or industry 
must be directed hy intelligence. To confer upon our girls simply manual skill 
without mental training, is to confer upon them the poor boon of placing them among 
ignorant workers and in competition for employment at poor remuneration. The 
ignorant worker is always at a disadvantage in the struggle for success and respect- 
ful recognition. 

Whilst, therefore, we urge upon our pupils to acquire the highest order of art 
skill and industrial proficiency, we keep before them the fact that they must deal 
with society, they must meet the competitions of business, the exactions of tradO; 



250 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

and iu order to dignify work and enhance its value they must put intelligence into 
it. It is our constant effort to improve the intellect by the best methods which 
philosophy and experience suggest, to afford the broadest and highest culture, and to 
preserve and improve every characteristic of refined womanhood. 

The standard of scholarship in the collegiate and normal courses is high. Thorough- 
ness and accuracy are insisted upon and pupils are not passed into higher classes 
until th«y have mastered the subjects of the lower. A large number of our students 
of last session who had not advanced beyond the first college class succeeded iu the 
State examinations of teachers and obtained first-grade certificates to teach. Of all 
who applied, only one failed. Many of them taught very successfully during the 
vacation, and thereby obtained means to defray their expenses for the present 
session. 

In the industrial arts we insist upon familiarity with details, and readiness and 
facility in execution, so that the pupil may be able to measure up to all just expecta- 
tion when we recommend her for employment. We do no work for display, but for 
solid attainments and worth. We constantly and earnestly endeavor to impress on 
students the desirableness of accurate, sound learning, the worthlessness of super- 
ficial study, of lax mental movements, and of passing over high-sounding subjects 
merely for the name of having done so. True mental enlightenment and accompany- 
ing vigor can come only through the cleg.r perception and comprehension of truth in 
its many and beautiful forms. 

Our course of study is laid out and our methods of teaching directed to secure 
these best intellectual results. 

In the normal department we give special attention to the preparation of those 
who propose to become teachers in the public schools of the State, directing these 
studies first so as to enable them to pass the examinations required by the State law 
and set by the State superintendent. Besides this, we carry forward those who 
remain long enough to the study of advanced subjects to prepare them to be teachers 
in high schools and colleges. In both cases we give especial care to instruct these 
young teachers in the most improved modern methods of teaching, and we make 
arrangements for giving them teaching practice. 

Another and prominent feature in our normal work is this : 

We have introduced into our normal course a well-arranged line of instruction in 
f^ee-hand drawing and industrial drawing. * * * The young ladies who go out 
from our normal department will be competent to give to boys and girls thorough 
instruction in drawing, so that they will be enabled to read designs and plans, and 
to represent with the pencil any object it is desirable to manufacture. Thus we 
hope to contribute ultimately to the general industrial development and the wealth 
of our State. 

The president here sets forth succinctly the entire course of instruc- 
tion in the collegiate and the normal departments; and continues: 

It will be apparent from these schemes of general education that a young lady 
who graduates in our college course will have an education as thorough and exten- 
sive as that conferred by our best colleges on young men. In the sciences we offer 
exceptionally fine practical advantages. Botany, zoology, physiology, physics, 
chemistry, mineralogy, and geology are taught practically and experimentally. Our 
physical and chemical laboratory and lecture room are supplied with the best mod- 
ern improvements. Students not only witness the experiments of the professor, but 
they perform experiments and learn laboratory manipulations in progressive courses, 
and in addition have the best opportunities for qualitative and quantitative analysis. 
We have botanical charts, zoological charts, charts for anatomy and physiology, two 
microscopes. We are favored also by the loan of the mineral and geological cabinet* 
pf the late Dr. W. Spillman. 

An entire hour is devoted to each recitation in every department except in music. 
A music lesson occupies a half hour. 



INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE AND COLLEGE. 251 

INDUSTKIAL DEPARTMENTS. 

Every student is required to learn some one of the industrial arts unless she is 
pursuing the study of music or oil painting. Those studying music and oil painting 
have the privilege of an industrial art. Each student is limited to one industrial 
art at a time ; after learning one she may proceed to another art. Students or their 
parents may choose their industrial arts ; but no one is permitted to take up phonog- 
raphy v?^ithout an adequate knowledge of English, and no one is admitted to the 
study of bookkeeping without a good knowledge of practical arithmetic. The want 
of competent preparation has been the most serious hindrance to the industrial work 
of students. The girls here evince a lively interest in their industries and gener- 
ally make gratifying progress. They appear to be in earnest to prepare for self- 
support. 

The numbers of students registered in most of the industrial departments were 
larger the first session than they have been since. This is accounted for by the fact 
that during the iirst session many pupils, supported by their parents, insisted on 
taking several industrial arts at a time. In order to convince them of the error of 
this, it was necessary to allow them to make the effort and to suffer failure. 

The work of students in design, wood carving, modeling, crayon portraiture, 
dressmaking, hammering in thin metals, art needlework, decoration of porcelain 
ware, and oil painting has been from time to time on exhibition in the rooms of the 
college, and has received the highest praise from visitors and the strongest indorse- 
ment of skilled artists and judges of such work. 

Specimens of students' work in Miss McLaurin's department have been sent to 
manufacturers and art associations in New York, and have received high commenda- 
tion and valuation. 

We have sent out well-qualified bookkeepers, shorthand reporters, and typewriters, 
who have secured employment at good pay. We have found it impracticable to get 
employment for women as telegraphers, and while a number of young ladies have 
been pretty well trained as printers, they have found it difficult to get employment, 
and when they succeeded in doing so the pay has been comparatively poor. 

Two young ladies who were trained here are getting remunerative employment in 
establishments for cutting and making dresses. 

MUSIC AND OIL PAINTING. 

Instruction has been regularly given in music on the piano and organ and in 
vocal music. The number of students in music has been large, considering the 
inducements and opportunities here offered to acquire industrial arts. The teachers 
are accomplished and the students are interested and generally make good progress. 

A considerable portion of the students of music are preparing to teach, and they 
will go out thoroughly equipped for the profession. 

Each year there has been a class in oil painting, taught by Mrs. Torrey, who has 
had a long experience as a teacher and who enjoyed the best advantages in art 
instruction in Europe. 



WORK. 

This work is of two kinds, required and voluntary. 

Required work in the dormitory,— The occupants of the rooms are required to do all 
the work necessary to keep them in nice order. The work in the dining room, such 
as spreading the clofchs, putting on the meals, placing the chairs, washing plates and 
dishes, waiting on the table, is required of the pupil. For this work regular details 
are made and each one in turn performs her part. 

By this arrangement we dispense with hired servants entirely in the dining room 
and apartments for sleeping, and thereby effect economy. 



252 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

Voluntary work, — Grirls have the privilege of doing a large part of the work in the 
kitchen, in keeping the room and furniture in a cleanly condition and neat order. 
They sweep the halls, recitation rooms, chapel, music rooms, light the gas in the 
halls and dining room, and do much of the light work in the laundry. Students 
also are, paid for certain work in the printing office, and may take in work in the 
cutting and making department. Some work in the garden, and thus earn some- 
thing. 

For this voluntary work they are paid at the rate of 6 to 8 cents per hour. 

There is no disposition in the institution, by word or action, to disparage those 
who work to aid in paying their expenses. On the contrary, the president and fac^ 
ulty commend all the work that is offered to students as honorable and praise those 
who perform it well. 

The heavy work in the kitchen and laundry is performed by hired laborers ; the 
machinery in the laundry is operated by an engineer. 

A few girls have paid their whole expenses by work. Many have earned $4 per 
month and upward. 

While we encourage girls to work, we urge them to regard their studies and their 
industrial arts as of paramount importance. 

When a student works so much daily as to be wearied, she loses in studies. Where 
it can be avoided pupils ought not to attempt to make the whole of their expenses 
while here. Experience teaches us that girls generally can not do more than two 
hours' work daily without injury to their class standing, their health, or to both. 
This amount of work, together with what they can do on Saturdays, will enable 
them to earn about $4 or $5 per month. 

The girls have shown a great desire to get the work to dOj and the number of 
applicants has been so great that we have not been able to supply all. 

A good part of the money paid into the college treasury in the form of entrance 
fees is paid back to students for sweeping halls and recitation rooms and for writing 
in the offices of the president and secretary. 

No part of the State fund is used for paying students for work. 



WOMAN UNWOMANLY. 

We are not teaching woman to demand the " rights'' of men nor to invade the 
sphere of men. The conditions are supplied here for that high training of the mind, 
of the sensibilities, of her aesthetic faculties, of the moral and religious parts of her 
being which fits her for the ways of modest usefulness, for works of true benevolence, 
and which invests her with that.true womanly character and those beautiful Chris- 
tian graces that constitute her the charm of social life and the queen of home. 
# ji •}< i* * ■J' * 

The results of our work are becoming manifest. The college marks a new era. in 
education in the South, it is being entrenched deeper and deeper in the affections 
of its friends, it has attracted multitudes of visitors from various States. Some 
educators of prominence have spent days here studying our plan of organization, 
our scope and methods ; these observations have been used in projecting institutions 
in older States. Governors and members of legislatures ^of other States have sought 
information regarding it, with a view to recommending the establishment of similar 
institutions in their borders. It has been the subject of the most elaborate and 
favorable newspaper articles. It has done much to attract the attention of people 
outside of our State and to create a most favorable impression in regard to the 
progressive educational spirit of our people. 

THE ATTENDANCE. 

The first session opened October 22, 1885. The annual attendance 
has been as follows : 



INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE AND COLLEGE. 253 

Session of 1885-86, 341; of 1886-87, 388 ; of 1887-88, 383 ; of 1888-89, 
337; of 1889-90,312. 

In the year 1886-87 there were 300 applications from Mississippi for 
l>laces in the dormitory. In the autumn of 1887 there were 476 appli- 
cations, besides many from various States. The places in the dormitory 
apportioned to the counties of the State number 200. It has been 
impossible to accept in the dormitory half of the applicants. Many 
of these have made arrangements with private families in the town for 
board and lodging. 

EXPENSES. 

Girls from other States are required to pay tuition, but tuition is free 
in the collegiate, normal, and industrial studies to all girls of Missis- 
sippi who obtain scholarships. 

Incidental fee paid on entering eacli session , $5. 00 

Music on piano or organ, per montli 4. 50 

Voice culture, per montli 5. 00 

Solfege, per month : 50 

Use of instrument for practice, one hour per day, per month 75 

Oil painting, per month Free. 

Students in analytical chemistry pay for materials consumed^ and 
apparatus broken. 
In the dormitory board is furnished to pupils at actual cost. 

APPROPRIA.TIONS. 

The appropriations made by the State for the establishment and 
maintenance of the institute have been, thus far: 

1884 and 1885, $20,000 each $40,000.00 

1886 and 1887 59,875.50 

1888 and 1889, $22,588.75 each 45, 177.50 

1890 and 1891 .' 50,000.00 

Total 195,053.00 

Add donation of Columbus '. 50, 000. 00 

Grand total. 245, 053. 00 

At the conclusion of the session of 1887-88 President Jones resigned 
his position, accepting the presidency of Emory and Henry College in 
Virginia. The cause of his resignation was the excessive demands of 
the institute on a president's strength, while his own health was delicate. 

On the 3d of September Prof. Charles Hartwell Cocke, of Columbus, 
was elected to succeed him. 

In March, 1890, President Cocke resigned, and the board appointed 
Miss Callaway, mistress of mathematics, to be chairman of the faculty 
for the remainder of the term. In June following Prof. Arthur H. 
Beals, of Paducah, Ky., was elected president. 



254 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

THE FACULTY. 

Arthur H. Beals, president; Miss M. J. S. Callaway, A. M., mathe- 
matics; Miss Pauline Y. Orr, English; Miss Ellen Martin, history, 
mental and moral philosophy; Miss J. T. Clarke, B. S., L. I., Latin; 
Miss Ella F. Pegues, modern languages; Miss S. C. McLaurin, M. T. D., 
industrial and decorative art; Miss Ruth S. Roudebush, M. A., book- 
keeping and penmanship ; Miss Helen Graves, phonography, telegraphy, 
and typewriting; Miss Helen M. Quinche, natural history, chemistry, 
and physics; Miss Bettie B. Clay, instrumental .music; Mrs. Addie T. 
Owen, instrumental music; Mrs, C. Y. Hooper, vocal music; Mrs. A. E. 
Crusoe, repousse and art needlework; Miss Virginia L. Cates, L. I., 
printing; Mrs. F. I. Cro well, cutting and making garments; Mrs. Lucy 
Torrey, oil painting; Mrs. M. L. Batte, assistant in English; Miss 
Edwina Burnley, assistant in mathematics; Mrs. Irene T. Ramsey, 
assistant in instrumental music; Miss Effie Hutchinson, M. T. D., 
assistant in designing, engraving, modeling, etc. 

Prof. Richard W. Jones was born May 16, 1839, in Greenesville 
County, Va. He graduated from Randolph-Macon College, Virginia, 
at the head of his class in June, 1857. After two years of study in the 
University of Virginia he received from that institution the degree of 
Master of Arts, July, 1861. He entered tbe Confederate service soon 
after his graduation, first as a private soldier. Afterwards he raised a 
company and was elected and commissioned captain of infantry. This 
company became a part of the famous Twelfth Virginia Infantry, of 
Mahone's Brigade, R. H. Anderson's Division, Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia. This command bore a full share of the hard fighting and trying 
events during those memorable years in Virginia, Maryland, and Penn- 
sylvania. During the latter part of the war, for more than a year of 
the most desperate part of the struggle, he commanded his regiment, 
and surrendered it at Appomattox. 

The war over, he entered the profession of teaching, and has been 
continuously engaged in it since that time, occupying the following 
positions: Professor in Randolph- Macon College, Virginia; president 
of Martha Washington College, Virginia; professor in University of 
Mississippi; president of the State Industrial Institute and College, 
Columbus, Miss. His special professional work has been in the 
sciences. At the University of Mississippi he had charge first of 
chemistry, natural history, and geology, with an assistant; afterwards 
the chairs were divided, and he confined his attention to chemistry. 
During this time he wrote a number of articles on scientific subjects. 
The Government of the United States appointed him during two sum- 
mers as agent of the entomological commission in Mississippi. His 
reports on cotton insects were published in pamphlet form by the Gov- 
ernment and were also largely introduced into the general reports of 
the chief of the commission. 



INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE AND COLLEGE. 255 

He has been for a number of years a member of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science and of the American Institute 
of Christian Philosophy. He has also been elected a member of the 
Victoria Institute, England. 

He became president of Emory and Henry College, Yirginia, in the 
year 1888, but in the fall of 1889 accepted his former chair in the Uni- 
versity of Mississippi. 

The three colleges of which he was president flourished greatly under 
his administration. 



Chapter XIII. 



THE MILLSAPS COLLEGE. 

For several years past a sentiment has been growing among the 
Methodists (Southern) of Mississippi that a denominational college 
should be established within the boundaries of the State whose special 
object should be to attract to its halls and to prepare for their purposed 
holy calling those youths of the Methodist Church, South, who propose 
to adopt the ministry for their life work. It is believed that such want 
found its first public expression from the lips of the Eev. F. A. S. 
Adams, formerly a president of Centenary College, at the session of the 
North Mississippi Conference, held in Corinth in 1882^ but nothing was 
done for several years. 

At the seventy-fifth session of the Mississippi Conference, held in 
Vicksburg, December 5-10, 1888, the committee on education. Dr. C. G. 
Andrews, chairman (also a former president of Centenary College), 
made this report, among others : 

1. That we realize the rapid strides being made around us in progress and learn- 
ing, and that we will still endeavor, both by precept and example, to keep our 
people fully abreast of the age. 

2. That a college for males under the auspices and control of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, ought to be established at some central and accessible point 
in the State of Mississippi. 

3. That a committee of three laymen and three preachers be appointed to confer 
with a like committee to be appointed by the North Mississippi Conference to formu- 
late plans to receive offers of donations of lands, buildings, or money for that pur- 
pose and to report to the next session of said conference. And we do this without 
any unfriendliness to Centenary College or desire to impair its influence or to inter- 
fere with the present endowment plan now being carried on by Dr. Hunnicutt, 
president of that honored institution. 

In accordance with the resolution the following committee was 
appointed: Eev. T. L. Mellen, Eev. A. F. Watkins, and Eev. W. C. 
Black; laymen, E. W. Millsaps, W. L, Nugent, and Luther Sexton. 

At the following session of the North Mississippi Conference, which 
convened in 8tarkville on the 12th of December, 1888, Eev. T. L. 
Mellen, as a special messenger from the Mississippi Conference, 
appeared and presented the resolution passed by that body. After its 
reading it was referred to the board of education, and that board made 
on the 14th a special report, on which the Eev. Mr. Mellen addressed 
the conference. The report was as follows : 

The board of education having under consideration the proposition of the Missis- 
sippi Conference, as embodied in the communication of Rev. T. L. Mellen, and look- 
256 




MAIN BUILDING— MILLSAPS COLLEGE. 




WEBSTER SCIENCE HALL— MILLSAPS COLLEGE. 



MILLISAPS COLLEGE. 257 

ing to the establishment of a male college in Mississippi, have adopted a resolution 
concurring in said proposition. The board recommend the adoption of the following 
resolutions: ' 

1. Eesolvedy That a college for the education of boys and young men should be 
established in the State of Mississippi, under the .auspices of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South. 

2. That a committee of three laymen and three ministers be appointed to confer 
with a like committee already appointed by the Mississippi Conference, to formu- 
late plans, to receive offers or donations of land, buildings, and money for the 
establishment of said college, and to report at the next annual session of this 
conference. 

3. That the following-named persons shall constitute the committee provided for 
in the second resolution : Clerical— J. J. Wheat, S. M. Thames, T. J. Newell; lay — 
G. D. Shands, D. S. Sweatman, J. B. Streater. 

T. C. WiER, Chairman. 

On the 14tli of February following the joint committee met in the 
city of Jackson. One of their number, Maj. E. W. Millsaps/ who is a 
banker of Jackson and a lay member of the Methodist Church (the 
same who is mentioned as a benefactor of Whitworth College), offered 
to donate to the proposed college the sum of $50,000 on the sole condi- 
tion that the members of the churches of the State should raise an 
equal sum to be devoted to the same institution. 

The committee thereupon appointed a subcommittee to formulate a 
plan for the raising of that additional sum, with instructions to report 
at an adjourned meeting shortly to be held. They also appointed two 
clergymen^ — Eev. J. J. Wheat, then professor of mental and moral phi- 
losophy at the State University and presiding elder of a district in the 
I^orth Mississippi Conference, and Eev. W. C. Black, then preacher in 
charge of the church at Jackson and member of the Mississippi Con- 
ference—to prepare for publication an address to the Methodists of the 
State in behalf of the proposed college. The address was duly prepared 
by them and was widely circulated. 

On March 5, 1889, the joint committee again met in Jackson. Their 
meeting was held in public and was largely attended. A permanent 
organization was effected, with Major Millsaps as president and treas- 
urer^ and Eev. T. J. Newell (president of the Grenada Collegiate 
Academy) as secretary. The subcommittee appointed at the previous 
meeting reported a plan, deemed by them feasible, for the raising of the 
$50,000 needed, and their report was adopted. It was, in brief, to can- 
vass the State for endowment subscriptions. 

Bishop Charles B. Oalloway was present and undertook the canvass 
in person. This divine has been through all of his life an earnest 
friend of higher education. He graduated at the State University, 
with the degree of A. B., was a professor at Madison College for a 
short period, entered on the Methodist ministry, was elected bishop 
when 36 years of age. He had already organized and put into opera- 
tion two colleges, both of which assumed his name; one at Searcy, 
Ark., the other at Yineta, in the Indian Territory. He presided over 
• 21785~No. 24- — -17 



258 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

the conference at Starkville where this movement was finally deter- 
mined upon. He had manifested the warmest interest in it and no 
man could have undertaken the work who would be so likely to bear it 
on to final success. 

Bishop G-alloway discharged his undertaking faithfully. Through 
all the remainder of the year 1889^ and through the year 1890, he 
labored zealously in the cause. In various towns, and at many gath- 
erings of the Methodist people, he made ardent and telling speeches; 
treating the importance of higher education, its relation to all the 
industries, to the church and the ministry. His unflagging energy 
and indomitable will carried all before him. His appeals met in all 
cases a ready and more or less liberal response. So that when the 
North Mississippi Conference met at Holly Springs in the month of 
December, 1889, he was able to report that about $44,000 of reliable 
subscriptions had already been made. 

By that conference, and by the Mississippi Conference which met at 
Crystal Springs two weeks later, resolutions were adopted providing 
for the appointment of a board of trustees, to consist of sixteen mem- 
bers in addition to Bishop Galloway; eight members to be taken from 
each conference, and one-half of whom in each instance were to be 
laymen. 

Pursuant to the action of the two conferences, the bishop appointed 
the following board of trustees : 

From the Mississippi Conference, Rev. T. L. Mellen, Eev. C. G. 
Andrews, Rev. W. C. Black, Rev. A. F. Watkins, ministers^ Maj. R. W. 
Millsaps, Col. W. L. Nugent, Lieutenant-Governor M. M. Evans, Dr. 
Luther Sexton, laymen. From the North Mississippi Conference, Rev. 
J. J. Wheat, Rev. S. M. Thames, Rev. T. J. Newell, Rev. R. M. Standifer, 
ministers; Col. D. L. Sweatman, Lieutenant-Governor G. D. Shands, 
J. B. Streater, and John Trice, laymen. 

The entire subscription of $50,000 has been made, to meet the offer 
of Major Millsaps, thus giving the college an endowment fund of 
$100,000. Nor has the zeal of the promoters stopped here, for the same 
gentleman having made a further offer of $25,000 on the same terms, a 
further subscription is now taking to meet it also, and with every pros- 
pect of success. Moreover, the citizens of Jackson, in order to obtain 
the location of the institution in their midst (which they did), made a 
donation estimated at $40,000 value for site and buildings. It is 
expected to get the college under way in the fall of 1892, with $40,000 
in real property and $150,000 of productive endowment. 




LIBRARY—MILLSAPS COLLEGE. 




BEARD HALL, TOUGALOO UNIVERSITY. 



Chapter XIV. 



EDUCATION OF THE COLORED RACE. 
TOUGALOO UNIVERSITY. 

This institution, located at Tougaloo, a station on the Illinois Central 
Eailroad, 7 miles north of Jackson, was founded in 1869 by the Ameri- 
can Missionary Association. That body determined to establish, in a 
central locality of this State, a university for the education of the 
colored people. With this view it purchased at Tougaloo a farm con- 
taining 500 acres of land, with a large mansion and outbuildings. In 
the following year (1870) two large college buildings were erected. One 
was a one-and-a-half story building, 32 by 70 feet, called Washington 
Hall, and contained audience room, school and recitation rooms, and 
dormitories for 30 young men; the other was a two-story structure, 34 
by 70 feet, called the Boarding Hall, and contained dining room, kitchen, 
laundry, sitting room, and dormitories for 30 young women. The build- 
ings were erected by aid received from the Government of the United 
States through the educational department of the Bureau of Eefugees 
and Freedmen at a cost of $13,050; the school farm cost the association 
$10,500; cost of stock and farming utensils, about $2,000. Total cost 
of equipment, $25,550. 

The institution had no permanent productive fund for current ex- 
penses. A few of the students paid $1 per month tuition ; some of them 
defrayed wholly or in part their expenses by labor on the premises. In 
the third year of scholastic work (1871) the boards of school directors of 
Hinds and Madison counties paid the wages of two teachers for five 
months, and all the balance of current expense came from the treasury 
of the missionary association. However, it was not very heavy, this 
being the account: 

Expenses for 1870 and 1871 $15, ^57. 00 

Receipts from — 

Labor of students, 1870 $1, 168. 00 

Labor of students, 1871 1,751.00 

Board and tuition 702.86 

3, 621. 86 

Net expense for two years 11, 635. 14 

As may be inferred from the foregoing statement, it was part of the 
scheme that poor students might, at their option, meet a part or all of 
their expenses by labor on the farm. The industrial department pre- 
sents the same opportunities to the females. 

259 



260 HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

On the 13th of May, 1871, the university was incorporated. The 
more important provisions of its charter are as follows : 

1. Property, both real and personal, may be acquired, held, and conveyed to the 
amount of $500,000. 

2. Such honors and degrees as are usual from colleges and universities may be 
conferred. 

3. Vacancies in the board of trustees shall be filled by the American Missionary 
Association. 

4. The president of the university, the professors, and the instructors, shall be 
appointed by the board of trustees on the nomination of the missionary association. 

5. The board of trustees have the power to organize any or all of the departments 
of a university whenever in their judgment the interests of the institution and the 
public wants require; also, to provide that the normal, medical, and law depart- 
ments, or any one pf them, may be placed under the management of a separate board 
for special purposes, and that the property and liabilities of each be and remain dis- 
tinct from the property and liabilities of the other departments. 

The institution began work in the year 1869. The attendance and 
classification of the school for the year 1871, from January to October, 
were as follows: Primary students, 81; intermediate, 73 ; grammar, 20; 
night students, IT; total, 191. 

After the charter was obtained (October, 1871) a separate normal 
department was organized and placed under the charge of Prof, A. J. 
Steele, with Miss H. Louisa Lane as assistant. The elementary and 
academic departments remained under the charge of Eev. Ebenezer 
Tucker, A. M., with Miss Sarah A. Beals as assistant ^ and the agri- 
cultural department under that of Mr. Henry S. Beals. Mrs. A. J. 
Steele, teacher of music. 

The statement of students for the closing term of 1871, as reorgan- 
ized, was as follows: Elementary students, 94; normal, 47; academic, 1; 
total, 142. 

In December, 1871, the three principals. Tucker^ Steele, and Beals, 
each presented a report and memorial combined to Hon. H. R. Pease, 
superintendent of public education, in which the scheme and the statu.s 
of the university were set forth, its dependence on the missionary asso- 
ciation explained, the heavily burdened condition of that association 
insisted on, and the pressing need urged of lunds for the enlargement 
of accommodations, teachers' salaries, and the purchase of apparatus. 
This appeal met a prompt response. On the 3rd of January, 1872, 
an act was passed whereby a board of trustees, in behalf of the State, 
was authorized to make such contract with the trustees, or executive 
committee, of the Tougaloo University as would secure to the State 
the use of such buildings, grounds, and appurtenances as might be nec- 
essary for the establishment of a State I^ormal School. The sum of 
$4,000 was appropriated for the purposes of the act, to be expended as 
follows: $2,500, if needed, for teachers' salaries; $1,000, if needed, for 
aid to students; $500, if needed, for school furniture and apparatus. 
This arrangement was to continue only two years, and the State was to 
incur no other expense. 




STRIEBY HALL, TOUGALOO UNIVERSITY. 



TOUGALOO UNIVERSITY. 261 

The act further provided that the governor, the State board of edu- 
cation, and fiYe appointees of the governor should Constitute a board 
of trustees; that such board should have the power to appoint and 
remove the teachers and to fix their salaries; also, to prescribe the 
rules of admission to the formal School, and to make such by-laws as 
should seem needed for its good government. Each county of the 
State was declared entitled to two free scholarships for each term, the 
beneficiaries to be selected from the resident pupils attending the pub- 
lic schools of the respective counties by a public competitive examina- 
tion. Each student who should file a declaration of intention to teach 
in the common schools of the State was granted the sum of 50 cents 
per week, for the time in attendance, payable out of the $1,000 aid fund. 

It should be noted that under this scheme the State board of trustees 
would control the normal school department of the university, and the 
board appointed by the missionary association all other departments 
and interests. 

In March, 1872, the arrangement proposed in the foregoing act was 
consummated, and the normal department of the university became a 
State E^ormal School. Prof. A. J. Steele was retained as principal by 
the State trustees. From his report to the State superintendent of 
public education, in reference to the year's work of 1872, the following 
extracts are taken : 

At the present time (December, 1872) there are four regular teachers employed in 
the normal school. ^ 

The fact that our work is that of fitting teachers for their profession is never lost 
sight of. 

Students receive thorough drill in all those studies that they will he called to 
teach, and in such other branches as experience has shown best adapted to disci- 
pline and develop the mind. 

Those who train the minds of others should themselves have minds well trained. 

It is a matter of great congratulation that there is connected with the normal a 
training department. This department consists of primary and intermediate grades. 

It is intended that the primary be used as a model school, for observation, and in 
which little or no practice will be done by normal students, they only being allowed 
to witness the operation of the model school, while each normal student, besides 
the instruction received from the faculty in the art of teaching, will be required, at 
the proper stage of progress, to teach classes in the intermediate school for the 
length of time thought necessary, under the supervision and criticism of the prin- 
cipal and other teachers, who will point out their errors, commend their excel- 
lencies, suggest to them means of improvement, and thus enable students to deter- 
mine for themselves whether they are qualified to undertake the arduous task of 
teaching. Other criticism lessons are also interspersed with the daily lessons of the 
school, testing and strengthening the power of management in the pupil, as well as 
the perception of a necessity of thorough drill at the hands of the teacher. 

The regular course of instruction and practice occupies four years. 

***** jf # 

At the present time there are in the normal classes 70 pupils, besides about 140 in 
attendance upon the primary and intermediate grades. 

A class has been carried through the common English branches, and is now pur- 
suing more advanced studies, as algebra, rhetoric, and rudiments of Latin. 

Other classes are doing good work in advanced arithmetic, grammar, geography, 



262 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

etc. A class of about 40 has made rapid progress, and are quite proficient iu vocal . 
music, under the thorough drill they have received at the hands of the music 
teacher. The members of the class readily read music of medium difficultness. 

•^ # # * * * •}( 

During the year (mostly from June to December) 25 of our students have been 
engaged in teaching in the public schools of several counties, maii\ly with marked 
success; and notwithstanding that during the fall term several of our students 
remained [absent] teaching, the number in attendance has been greater than ever 
before, and for want of room and accommodations admission has been refused to a 
large number of earnest young men and women desirous of fitting themselves for 
lives of usefulness as teachers. 

■3* * * ^ * * * 

During the year just past instruction has been given in the normal school to 112 
students, all of whom, with us, have borne good characters and exhibited great 
earnestness and an unswerving determination to acquire knowledge and habits of 
life much different from those to which many of our pupils have been accustomed. 

The faculty of the State normal department were Prof. A. J, Steele, 
principal, and two assistants; Prof. J. K. Deering, principal of inter- 
mediate class, and one assistant; Miss H, 0. BuUard, principal of 
primary department; Mrs. A. J. Steele, teacher of music, and Eev. E. 
Tucker, pastor and teacher of moral science. 

The report for the year 1873 shows that the school continued to work 
as before, vnth the following additions :_ 

A theological class had been organized for the benefit of those who 
designed to enter the ministry. The object aimed at was to secure a 
thorough knowledge of the Bible, including the original of the l^ew 
Testament, together with training in homiletics and pastoral labor. 
The instruction given was not denominational in its nature. 

A system of lectures had been arranged, relating to the natural 
sciences, history, mental and moral science, and such other topics as 
might demand attention. 

The faculty remained much as before, except that Eev. J. K. IsTuttiug 
had been made president, and placed in charge of the theological 
department. 

To the industrial branch, a mechanical department had been added. 
A suitable engine had been provided and was used for ginning cotton, 
grinding corn^ aud for running the machinery in the mechanical depart- 
ment, where the simpler kinds of furniture were manufactured, together 
with brooms, rustic work, etc. Mr. S. C. Osborne was business man- 
ager and superintendent of agricultural and mechanical departments. 

The attendance of students for the year had been 280, classified thus: 
Normal department, 85; intermediate department, 60; primary depart- 
ment, 142; 7 being iu two departments. 

On the 28th of March, 1874, the legislature appropriated the sum of 
$10,000 for the erection of a normal building ^t the university, con- 
ditioned on a similar appropriation of $15,000 by the American Mission- , 
ary Association; but the condition not being complied with, the appro- 
priation was never used. On 21st of the same month the further sum 



TOUGALOO UNIVERSITY. 263 

of $4,500 was appropriated by tlie State for the current expenses of the 
year. A similar sum was again appropriated in March, 1875, and the 
law so amended as to stop the payment of 50 cents per week thereto- 
fore made to pupils. In 1876, $3,000 was appropriated 5 in 1877, $2,500. 
In 1878 and 1879 no appropriation was made for the university. This 
omission is thus explained in the annual message of Governor Stone to 
the legislature of 1880: 

Owing to disagreements between the representatives of the American Missionary 
Association and the trustees of the normal department, no appropriation was made 
for the last two years. I repeat my recommendation to the legislature two years ago, 
that the law be so amended as to abolish the board of trustees, and provide for a 
board of visitors. The normal department is doing faithful work in the education 
of teachers, and deserves well of the State. I recommend a renewal of the appro- 
priations heretofore made for its support, to be distributed under the direction of 
the board of visitors. This would be a substantial recognition of the good work 
which the American Missionary Association is quietly, but very zealously and thor- 
oughly, doing in our State. 

Pursuant to this recommendation, on the 6th of March, 1880, an act 
was passed organizing the board of visitors, and the university was 
again taken under the fostering care of the State. From that time, 
each year, an appropriation of from $2,000 to $3,000 has been made, 
except that those from J888 to 1891, inclusive, were only $1,500, this 
reduction being a feature of a '' horizontal put" made by the legislature 
of 1888 on nearly all State expenditures. 

The following extracts from the catalogue of 1888-89 will furnish the 
further history, present status, and the prospects of the school: 

Sunday night, January 23, 1881, Washington Hall took fire during the religious 
services, and was wholly destroyed. The school was continued during the remainder 
of that school year in a barn ("Ayrshire Hall") that had just been built. 

A cottage for the president had been put up during the fall. During the same year 
the "Boarding HalP' was again enlarged by raising it one story, and putting an 
addition 30 by 50, three stories high, on south side, making accommodations for the 
lady teachers and about seventy-five girls. As soon as spring opened a brickyard 
was started, and the first brick in the foundation of the new hall was laid May 31, 
by Rev. M. E. Strieby, D. D., of New York, in honor of whom, as the oldest living 
secretary of the American Missionary Association, the hall was named Strieby Hall, 
and is a fine brick building, 41 by 112, three stories high, and having a fine basement. 
The work ori this building was done almost entirely by men from A. M. A. schools 
and churches elsewhere, and our own students. It was ready for school use Octo- 
ber 1. 

In the fall of 1882 a blacksmith shop was built. During the year 1883-84, carpenter 
and tin shops were added to the industrial department. 

During 1886-87, through the generosity of Mr. Stephen Ballard, of New York City, 
a two-story building was put up on the old site of Washington Hall, and bears the 
name of Ballard Hall. This building furnishes ample accommodations for the school- 
room work in all the grades below the normal department, having large school- 
rooms and recitation rooms, and a very pleasant assembly room. 

The Ballard shops, a building two stories high, with an addition on one end, 
26 by 26, for blacksmith shop, was also completed during the year, furnishing ample 
room for all the shops under one roof. These two buildings were completed with 
the $5,000 given by Mr. Ballard, exclusive of the salary oi our superintendent of 



264 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

carpentry. They are substantial and commodious, and are justly regarded as a 
marvel in cheap buildings. All the work upon them was done by students trained 
in our industrial department. 

During the present year, 1887-88, the upper story of the small building known as 
^'Boston Hall/Mn the rear of the mansion, has been fitted up as a Girls^ Industrial 
Cottage. It serves to make a beginning in that line of work, but is far from 
adequate. 

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT. 

The farm consists of 500 acres of land, divided as follows : The buildings and 
grounds connected with them, with the adjoining grove and wood lands, occupy 
about 125 acres; pasture land, 225 acres; mowing land, 65 acres; cultivated land, 

about 86 acres. The crops raised are mainly those most common in this region 

cotton, corn, oats, pease, sorghum and cane, potatoes, berries, etc. A large herd of 
cattle of representative breeds enables the young men to become acquainted with 
the respective merits and adaptabilities of the different breeds. The milk, meat, 
and vegetables used by the boarding department come mainly from the farm. 

It is the aim to make the farm an object lesson for the students and to teach them 
by affording opportunity for observation and stimulating inquiry concerning the 
practical workings of the different departments. 

The course of study is arranged on the idea that a student may pass 
twelve years in the university. It is divided into twelve grades. The 
first two grades (or years) are devoted to the primary course; the third, 
fourth, and fifth to the intermediate course^ the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth to the grammar course; the ninth, tentli, eleventh, and twelfth 
to the normal course. There is also a classical preparatory course, 
divided into three classes (or years), the junior, middle, and senior. 
An industrial course of three years is arranged, in which all boys in 
and above the fifth grade, together with such others below the fifth 
grade as the industrial superintendent may choose, will receive class 
instruction in carpentry for the first year, blacksmithing and wheel- 
wrighting for the second year, painting, turning, and tinning for the 
third year. Pupils are worked on this course, and those attaining to 
sufficiently high rank are given certificates of industrial proficiency. 
There is also an apprentice course, wherein after the completion of a 
three years' industrial course and the eighth grade of school, one or two 
pupils who have shown special aptitude will be appointed apprentices 
in each trade, and will have the opportunity of becoming thorough 
workmen. The apprentices have a three years' course in the shops 
and attend night classes. There is also an agricultural course, wherein 
special instruction, in addition to the work which each boy is expected 
to do daily about the farm or grounds, is given in agriculture during 
the whole of the ninth year or grade. 

aiRLS' INDUSTRIES. 

All the young women are taught to sew and mend. Dressmaking is 
taught to a limited number. Lectures on the art of cooking and house- 
keeping, including canning and preserving, are given each week, with 
class instruction and practical lessons in cooking each day. 



TOUGALOO UNIVERSITY. 265 



COURSE OF STUDY. 

In order to show the degree of culture attainable, the curricula of 
the normal and the classical preparatory courses are given: 

NORMAL COURSE. 

Ninth grade, — Arithmetic, grammar, rhetoric, geography, physical 
geography, history (reviews), physiology, school economy, reviews, and 
drills. 

Tenth grade. — Algebra, natural philosophy, bookkeeping, American 
literature, English literature (seven classics), civil government, methods. 

Eleventh grade. — Higher algebra, geometry, general history, geology, 
botany. 

Twelfth grade. — Political economy, mental and moral science. Scrip- 
ture, history, pedagogics, reviews and methods in common branches, 
composition. 

CLASSICAL PREPARATORY COURSE. 

Junior class. — ^Fifth reader, Latin grammar and reader, elementary 
algebra, physical geography. 

Middle class. — Osesar (two books), Cicero (two orations), higher 
arithmetic, bookkeeping, physiology, seven British classics, school 
economy, and primary methods. 

Senior class. — Cicero (three orations), JEneid, prosody, mythology, 
geography, Greek grammar, first lessons in Greek (Boise), Anabasis, 
irregular contract verbs, algebra, plane geometry. 



The music department is under the direction of teachers thoroughly 
accomplished in their profession. Instruction in vocal music is given 
to all pupils without charge. In devotional exercises the manual of 
praise is used. Two pianos and three organs are at the service of those 
who take lessons in instrumental music. 

LIBRARY AND APPARATUS. 

Encyclopedias and reference books are accessible to the students, and 
there is apparatus sufficient to illustrate the studies of the course. 

A reading room, containing about fifty journals of varying character, 
is open to all, and is well patronized. 

The Tougaloo Quarterly, a paper, is published by the university once 
in three months, with the threefold object of putting good religious 
reading into many families that take no religious papers, sending out 
information in regard to Tougaloo University, and as a medium of com- 
munication for present and former students. 

The institution has received valuable aid from the Slater fund. Its 
property is now valued at $60,000. 



266 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

EXPENSES OF ATTENDANCE. 

The expenses of attendance are $9 per month for board and tuition, 
and $3 per month extra for instrumental music; 50 cents per term (of 
which there are three) for incidental fees. 

THE FACULTY. 

Rev. George S. Pope was elected president in 1877, and resigned in 
1887. He was succeeded by Rev. Frank G. Woodworth. The faculty 
is composed as follows: Rev. Frank G. Woodworth, A. M., president, 
Bible, mental, and moral philosophy; Albert S. Hill, natural science 
and mathematics; Miss A. L. Steele, normal assistant; Miss Mary Yan 
Auken, grammar department; Miss Sarah J. Humphrey, grammar and 
intermediate departments; Miss Mary Flagg, intermediate department; 
Miss Clara L. Walker and Miss Alice Flagg, primary department; Miss 
Mary Kennedy, vocal and instrumental music; Miss Edith M.Hall, 
night school; Miss Elizabeth L. Parsons, girls' industries; Miss Sarah 
L, Emerson, principal ladies' department and matron. 

THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT HOLLY SPRINGS. 

On the 26th of May, 1870, the Shaw University, which had been 
established at Holly Springs by the Mississippi conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, was incorporated by act of the legisla- 
ture. Its charter authorized it to establish, among others, a normal 
department. 

On the 1st of December, 1869, the reconstruction constitution went 
into operation. One of its requirements was the establishment of free 
public schools of higher grade '' as soon as practicable." In accordance 
with that requirement the act of July 20, 1870, was passed. By that 
act, an offer made by the trustees of Shaw University to transfer to 
the State the normal department, for use as a State normal school, was 
accepted. A special board of trustees, consisting of the governor, the 
State board of education, and five others of the governor's appointment, 
was provided for, and they were empowered to contract for such normal 
department for a term of two years, to employ a principal and assist 
ants, etc. The sum of $4,000 was appropriated for teachers' salaries, 
furniture and apparatus, and as aid to pupils. Each representative in 
the legislature was authorized to send one pupil; and each pupil who 
should file a declaration of intention to U ach in the common schools 
of the State was allowed 50 cents per week for time in attendance. 

The school was organized on the 15th of November, 1870, Professor 
Gorman, principal. The attendance was very small. On the 4th of 
January following, the year being then two months advanced, there were 
only 16 students. At that time Miss M. E. Hunter was employed as 
assistant. The first year closed on the 30th of June, 1871, and the total 
attendance for the.year was 50. 




STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, HOLLY SPRINGS. 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT HOLLY SPRINGS. 267 

On the 18th of September, 1871, the second year opened ; Miss Hunter, 
principal, Miss G. Peck, assistant. Students present, 35 5 total attend- 
ance for the year, 65. 

After the close of the first year 26 of the pupils taught in the public 
schools of the State. Of these a number taught only two months — 
during the summer vacation — and then returned to school at the opening 
of the fall term. Others taught through the entire fall. 

The Kormal School of the State was, it must be remembered, as yet 
but the lessee of the normal department of the Shaw University. The 
university's primary school was in operation also. The schools inter- 
fered, and when the two-years' contract with Shaw University expired 
the Normal School was removed to other quartjers. 

From the annual report of the principal, dated January 14, 1873, the 
following extracts are made: 

The course of study as laid down in our catalogues has been pursued, the pupils 
proving their capacity for advanced study as well as for the more elementary work. 
A class is now doing successfully the work of the third year. 

The school has a full supply of necessary text-books and maps. A reference library 
has been begun, and, by the assistance of friends, quite a number of volumes have 
been secured, and others will be added as opportunity offers. 

Chemical and other apparatus will be procured as soon as possible. 

Instruction in instrumental music is given to those who desire it. Sixteen pupils 
have already made creditable advancement in this department. 

In addition to the literary society, which has been a part of the school since its 
organization, two debating clubs have been formed, into which the pupils are 
drawn, and between the members of whitsh there is a generous rivalry, which adds 
much to their interest and makes them a means of improvement to the school. 

The strictest discipline is enforced. At a late meeting of the board of trustees it 
was resolved that each pupil be required to attend some place of public worship at 
least once on Sabbath. 

Let me repeat what I said in my report of a year ago : The pressing need of the 
normal is room. For two years this need has been felt. In the building first occu- 
pied the necessities of another school compelled us to be content with much less 
than needed room, and for the past four months the progress of the school has been 
retarded by narrow walls and poor accommodations. 

Notwithstanding the hindrances, the normal has gone steadily on with its work, 
but how much more successful it might become if permanently located in a conven- 
ient building, with necessary appliances. Let Mississippi grant us the means of 
procuring these and we shall endeavor to repay her by furnishing her schools with 
competent teachers.^ 

The appeals for a building were successful. On the 15th of April, 
1873, the legislature appropriated $10,000 for the purchase of buildings 
and grounds. 

In the year 1875 the 50-cent weekly payment to students was 
stopped; Miss Hunter was succeeded by Prof. W. B. Highgate as 
principal 5 the attendance of pupils continued good, and the standard 
of education was continuously raised. 

^ Senate Journal, 1873, Appendix, pp. 992-1001. 



268 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



APPROPRIATIONS. 

The appropriations made by the State for the establishment and 
maintenance of this institution have been as follows: 

1870 $4,000 

1871 and 1872, $5,000 each 10,000 

1873 14,500 

1874 and 1875, $4,500 each , 9,000 

1876 4,600 

1877, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1881, $3,000 each 15,000 

1878, for repairs on building 350 

1880, for purchase of apparatus 500 

1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, $3,000 each 12,000 

1886, 1887, $3,000 each 6,000 

1888, 1889, $3,000 each ' , 6,000 

1890, 1891, $2,500 each 5,000 

Total thus far 96, 950 

FACULTY. 

Prof. W. B. Highgate held the position of principal until 1886, when 
he was succeeded by the present principal, Prof. J. H. Henderson. As 
now constituted (1891), the faculty are J. H. Henderson, principal, 
mathematics, mental and moral philosophy, astronomy, and civil gov- 
ernment; Miss M, A. Eabb, natural sciences, rhetoric, English litera- 
ture, arithmetic, and grammar j Miss N. H. Hill, geography, grammar, 
United States history, reading, and elocution, 

ATTENDANCE. 

The attendance of students has been as follows : 



Tear. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Year. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1870-71 


32 
38 
50 
83 
89 
59 
61 
83 
78 
157 


18 
27 
26 
52 
45 
29 
29 
41 
27 
63 


50 

65 

76 

135 

134 

88 

90 

124 

105 

220 


1880-81 


93 
91 
li)4 
101 
111 
101 
65 
93 
92 
89 


33 
45 
51 
44 
45 
36 
42 
55 
76 
73 


126 


1871 72 


1881-82 


136 


1872-73 


1882-83 


155 


1873 74 


1883-84 


145 


1874 75 


1884-85 


156 


1875-76 


1885-86 


137 


3876 77 .. . 


1886-87 


107 


1877 78 


1887-88 


148 


1878-79 . . 


1888-89 


168 


1879 80 


1889-90 


162 









COURSE OF STUDY. 

Up to the year of 1886-87, the course of study embraced four years. 
In 1886, by an act of the legislature, the institution was reorganized. 
The faculty then existing was dismissed. The State superintendent 
and the county superintendent of Marshall County were constituted a 
boards with power to employ teachers skilled in normal training; the 
course was altered to one of two years, and students were declared 
ineligible for admission unless their age, character, qualifications, and 
education were such as to promise that after the two years' course they 
would be capable of teaching in the common schools. 

Since 1886, therefore, the course has been one of two years, and the 
curriculum is as follows : 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT HOLLY SPRINGS. 269 



FIRST YEAR. 



First term. — ^Ehetorical reading; history, United States; arithmetic, 
written and mental; geography, political and physical; algebra, intro- 
ductory; grammar; written spelling; writing and drawing. 

Second term. — Ehetoric and composition; civil government; physi- 
ology; natural philosophy; algebra; geometry, introductory; drawing. 



SECOND YEAR. 



First term. — Geometry, plane and solid; trigonometry, plane; history, 
universal; natural history, zoology ; chemistry; theory and practice of 
teaching; bookkeeping; drawing; compositions. 

Second term. — Surveying and navigation; geology; botany; mental 
and moral philosophy; English literature; theory and practice of 
teaching. 

Since 1886-87 a model class has been organized each year out of the 
junior pupils to be taught by the normal students, under immediate 
direction of the faculty. Each student of the normal is required, in his 
turn, to conduct a recitation of this class. No student hears more than 
three consecutive recitations before another is appointed. 

MUSIC. 

Lessons in vocal music are given free; lessons in instrumental music, 
to those who desire them, at a small cost. 

THE BUILDING AND GROUNDS. 

The building, purchased by the $10,000 appropriation of 1873, is a 
beautiful brick structure, two stories high, having a length of about 85 
feet. It has a fine veranda on a level with each floor. The lower story 
is 14 feet high, with windows extending almost the full height, afford- 
ing excellent light and ventilation. The edifice, although constructed for 
a private residence, has been arranged so as to suit most admirably for 
school purposes. It contains a large chapel furnished with an excellent 
organ, a mathematical recitation room, a ladies' dining room, and a 
gentlemen's dining room on the first floor; on the second, a large science 
room, laboratory, and a library. It is well heated by means of stoves in 
each room. There is no boarding department connected with the school. 

The grounds consist of a beautiful tract of nearly 5 acres. It is 
situated in the northeastern part of the city, on a hill commanding a 
fine view of the surrounding country. It includes both croquet and 
baseball grounds. 

LABORATORY. 

The $500 appropriation of 1880 laid the foundation of a collection of 
chemical and physical apparatus. Additions have been made from time 
to time, and now no necessary apparatus is wanting. The electrical call 
bells serve as a great aid in teaching electricity. There is telephone and 
telegraph apparatus. In fact the institution claims to be as well pre- 
pared to teach the natural sciences as any colored school in the country. 



270 HISTORY OP EDUCATIOlSr IN MISSISSIPPI. 



THE LIBRARY. 



In 1880 an effort was made by the students for the formation of a 
reference library. Prior to that time the school had suffered greatly 
from that want. A tax of 5 cents per month (the only charge for 
attending the school) was imposed for the formation of this library. 
This money bought the first 40 books. That tax was paid for several 
years and yearly additions made to the library. The citizens gave 
much aid in this work, by presenting many instructive and useful books. 
Congressman Manning and Senators Bruce and Lamar are gratefully 
mentioned in the school catalogues for their though tfulness in sending 
public documents of value. There are now over 3,000 volumes well 
selected and a fine globe. 

EXPENSES. 

Ko tuition is charged. Each student is required to teach at least 
three years (not gratuitously however) in the public schools of the 
State. Board ranges from $7.50 to $9 per monthj by ^'messing" 
together this may be reduced to $4 per month. Books are furnished 
by the State to the pupils, who are not charged for them unless they 
are lost or damaged, but a book rental is collected.^ 

ALCORN AGRIOUIiTUBAL AND MECHANICAL OOLLEaB. 

This institution, named for the late Governor James L. Alcorn, is 
located at Oakland, Claiborne County. It was incorporated on the 
13th of May, 1871. As in the case of the Agricultural and Mechanical 
College (white), it *^owes its existence primarily to the act of Congress 
approved 2d of July, 1862, donating public lands to the several States 
and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts." ^ 

The principal provisions of the charter are these: 

1. That the governor, with the consent of the senate, shall appoint a 
president and ten trustees, who shall be a body corporate, with the 
usual powers, and especially that to hold and convey real and personal 
property. 

2. That the object of the corporation is the establishment and man- 
agement of a seminary of learning, to be styled the '^Alcorn University 
of Mississippi," for which purpose the sum of $50,000 per annum, for a 
period of ten years, beginning 1st of July, 1871, was appropriated. 

3. That a site and building for the immediate establishment of the 
university shall be purchased by the trustees. 

4. Free scholarships of four years' duration are to be awarded on 
competitive examination. The number of scholarships is limited to 
one from each county or representative's district, except that any 
county having two or more representatives is entitled to a scholarship 

1 Catalogues from 1872-73 to 1887-88. 

2 See this title in chapter on the ''Agricultural and Mechanical College.^' 



ALCORN AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 271 

for each representative. The bolder of a scholarship from any county 
or district is entitled to a bonus of $100 per annum from the common- 
school fund of the county or district.^ 

On the same day, May 13, another act was approved, which directed 
that three-fifths of the agricultural land-scrip fund should be invested 
for the benefit of a university to be dedicated to the education of 
youths of color. Alcorn University was, by its charter, declared to be 
the owner of that three-fifths. 

Pursuant to the act of incorporation grounds and buildings were 
purchased. The property selected was that of Oakland College, sit- 
uated at Oakland, 5 miles east of Eodney, and in Claiborne County. 
It consisted of 235 acres of good land, eligibly located, with fine brick 
buildings, in good repair, capable of accommodating 500 students. 
The purchase price was $42,500.^ 

Three competent professors were employed, and the institution was 
opened February 7, 1872. The experiment of the higher education of 
the colored youth could not have been tried under more favorable 
auspices. The annual appropriation was munificent j the college prop- 
erty, the result of lavish expenditure of thought and labor and money 
by the white people of the State for one of their own most cher- 
ished institutions; the premises, rich in scholastic associations and 
traditions, most excellently appointed, and ample in extent. The 
catalogue of the year 1873-74 thus describes the property: 

The campns, in which are situated the university buildings, is a beautiful oak 
grove, interspersed with flowering crape myrtles and tall pines, and elegantly fes- 
tooned with long gray moss gently undulating, and clothed in a perennial dress of 
verdure, pleasing to the eye and conducive to health and quietude. It is far 
removed from the contaminating influence of town or city life. There are no haunts 
of dissipation to lead the unwary astray; but in the country, in the midst of a 
moral and highly cultivated community, the student is continually surrounded by 
all those influences which tend to develop his moral character during the period of 
his intellectual training. 

The buildings were all erected for academic purposes. They consist of a chapel, 
three brick dormitories, and a number of frame cottages devoted to the same pur- 
pose, two college literary society halls, a president's house and refectory, with all 
necessary outbuildings for an establishment complete within itself, dedicated to the 
purposes of the maintenance and education of youths. 

The chapel is a large, substantial brick building three stories in height and of 
dimensions 65 by 112 feet. It contains rooms for recitations, philosophical appa- 
ratus, laboratory, cabinet, library, and a hall sufficiently large to seat 900 persons. 
It has been thoroughly repaired, painted, and renovated throughout; the recitation 
rooms have been provided with new desks and furniture, the walls whitened, and 
every apartment presents a neat and cheerful appearance. 

The dormitories are two-story brick buildings 45 by 48 feet, each capable of accom- 
modating 32 students. They are comparatively new, with substantial slate roofs, 
hard-finish ceilings, dry, airy, and comfortable; these have also Been thoroughly 
repaired, painted, and renovated. The frame cottages, five in number, have also 

iLawsof 1871,p.716. 

2 Governor Powers's annual message. House Journal, 1876, p. 19; catalogue of 
1873-74. 



272 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

been repaired and renovated. All the dormitories are furnished with good new 
bedsteads and comfortable bedding, and contain grates, tables, washstands, and 
chairs. 

The literary halls are elegant brick structures, two stories in height, about 50 by 80 
feet, and well 'adapted for literary exercises. The lower room in each building is 
furnished with handsome bookcases and the upper stories furnished for society 
halls. No institution in the country has better facilities for the purposes so indis- 
pensable to the proper education of the American student. These halls have been 
repainted and such necessary repairs put upon them as would preserve them from 
going to decay. One of them will, for the present, be used as a dormitory in case 
the necessities of the university demand it. 

The refectory, or boarding house, is a large two-story frame building, with a base- 
ment; the basement contains the dining hall, a room capable of seating 200 students, 
a storeroom, and a pantry. The upper stories are devoted to the superintendent and 
family, and rooms for the employees of the institution. This building, though frame, 
now nicely repainted white, with green blinds, and extensive balconies, presents a 
handsome appearance, and is well calculated for the purpose for which it was con- 
structed. A commodious kitchen, furnished with a fine cooking range, and a capa- 
cious washhouse, are among the outbuildings attached to the refectory. 

The president's house is a handsome two-story frame with basement. It has been 
newly painted white, with green blinds, and was confortably furnished by the exec- 
utive committee at the opening of the university in 1871. The furniture as well as 
the building is thus the property of the institution. This building is situated con- 
venient to the chapel and dormitories, and enables the president at all times to keep 
a watchful eye over the discipline and conduct of the students. 

Professors' houses. There are several other frame cottages, belonging to the insti- 
tution and situated on its grounds, adapted to the use of professors and their fami- 
lies; several of these cottages are commodious and comfortable, having been erected 
for the use of the members of the faculty of Oakland College. 

The farm of the university consists of 235 acres, which will be increased to 275 
acres by the addition of the ''Hunt tract,'' on the 1st day of January, 1874. The 
land is diversified in character, and well adapted to the various purposes of a model 
or experimental farm. It contains hill land and valley, with 25 or 30 acres of rich 
bottom, which can be irrigated at all seasons from an elevated lake or pond, and is 
well adapted to grasses. The land is all of more than average richness and produces 
good corn, cotton, and all other crops germane to the climate. A fine orchard con^ 
sisting of 500 selected trees of different varieties of peach, pear, apple, etc., has been 
set out, and is in a thrifty growing conditi<m. It is the intention, as it is the duty 
of the institution, to make the farm a model of agricultural beauty and fertility, 
and to develop a high order of scientific as well as practical agriculture. Good 
substantial fences have been built around all the improved land, and the whole 
tract will be put under fence without delay. 

The buildings have all been put in thorough repair. The campus and improved farm 
have been inclosed with handsome and substantial fences ; a washhouse and barn 
have been built, cisterns dug, and many necessary improvements made. . The farm 
has been kept in a condition of cultivation, under the management of a capable 
agriculturist, and the chair of the mechanic arts is filled by a competent and prac- 
tical instructor, as required by law. 



LIBRARY, CABINET, APPARATUS, ETC. 

The Oakland College, in its long years of successful educational labors, accumu- 
lated a fine library of several thousand choice volumes; also a very complete collec- 
tion of natural history, geology, mineralogy, botany, and curiosities. By permis- 
sion and request of the trustees of Oakland College, from whom the Alcorn University 



ALCORN AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 275 

was purchased, these valuable accumulations were left in possession of the present 
institution. While not absolutely the property of the Alcorn University, they 
remain in its charge, and it is not anticipated that they will ever be removed. It 
is hoped that at no distant day the university will be able to purchase them. At all 
events, the trustees of Oakland have indicated no disposition to deprive the univer- 
sity of these invaluable adjuncts to her educational advantages. They are open to 
the inspection of students and visitors, and are not among the least of the benefits 
which Alcorn is enabled to afford her students over other educational institutions of 
the State. 
The philosophical and chemical apparatus is also very elaborate and complete. 

When the institution opened it seemed to have entered on a career 
of usefulness with, every favorable prospect of success. It was under 
the presidency of Hon. and Eev. Hiram E. Eevels, D, D. and ex-Senator 
of the United States, and himself a negro. A high curriculum was 
devised. During the first session, 117 students were enrolled; during 
the second, 179; during the third, 172. 

The trustees, at a meeting in July, 1872, at the expiration of the first 
session, established an agricultural department, intended to be so con- 
ducted as to afford remunerative wages to all students who should 
desire to pay their way at the university. The scheme of the institu- 
tion was to give prominence to the industrial department by affording 
ample instruction in practical agriculture, systematic farming, and 
mechanical pursuits. For the maintenance of the agricultural and 
mechanical department not only had the university its general appro- 
priation from the State, but also the $123,150 of 8 per cent State bonds, 
proceeds of the land scrip.^ 

In the session of 1873-74 the faculty had increased to tbree profess- 
ors (including the president), two tutors, two assistant instructors, one 
lecturer, and one superintendent. Quite a number of employees were 
engaged in the kitchen, dining hall, and washhouse. 

The superintendent was engaged in the supervision of the farm of 
about 90 acres and had general charge and management of the board- 
ing hall and its appendages and of the grounds and property of the 
institution. 

A superintendent of mechanic arts was also provided for, in compli- 
ance with the terms of the agricultural land scrip gi ant. He was a 
practical carpenter and at this time, 1873-74, had been employed exclu- 
sively in working on the buildings.^ 

Prosperous as matters seemed to be financially, however, and favor- 
able as were all the surroundings, there was yet trouble on hand. Dis- 
coid had crept into the faculty. Dr. Eevels, the superintendent, and 
others disagreed. In 1874 Dr. Eevels was removed from the presidency. 
The students rebelled, and the upshot of it all was that the matter got 
not into the courts, but into the legislature. A committee of investiga- 
tion was appointed, and on its report an act to reorganize the univer- 



^ Governor Powers' message; House Journal, 1873, p. 20; ibid., 1874, p. la 
2 House Journal, 1874, p. 426. 

21785- No. 24 18 



274 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

sity was passed. Its preamble is literally and its main provisions 
substantially as follows : 

Whereas great dissatisfaction exists in the public mind in relation to the present 
management of Alcorn University; and whereas a majority of the students have 
withdrawn from the university in consequence thereof and a number of the faculty 
have been dismissed, and yet the present board of trustees seem unable to bring 
about a satisfactory adjustment or such relief as is necessary to the success of said 
university : Therefore — 

1. All officers, teachers, and trustees were discharged. 

2. The office of treasurer was abolished and the State treasurer made ex officio 
treasurer of the university. 

3. That within a reasonable period the governor should appoint a new president 
and boaad. of trustees, who should reorganize the university, provided that during 
the year 1875 only the preparatory department should be put into operation. 

4. All annual appropriations theretofore authorized were withdrawn save the 
annual sum of $15,000 for current expenses. 

5. The governor was made ex officio president of the board of trustees, with power 
to remove any member of the board at discretion. 

6. The boarding hall vv^as to be rented out, provided no student should be compelled 
to board there, i 

It should be remembered that this was not partisan action. That 
legislature was largely Eepublican, witl# a great percentage of negro 
members, and the governor was Gen. Adelbert Ames. 

Three days afterwards, in the general appropriation bill, it was further 
provided that the Alcorn and Oxford universities should be equally 
entitled to the interest on the agricultural land script fund, and that the 
half of that interest assigned to Alcorn University should be in addi- 
tion to the $15,000 appropriation.^ 

This action, by which the income of the university was cut down from 
about $60,000 to about $20,000 per annum (and, indeed, a year later to 
$10,000), staggering, as it seemed, was not in fact so injurious to the 
substantial interests of the institution as it would appear. There was 
no need for so much money. The concern, on the scale on which it was 
projected, was premature. There was no populace to supply the sub- 
jects needing the higher order of education that would entail such 
heavy expenditures — a fact made manifest, if it were needed, by the 
reports of the legislative committee. Indeed, to the legislature of 1873, 
the first which met after the university had begun actual work, Grover- 
nor Powers said in his annual message : 

The annual appropriation now provided by law will be more than sufficient to sup- 
port the institution, and one-half of it may, for the present, be safely applied to 
upholding educational interests in other portions of the State.^ 

The free scholarship system was also abolished by the legislature of 
1875 by the same act which abolished it m the University of Missis- 
sippi. As a matter of course, this measure had a marked effect in 
. reducing the attendance of students. 

i Laws of 1875, p. 127. ^ ibid, p. 36. s House Journal, 1873, p. 20. 



ALCORN AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 275 

In his annual message, on the 3d of January, 1877, to the legislature, 
Governor Stone says : 

I am glad to be able to state that Alcorn University bids fair to become what its 
founders designed it to be, to wit, a first-class university for the education of the 
colored youth of Mississippi. * * * Feeling a warm and deep interest in its wel- 
fare and success, I appointed a board of trustees composed of gentlemen who, I was 
assured, felt a like interest in Alcorn University. On the 20th day of July last I 
tendered the position of president to Hon. H. R. Revels, feeling confident that he, 
above all others, could place the university upon a prosperous footing. Dr. Revels 
accepted, and immediately entered upon the discharge of his duties. The result has 
been most satisfactorjr iiad gratifying. * * * The change of management has 
restored confidence. 

By the legislature of 1878 was passed the "act to establish and 
organize agricultural and mechanical colleges and to regulate the gov- 
ernment of the same." The objects of this statute were two — the estab- 
lishment of the Agricultural and Mechanical College for whites, now 
located at Starkville, and the further reorganization of the Alcorn 
University. Its principal provisions as to the Alcorn University are 
these : 

Section 1 changes the name of the institution to *'The Alcorn Agricultural and 
Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi.'^ 

Section 9 vests the board with all powers necessary and proper for. the mainte- 
nance of a first-class institution at which the youth of the State might acquire a 
common-school education and a scientific and practical knowledge of agriculture, 
horticulture, and the mechanic arts ; also of the proper growth and care of stock, 
without, however, excludiug other scientific and classical studies. 

Section 13 gives to Alcorn College one-half of the interest on the agricultural land 
scrip fund. 

In his biennial message of January 3, 1882, Governor Stone says: 

This institution is as prosperous as the impoverished condition of the colored peo- 
ple of the State will warrant. There were in attendance last year 160 students, and 
but for the failure to realize their anticipated profits from the cotton crop, which 
was so seriously injured by the early and continued rains, the number would have 
been much larger. * * * The president, in his report to the board of trustees, 
asks that the appropriation be increased to $12,000. I respectfully recommend that 
the appropriation be made as requested. Dr. Eevels in his report says: "My peo- 
ple are not wanting in appreciation of or gratitude for what the State of Mississippi 
is doing for them in appropriating this valuable and desirable property for the edu- 
cation of their sons and in the annual appropriation of a large amount of money for 
the support of the same. But their poverty has prevented them from evincing their 
appreciation and gratitude by sending their sons to the institutiou, as they other- 
wise would have done.'' 

This college has unquestionably accomplished much good in educating a large 
number of young colored men, who, in most instances, are honorable men and good 
citizens and whose influence is being exerted to improve and elevate their race. It 
is one of the institutions of the State. You are its guardians, and I trust you will 
provide for its support.^ 

Dr. H. E. Eevels resigned the presidency in July, 1882, and Prof. 
J. H. Burrus, of Tennessee, an experienced educator, was elected and 

^ Senate journal, 1882, p. 25. 



276 HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

assumed control in September following. One great difficulty the 
institution encountered at this period, and, indeed, throughout its his- 
tory, was the broken and irregular attendance of its pupils, few 
remaining the entire session. The faculty was composed of the presi- 
dent, two professors, and one tutor. The college was practically a 
normal school for the education of colored teachers, though agriculture 
was taught with some success, except that few students ever engaged 
seriously in farming. JS'early all educated negroes are inclined to 
teaching.^ 

Speaking of the agricultural department, in his report of December, 
1885, President Burrus says: 

Our greatest difficulty in this department is to find as much work for our students 
as they are desirous of doing, and in the further fact that, owing to a lack of suffi- 
cient teaching force, the work done can not be made as completely instructive as the 
character of the school makes it very desirable it should be. 

The superintendent of the farm assures me the students in his agricultural classes, 
and those working on the farm under his directions, manifest increasing desire to 
learn more about the improved methods of farming. * * * At the Colored State 
Fair held in Jackson during the last week of October, the special premium by Mr. 
Her, in the shape of a calendar clock, valued at $15, for the best display of school 
work by any one school in the State, was awarded to Alcorn Agricultural and 
Mechanical College; Judges J. M. Arnold and T. E. Cooper, of the State supreme 
court, and ex- United States Senator B. K. Bruce being the judges in that departmeut. 

Our distinguished governor, when opening the late Colored State Fair at Jackson, 
very justly remarked that Mississippi is the only State in which there is an agri- 
cultural college officered by colored men and fairly supported by the State for the 
education of her colored citizens. 

EXPENSES. 

The expense of attendance for the whole nine months need not 
exceed $75. This does not include tuition, which is free to Mississippi 
students. 

LIBRARY. 

The library is open to students an hour each afternoon. From the librarian's 
report the following statement is taken: 

Number of books for general reading in the library 855 

Number of books from department at Washington, etc 973 

Number of pamphlets 884 

Total 2,612 

Most of the students manifest much interest in reading. The preference is for 
history, biography and poetry. The number of books taken out, read, and returned 
since the fall term opened is 204. "^ * * At the above rate, nearly all of the 
855 books on general reading will have been read before next June. 

EDUCATIONAL HELPS. 

As important helps in the educational work aimed at might be mentioned a cabi- 
net of a fair collection of geological, mechanical, historical, and natural science 
specimens, among which are some very rare and interesting; a library containing 

1 Senate Journal, 1884, p. 27; Governor Lowry's message. 



ALCORN AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE 



277 



some good books, to which others are soon to be added 5 two literary societies, the 
Alcorn College Lyceum, organized some years ago, and the Literary Gem, organized 
during the year 1884-8^; the Y. M. C. A., also organized during the same year, and 
a college brass band. A reading room has also been started. During the year lec- 
tures before the students and friends are delivered from time to time. 



APPROPRIATIONS. 

The appropriations made by the State for this institution tlius far 
have been as follows : 

Years 1871 to 1874, $50,000 per annum $175,000.00 

Year 1875 15,000.00 

Years 1876 and 1877 8,642.50 

Years 1878 to 1881 9,285.00 

Years 1882 to 1887 31,927.50 

In 1882, special, for improvements 11, 000. 00 

Years 1888 and 1889 7,642.50 

Years 1890 and 1891 9,642.50 

In 1890, special, for improvements, etc 2, 500. 00 

Total 270,640.00 

Add interest on agricultural land scrip fund to January 1, 1891, being 

$5,678.75 per annum 116,991.25 

The attendance for the ten years last past has been : 



Tear. 


Males. 


I'emales. 


Total. 


1880-81 






124 
130 
113 
141 
211 
216 
209 
287 
216 
245 


1881-82 






1882-83 






1883-84 ■ ' 






1884-85 


193 
201 
191 
225 


18 
15 
18 
12 


1885-86 ' 


1886-87 


1887-88 


1888-89 


1889-90 













Since 1887-88, tlie catalogue has not been so printed as to distinguish 
between the sexes. 

The alumni thus far, number 46, graduated as follows: In 1884, 4 5 
in 1885, I5 in 1886, 2 5 in 1887, 9; in 1888, 6; in 1889, 9; in 1890, 15. 

FACULTY AND OFFICERS. 

John H. Burrus, M. A., president and professor of mental and moral 
philosophy and constitutional law, also teacher of literature and 
chemistry; James B. Burrus, M. A., professor of mathematics, geology, 
and practical agriculture, and superintendent of the farm 5 Eev. John 
0. McAdams, B. A., assistant professor of English and instructor in 
bookkeeping and political economy, and college pastor; Joseph Ander- 
son, assistant professor of natural sciences, instructor in vocal music, 
and librarian,- Eev. John W. Hoffman, B. D., Ph. B., instructor in 
physiology, botany, zoology, and secretary of the faculty; John A. 
Martin, B. S., instructor in English branches and writing; Benjamin 
F. Shannon, B. S., instructor in English branches and writing. 



Chapter XV. 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS OF MISSISSIPPI. 
THE COMMON SCHOOLS PRIOR TO THE CIVIL WAR. 

Let it be remembered that from the year 1803 schools in this State 
were established or aided by the sixteenth sections donated by Con- 
gress; from the year 1821, to a small extent, by the literary fund 
established by the State. 

About the year 1844, stirred by the tide of immigration and the 
growing illiteracy in the State, and perhaps by the agitation of the 
sixteenth-section question, the general subject of common-school educa- 
tion began to attract far more attention than ever before. A leader in 
this agitation was the Hon. A. G. Brown. Too much praise can hardly 
be accorded to this gentleman for his unflagging interest in the subject 
of education. His broad sympathies pervaded the whole field. It was 
his influence, probably, which led to the passage of the charter of the 
State University in 1844, and the statutes in 1846 appropriating the 
funds necessary to effectuate that charter, notwithstanding bitter local 
opposition. We shall now see him laboring earnestly for the humbler 
though not the less important cause. 

In the year 1843 Mr. Brown was a candidate for the office of governor 
of the State. Previous to the election he issued an address to the 
people in which he urged ^'the establishment of schools in which every 
poor white child in the country may secure, free of charge, the advan- 
tages of a liberal education.'^ 

Mr. Brown was elected governor, and on the 10th of January, 1844, 
delivered before the legislature his inaugural address, in which he 
pleaded with great eloquence for a general system of common schools 
which should be open to all and at which the poor should be educated 
gratis. . 

The governor's appeal failed of its designed effect, that is, for this 
time. But it reached the people. They were ready for it, if the legis- 
lature was not. Nor did his labors cease here. When the legislature 
adjourned without passing any bill for common schools, he determined 
to occupy a portion of the time during the vacation in pressing the 
matter forward. 

Among other things, he issued to the presidents of the boards of 
police in the different counties a circular letter making full inquiries 
in regard to the management, status, and fruits of the sixteenth sec- 
tions. He invited the Hon. James S. B. Thacher, then a judge of the 

278 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 279 

high court of errors and appeals, and who was probably supposed by 
the governor to be especially well prepared to do so, since he was a 
native of Massachusetts and had been reared and educated in Boston, 
to devise a scheme of public education. The judge, accordingly, 
addressed an open letter on th^ subject to the governor, which, in the 
autumn of 1845, was published in full by many of the newspapers of 
the State*. 

Kot only was the governor moving in the matter of public education, 
but also the people were bestirring themselves. At a meeting of citi- 
zens of the Democratic party in Wilkinson County, held on the 10th of 
June, 1845, for the purpose of selecting delegates to the State conven- 
tion, elaborate resolutions in favor of the establishment of public free 
schools were adopted, and the delegates nominated were instructed to 
press the matter in the convention. 

This action is claimed to have been the first occasion on which the 
cause of public education was adopted as a portion of a party platform 
in this State. The matter was a feature of the campaign. On the 18th 
of October the Whig candidates for the legislature, Stewart, Simrall, 
and Ketterville, published an open address to the voters, in which they 
also advocated such schools, but took issue as to the method of support. 

To the legislature of 1846 Governor Brown made another and stronger 
appeal, to which it responded by passing the act of March 4, 1846, the 
first statute in Mississippi contemplating a uniform and general system 
of common schools. Its main provisions are as follows: 

The boards of county police in their respective counties were required 
to appoint a board of school commissioners to consist of five members, 
one from each police district. The school commissioners were required 
to meet quarterly at their respective court houses, to elect from their 
number a president and a secretary, and were authorized to adopt by- 
laws, also to designate what schools should be deemed common schools, 
and to have the general superintendence of them. They were also 
authorized to license teachers for such schools. Such teachers were 
authorized to draw from the county school fund such compensation as 
should have been contracted for between themselves and the commis- 
sioners. The boards of police were empowered to levy special taxes 
for common-school purposes, provided the consent of a majority of the 
resident heads of families in each township should be given in writing 
before such levy should be made on the inhabitants of such township. 
All escheats and fines, forfeitures and amercements, and all moneys 
arising from licenses granted to hawkers and peddlers, keepers of 
billiard tables, retailers of liquors, and brokers, together with the 
special taxes aforesaid, were set apart for the school fund in the 
respective counties. The sixteenth- section funds were ordered to be 
delivered by the trustees to the commissioners, and they were required 
to see that the sections still on hand should be leased, all of the six- 
teenth-section funds and income being kept so that each township 



280 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

should receive its own, as before. The commissioners were further 
required to make full reports semiannually to the secretary of state, 
who was made, ex offtcio, general school commissioner of the State, and 
required to register such reports and to publish abstracts of them. 

The local self-government principle, however, was so deeply rooted 
in the niinds of the legislature that they incorporated into the act a 
provision that any township should be exempted from its provisions if 
a majority of the heads of families should file a written protest with 
the clerk of the police board on or before the 1st of March in each 
year^ also special modifications were granted as to six cities and 
townships. 

When the news went out that the legislature had passed a common- 
school law, there was rejoicing in the State 5 it seemed that a better- 
day was near. But there came a quick revulsion. The text of the 
statute was circulated and after a brief hesitation in order to ascertain 
exactly what it meant, and some efforts to put it into practical opera- 
tion, a great outcry was raised. It was denounced as being '^a law 
which is no law, for it contains within its own bosom the seeds of 
destruction. It is made a suicide, holding in its own hand the knife to 
cut its own throat. Any township can nullify it by a simple protest; 
and (it was asserted) every township that has an amount of funds 
more than an equal proportion with the whole will most probably 
nullify and thus defeat the object of the law." Another objection was 
to the point that even where the township did not thus positively 
"nullify" the statute, the taxing power was made conditional on the 
assent, expressly given, of a majority of the heads of families; and 
that such assent in the great majority of instances would not be given. 
It was urged furthermore that the statute was puzzling and ambiguous, 
in that it did not repeal all the previous acts on the subject of educa- 
tion and start anew from the foundation up, as it should have done, 
for it only repealed such of these as were in conflict with its provisions, 
thus leaving room for all sorts of ingenious and troublesome and com- 
plicated constructions. Other objections of a more or less grave 
character were urged; also some that were captious. It was com- 
monly stated that the contending political parties, in their factious 
controversies, had sacrificed a nonpolitical and vital interest, which 
each professed to uphold. Yet, crude as the statute manifestly was, 
and inept as it was claimed to be, it will not do to say that it was fruit- 
less. It was the initial step toward better things. 

To the next legislature, in his message of January 3, 1848, Governor 
Brown said : 

The common-school law of the last session has not fulfilled the anticipations of 
its friends. * * * its immediate repeal, and the substitution of an act more in 
accordance with the suggestions contained in my message at the opening of the 
session in 1846 is respectfully recommended. * * * The educational wants of 
the State require the establishment of a normal school where young gentlemen 
and ladies may be educated for the profession of teaching. 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 281 

What influence Governor Brown might have wielded in this matter 
had he remained in office can not now be told. This was his last mes- 
sage, and in a few days he was on his route to the meeting of Congress. 
The legislature did not observe his reconimendation. That body seems 
to have gone to pieces on the subject of education, and the result of 
their labors was no less than four distinct statutes, all approved on the 
4th of March, 1848, and all devising different plans. One statute 
applied only to six counties; the second, to five counties; the third, to 
seven counties; the fourth, to seventeen. As to all other counties in 
the State, except the thirty-five embraced in the four statutes above 
mentioned, the act of 1846 was left untouched. Thus were introduced 
into the educational management of the State five distinct schemes. 

The educational movement of that period is a curious study. The 
carping criticism and the generous indulgence, the pessimistic fore- 
casting and the wide-eyed faith, the short sighted temporizing and the 
far-reaching prevision, all were most strikingly exhibited; but the 
universal innocence among both foes and friends of all just concep- 
tion of the cost of the movement in dollars and cents is wonderful. 
Yet the cause was moving on. 

The general school commissioner made to the governor a report under 
date December 26, 1849. This report, although it embraces but a 
dozen of the counties, with its lights and its shadows, may fairly be 
taken as an exposition of the working of the school systems through- 
out the State. In some counties nothing was done, in others a little, 
in yet others more, in none very much. Yet, still it was progress; and 
it is due to the people to remember that this was the decade when the 
tide of immigration still more strongly swept in, bringing all of its 
inseparable rubbish and frictions. The population of the State sprang 
from 297,500 to 606,500. This fact must be kept in sight. 

A closer and clearer view of the work may be had from a report 
made by the county superintendent of Hinds County. He said, among 
other things : 

I think we may safely reckon as one of the happiest results of this law the 
practical demonstration which, as an experiment, it has furnished that a system of 
common schools aiming to carry the means of instruction to all can live in this 

State. * * * 

Schools and school funds. 

Number of children between the ages of 6 and 20, September, 1848 2, 540 

Number attending common schools, including Jackson free schools 1, 361 

Number attending private schools 264 

Number of common schools 47 

Number of private schools 11 

It has been already pointed out that a great evil of this period was 
an invincible tendency to local and privileged legislation. The follow- 
ing extract from the report of the general superintendent for the year 



282 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

1851 will show to what undue extent that notion was carried and its 
disastrous consequences: 

At the session of the legislature in 1850 special acts upon the subject of the schools 
were passed for a large number of counties. The special legislation upon this sub- 
ject has virtually repealed the law providing for a general system of common 
schools in the State. On examining the various laws upon this subject, repeals and 
reenactments, special and supplemental laws, the subject is thrown into such a 
state of confusion that it is difficult to tell what the law is. In December, 1849, my 
predecessor made an elaborate report to tlie governor in which he states that in his 
previous report he was able to report from one-fourth of the counties in the State, 
and regrets that in his present report he could present the condition of schools in 
only eleven counties. And I bow have to report that during the last two years 
returns from three counties only have been made to this office. This is owing to 
the special laws passed for most of the counties which are not required to report 
the condition of the schools to the secretary of state. It is not so much my purpose 
to make a report upon schools as to show why I have not done it, and also to show 
due respect to those counties who have made their reports. 

This sharp stricture, and others, seem to have done no good. The 
specialized legislation continued. The act of March 15, 18.>25 that of 
March 8, a second of March 8, that of March 12, that of March 10, 
that of March 16, and that of February 5, all were of the same nature. 
So also were those of October 14, IG, and 18, 1852^ and those of the 
18th and 19th of November, 1857. The legislature of 1859-60 passed 
no less than twenty-six of sach statutes. 

Under such management the schools drifted along to the period of 
the civil war, doiug some good, more in some localities than in others, 
of course, but in all crippled, in many paralyzed, by the want of a 
uniform and vigorous policy. 

THE COMMON SCHOOLS SINCE THE CIVIL VTAR. 

On the 17th of January, 1867, a meeting of the teachers of the State 
was held in Jackson, for the purpose of organizing a State association. 
At that meeting the following resolutions were adopted, among others: 

Resolvedj 1. That the eDaetment of a common-school system that shall meet the 
wants or necessities of the entire population is a desideratum of the utm( st 
importance. 

2. That it is the duty as well as the interest of the State, through its legislature, 
to estahlish and maintain normal schools in different parts of the State for the pur- 

•poso of educating colored teachers, so that they may he qualified to lahor as teachers 
among the colored population of the State. 

3. That it would be for the interest of the people and the promotion of education 
to have a uniform system. 

The plans of the teachers were never carried out, or at least carried 
out by their initiative. The reconstruction measures intervened. How- 
ever, the reconstruction constitution of 1869 was framed and adopted, 
and one of its provisions was that it should be the duty of the legisla- 
ture to establish a uniform system of free public schools, by taxation or 
otherwise, for all chiklren between the ages of 5 and 21 years. The first 
legislature to convene under that constitution met January 11, 1870, and 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 283 

it passed the act of July 4, 1870, entitled *^Ati act to regulate the super- 
vision, organization, and maintenance of a uniform system of public 
education for the State of Mississippi." It is a most elaborate statute, 
covering with its supplements of that session no less than 21 printed 
pages. The substance of it is as follows : 

Each county in the State was constituted a school district, and so 
was each incorporated city containing more than 5,000 inhabitants. 
Free public schools were ordered to be maintained in each district for 
a period of four months or more in each year, affording suitable facil- 
ities to every resident youth between the ages of 5 and 21 years. The 
State board of education provided for by the constitution was given 
the general management of the common-school fund, including all 
donations and appropriations thereto, was required to appoint for each 
county a suitable county superintendent, and was given the power to 
remove such superintendents for incompetency, misfeasance, or non- 
feasance, and authorized to fill vacancies. The State superintendent 
was made the presiding officer of the State board; was given the gen- 
eral supervision of all public schools, with the power of visitation; was 
authorized to prescribe rules for the organization and conducting of the 
schqpls and to decide all controversies about school management; was 
required to provide for the holding of annual teachers' institutes in 
each Congressional district and to make full reports to each legisla- 
ture. The county superintendents were given the general supervision 
of the schools of the county and required to visit them at least once in 
each term; were authorized to examine the applicants for employment 
as teachers and to grant certificates according to their grade of schol- 
arship to be good for not more than one' year; were required to perform 
such other duties as the State superintendent or the State board might 
designate. In each school district a board of school directors was pro- 
vided for, to which was committed the general management. The 
various boards of supervisors were required to levy annual taxes to 
meet the estimated expenses, which were to be collected by the county 
tax collector, provided that the schoolhouse tax should not exceed 10 
mills on the dollar nor the teachers' tax exceed 5. The various county 
treasurers were made the custodians of the school funds and required 
to disburse them only on the warrants of the presidents of the school 
directors. 

These statutes were substantially reenacted in the Eevised Code of 
1871. 

At the first there was much opposition to the system. The opposi- 
tion was not to the education of the negro. The resolutions of the 
State Teachers' Association already set forth and the later history jpf 
the State make that fact plain. It was to the means and the people 
by which that education was undertaken. 

However, even that opposition did not last long. Although very 
bitter in some sections of the State it soon died away, and in the 



284 HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 

( 

report of the State superintendent to the legislature of 1872 he bears 
witness to '^a most marvelous revolution in public sentiment favorable 
to popular education during the past year."^ 

By the act of 17th April, 1873, certain very important changes were 
made in the system. The boards of school directors were abolished and 
their duties parceled out between the boards of supervisors and the 
county superintendents. Tlse patrons of schools were empowered to 
elect school trustees, who were to serve without salary, were to select 
teachers, to exercise visitorial powers over the schools, and care for 
their comfort and welfare. County superintendents were given sal- 
aries. The subdistrict system was abolished. The practice of collect- 
ing taxes and other moneys destined for the common-school fund in 
State warrants (which led to the very awkward result that the school 
funds were largely absorbed in payment of the general debts of the 
State) was discontinued and such collections required to be made in cur- 
rency. A general and uniform State tax of 4 mills on the dollar, in 
addition to the other taxes, etc., was levied for school purposes, the 
proceeds of which the auditor was required to distribute among the 
counties according to the proportions of educable children. All schools 
were divided into two grades. In those of the first, orthography, Bead- 
ing, penmanship, arithmetic, grammar, geography, history of the CJnited 
States, and composition were the prescribed studies, and the teachers' 
salaries were fixed at from $60 to $75. In those of the second were 
prescribed orthography, reading, penmanship, and the rudiments of 
arithmetic, grammar, and geography, the teachers' salaries being fixed 
at from $35 to $60. 

In the year 1875 there was a political revolution in Mississippi, but 
the new legislature, which met in January, 1876, notwithstanding the 
excitements and intense passions of the period, did not disturb the pub- 
lic-school system, except in the way of some economical reforms. 

It would be a weary and unprofitable task to trace this subject 
through all the statutes. It was a matter very close to the people and 
about which they thought much. Every legislature, consequently, had 
more or less to say about it, but their action was in respect to details 
mainly, and but little of it fundamental. The general scheme, as 
already explained, remained unchanged. 

To the legislature which convened in January, 1890, the Hon. J. E. 
Preston, State superintendent, made an elaborate biennial report, com- 
prising 402 printed pages, and from it, as a final exhibit of the progress 
and present status of the public-school system in this State, the follow- 
ing statistics and remarks are taken : 

The public schools of Mississippi are making steady and substantial progress. 
The following facts indicate the lines and degree of improvement made during the 
two years embraced in this report. 

^ Senate Journal, 1872, Appendix, p. 181. 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 285 

SeJiolastie year t888-89 compared with 1886-87. 

1. Increase in enrollment (16 per cent) 51, 213. 

2. Increase in average daily attendance (15 per cent) 28, 562 

3. Increase in number of schools 919 

4. Increase in number of first-grade teachers , 1, 018 

5. Number of schoolhouses built 826 

6. Amount expended for country buildings, 1888-89 $116, 951 

7. Expended for buildings last two years (approximate) , 330, 000 

8. Increase in amount collected for public schools 294, 465 

9. Increase in amount expended, including $116,951 for building 276, 464 

10. Increase of one day in the average length of term. 

Taking into consideration the increased attendance, length of term, and number 
of schools, the system has cost proportionately the same as in 1886-87. 

In ^^ counties the collections exceeded the disbursements by $191,300, while practi- 
cally only 8 counties exceeded their collections, incurring a debt in all of about 
$15,000. 

Twelve of our towns and cities within the past two years have erected school build- 
ings costing in the aggregate $190,000. Estimating the 812 3ountry schoolhouses 
at $175 each, or $142,100 for all, w^e have expended for schoolhouses a total of 
$332,100. 

Our teachers have met in 1,954 institutes and devoted one day each month to the 
improvement of their qualifications. Through the influence of the institutes and the 
uniform annual examinations, much study has been done at home and in summer 
normal schools, resulting in an increase of 1,018 first-grade teachers. 

The State Teachers' Association has been revived, and meets annually at the capi- 
tal to discuss educational topics, while three district associations have been organ- 
ized and hold annual sessions during vacation in different portions of the State. 

These associations stimulate professionstl pride, inculcate higher views of duty, 
enlighten public sentiment, and popularize the school system. 

County and city superintendents have visited and inspected the schoolroom work, 
have corrected many defects, and greatly improved the teaching service, so that it 
is not an overestimate to say that the children are to-day receiving 25 per cent better 
instruction than formerly. 

These causes combine to express themselves in the concrete facts of 51,000 more 
children in the schools and 15 per cent more in average attendance in the twelve 
elegant buildings that have arisen to adorn our towns and to open the fountains of 
knowledge to their youth; in the 600 framed schoolhouses built for country boys 
and girls ; in the extended terms of all separate school districts and of many of the 
country schools of every county. 

An era of improvement has manifestly begun; and though we are yet far from 
realizing the final aims of a great State system, still we find many causes of satis- 
faction in the achievements and evident progress of our free schools. 



White. Colored. 



Total. 



Ecbacable children, frora assessors' reports ..-- ■. 

Educable children euamerated by teachers (69 counties)' 

is umber enrolled in public schools -..---,- 

Average daily attendance - 

Is'umber of distributees shown by auditor's report 

^^umber ot public schools 



191, 792 
175, 485 
148, 4a5 
00, 716 



3,348 



1 There are 74 counties ; 5 failed to report. 



272, 682 
210, 166 
173, 552 
101, 710 



2,429 



464, 474 
385, 651 
321,987 
192, 426 
453, -424 
5,777 



286 



HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



Number of pupils in average attendance for each school 33 

If umber of pupils in average attendance for each teacher 27 

Per capita expenditures in country schools : 

Tor each educable child $1 97 

For each enrolled pupil $2 80 

Por each in average attendance $4. 70 

Average cost per pupil per month $1. 08 

Average number of days taught (taking county as a unit) 85 

Average number of days taught (calculated on the basis of average attendance) 8? 



Number of teachers examined. 
Number of teachers licensed . . 



Number of white teachers employed . . 
Number of colored teachers employed. 
Total number of teachers employed . . . 



Number of institutes 

Amount collected for institutes 

Number of first-grade teachers employed . . 
Number of second-grade teachers employed 
Number of third-grade teachers employed . 



White. 



528 
$1,917.10 
2,408 
1,319 

173 



Colored. 



427 
$1, 707. 50 
394 
1,408 
1,298 



Total. 



955 

$3, 625. 60 

2,802 

2,727 

1,470 



In Sep- 
tember. 



3,865 
2,670 



In May. 



2,954 
2,733 



Total. 



6,819 
6,403 



Male. 



1,700 
1,857 
3,557 



Female. 



2,318 
1,240 
3,558 



Total. 



4,018 
3,097 
7,115 



Amount paid in salaries to white teachers $589 40O. 44 

Amount paid in salaries to colored teachers 341 268. 16 

Total paid in salaries during scholastic year 93O, 668. 60 

Number of schoolhouses built in 1888-89: 

I^og 110 



Framed . 
Brick . . . 



359 



478 



Private schools. 



• 


White. 


Colored. 


Total. 


Number of private schools 


408 
12, 990 


80 
2,244 


488 


Attendance in private schools 


15, 243 






Males. 


Females. 


Both. 


Average salaries per month in country schools : 

To white teachers 


$35. 61 
25.73 

38.77 
26.83 


$31. 53 
20.15 

32.09 
20.48 


$32.94 
23.44 

33.97 
2i.l6 
29 16 


To colored teachers 


Average salaries per month in city and country combined : 

To white teachers 


To colored teachers 


Average salary per month in the State.... 











THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 287 

Financial summaries. 

[Taken from reports of county superintendents.] 

Total receipts from all sources for public schools. $1, 292, 273. 53 

Total expenditures 1, 117,110.82 

Amount carried forward to next school year 191, 299. 12 

Miscellaneous expenses .* 28, 745. 25 

Amount paid in salaries of county superintendents 33, 307. 21 

Highest salary paid to county superintendents 800.00 

Lowest salary paid to county superintendents 150. 00 

Average salary paid to county superintendents 450. 10 

Expended for building schoolhouses 116, 951.50 

Itemized amounts of school recenues for 1888-89, 
[From reports of county superintendents.] 

Brought forward from 1887-88 $139,289.43 

State distribution 259, 735. 26 

County levies 341, 422. 13 

City levies 95,960.67 

Polls 163,944.87 

Fines and forfeitures 53, 427. 84 

Chickasaw interest 56, 955. 30 

Sixteenth-section fund 18,117.46 

Railroad tax .' 16, 279. 49 

Other sources (estrays, land redemptions, bonds, liquor licenses) 78, 712. 03 

Two and3 per cent schoolhouse fund 78, 429. 05 

Total from all sources i, 292, 273. 53 



THE SEPARATE DISTRICT SCHOOLS. 

These schools form an important feature of the system of common 
schools in Mississippi. They are more or less strictly graded, and in 
addition to their work as primary schools teach the higher classes to 
such an extent that they are destined apparently to displace the private 
high schools, at least in some localities. 

The act of 1870 provided that ^^any incorporated city containing 
more than 5,000 inhabitants should constitute a separate school dis- 
trict.'' By the Ke vised Code of 1871 this privilege was furtlier extended 
to cities having more than 3,000 inhabitants and the administration of 
the separate schools committed to the city officials. In April, 1873, 
this privilege was extended so as to embrace cities of more than 2,000 
inhabitants 5 and finally, in 1878, so as to include cities of more than 



288 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



1,000 inhabitants. Under these statutes the following schools have 
been established : 

statement of separate district schools y 1888-89. 



Location. 



11 



Aberdeen 

Bay St. Louis 

Biloxi 

Brandon (female) . . 

Brandon (male) 

Brookhaven 

Canton (female) . . . 

Canton (male) 

Coffeeville 

Columbus 

Corinth 

Crystal Springs 

Greenville 

Grenada 

Hazlehurst 

Holly Springs 

Jaelison 

Kosciusko 

Macon 

Meridian 

Natchez 

Oxford I 13 

Okolona ' 6 

Port Gibson I 6 

Sardis [ 10 

Starkville ^ iSf o, 

Summit i 5 

Tupelo I 6 

Yicksburg(feraale) 
Vicksburg (male) . . 

Water Valley 

Wesson ." 

Westpoint 

Winona (female) . . 

Winona (male) 

Yazoo City 



10 



116 



124 



Mills. 
3 



(«) 
3 
3 

{a) 
4 
3 
3 
5 

n 

4 



{a) 
3i 






$6, 200 



$75 to $50 



1,295 
1,500 

(«) 
2,250 
3,234 

{a) 
2,400 
9,400 
1,800 
2,200 
5,100 
1,740 



5,000 
2,200 
4,000 
14, 200 



-I 

^ 2 



60 to 30 
50 to 30 
50 to 30 
60 to 45 
55 to 35 
55 to 45 
65 to 40 
119 to 40 



4,000 
4,500 
1,500 
3,300 
1,100 



^ 



4,000 
12,286 

ia) 
5,267 
2,837 
6.050 
2,500 

(a) 
6,493 



125 to 40 

75 to 40 

100 to 25 

J 00 to 40 

100 to 50 

150 to 20 

90 to 35 

100 to 40 

200 to 40 

100 to 40 

120 to 40 

75 to 40 

75 to 30 

100 to 40 

60 to 30 

55 to 35 

100 to 35 

125 to 40 

75 to . - . 

125 to 35 

111 to 25 

150 to 20 

75 to 30 

75 to 30 

130 to 45 



^ fcC 



$30, 000 



5,000 

1,000 

500 

4,000 



6,500 

70, 000 

3,000 

900 

10, 000 

11, 000 
20, 000 

5,000 

40, 000 

2, 500 

12, 000 
50, 000 
40, 000 

15, 000 
35, 000 

3,500 
5,500 
1,200 
4,500 
12,000 

16, 000 
7.500 

10, 000 

12, 000 

20, 000 

(&) 

3,000 
20, 000 



Principal. 



Mrs. Annie T. Sale. 

No report. 

C. D Lancaster. 

Miss F. A. Johnson. 

T. E. Lamb. 

R. E. A. Stuart. 

Mrs. Ann Webster. 

W. B. Jones. 

W. R. Mabry. 

J. M. Barrow. 

C.P.Elgin. 

H. J. Fry. 

E. E. Bass. 

H.J.Phillips. 

J. S. Perrin. 

W. A. Anderson. 

J. C. Brooks. 

W. D. Berry. 

W. F. Moncrieff. 

A. A. Kincannon. 

Wm. H. Ker. 

J.G.Wooten. 

Thos. C. Walton. 

Miss A. M. Kinnard. 

J. W. Tinsley. 

W. E. Saunders. 

Miss C. A. Lamkin. 

W.A.Belk. 

E. W. Wright. 
H.F.Simrall,jr. 

F. P. Elliott. 
E. L.Ragland. 
T. J. Woofter. 
J. T. Zealy. 
G.W. Smith. 
J. H. Leckev. 



h Rented 



NOTES OF INTEREST IN REFERENCE TO THE ABOVE SCHOOLS. 

The female school at Brandon is the Brandon Female College, estab- 
lished by Miss Frank A. Johnson in 1865. It has had a long and use- 
ful career. 

The Columbus school is the Franklin Academy, on which there is a 
special chapter. 

The ISTatchez school was established in 1845, on much the same plan 
as now, through the efforts mainly of Alvarez Fisk. Its branch for col- 
ored children cost $30,000. 

The Summit school is a Peabody school, and was once given $1,000 
per annum from that fund. Organized in 1867. 

The Yicksburg school was opened in 1845. About 1850, Dr. J. G. 
Holland, the distinguished author and editor, was its principal. 

The Wesson school lost its handsome building by fire in 1890. 

Several of these schools are provided with valuable libraries and 
apparatus^ the Meridian school has 5,000 volumes, and the Biloxi 
school a 6-inch telescope. 

As a specimen school of this class, a statement is appended of the 



THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 



289 



Greenville school. It seems to be about a fair average. The Meridian, 
Aberdeen, Oolnmbiis, and Jackson schools (especially the first, which 
has a main school and two branches for the whites) are on a grander 
scale; but, also, there are others much less extensive. 

In conclusion, it remains to say that nearly all of the schools described 
have branches for colored children, always in separate buildings, but 
generally under the same principal and trustees. 

The following statistical statement is from Superintendent Preston's 
report : 

Syno2Jsi8 of statistics. 
Number of separate school districts in the State in 1888-89 34 





Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Educable children : 

White 


8,9fi8 
7,858 


9.746 
8,579 


18, 714 
16, 437 


Colored i 




Both races 


16, 826 


18, 325 


35, 151 




Number enrolled : 

White 


4 723 


5, 398 
4,990 


10, 121 
9,034 


Colored 


4,044 


Both races .-•. 


8,767 
52 


10, 388 
56i 


19, 155 

54i 


Number enrolled out of every 100 educable children 






Average daily attendance : 

White 


2,944 
2,492 


3,508 
2,824 


6,452 
5,316 


Colored 




Both races , 


5,436 
32J 
62 


6 333 


1 1 naa 


Number in average attendance out of every 100 educable children 

Number in average attendance out of every 100 enrolled 


34jj ^^' '33 
61 61i 







Per cent of educable children who were in schools 
Per cent of enrollment in average attendance 



White. 



Colored. 



55 

581 



Expended for each educable child $4 25 

Expended for each enrolled pupil ...'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'..'.'. $7 27 

Expended for each pupil in average attendance .-..'..".'.'.".".".'."'.' ^"."! !".. $12. 64 

Average number of months schools were in session "".".',".".""/. 8 



Number of white teachers employed. . 
Number of colored teachers employed. 
Number of teachers of both races 



Male. 



50 
52 
102 



Female. 



188 
97 
280 



Total. 



233 
149 
382 



Amount expended in salaries of teachers $124 811 16 

Total expenditures in separate school districts '."....'.'.'.". I49' 1 69 07 

Average cost of tuition of one pupil for one month ' 1*33 





Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Average salaries per month : 

White 






$51. 84 
31.73 


Colored 


45.27 1 26.02 




Both races 


67.30 


35.94 


42.69 





Assessed valuation of all property in separate school districts $28 462 335 

^^f^fl valviation of all property in counties containing separate school districts ....'.'.'. ml 818,' 985 
Total assessed valuation of all property in the State in 1889 158, 000, 000 

21785~-No. 24 19 



290 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN MISSISSIPPI. 



The Gkeenville Public School. 



E. E. Bass, .Superin 

This is a two-story brick building, containing one large hall 30 by 60 feet, and ten 
recitation rooms about 24 by 25 feet. 

The original i)lan was for an H building having a large study hall on each floor 
with four recitation rooms (one at each corner) opening into it. This plan was for 
the time abandoned for want of means, and the rooms on the north end were not built 
until this fall and are now about completed. The entire building is well lighted 
-and ventilated. It might be much improved, yet as a Avhole it is very convenient 
and comfortable. 

The cost of building, very nearly $10,000; yard, 150 hy 240 feet; coal and well 
house, and a shed constructed by the boys for gymnasium, which is not yet very 
well fitted up. 

Blackboards made of cement extend around every room. The entire building is 
furnished with patent seats and desks of oak. Upper floor, individual desks ; lower, 
double; cost, $1,000. 

There are two complete sets of maps; one large one of Mississippi River; two 
reading charts, two sets of blocks, and other kindergarten materials. Besides the 
above, the school, from its own resources, has bought a library of 200 books, chem- 
icals and apparatus sufficient for all text-book work, and some physical apparatus, 
and we have quite a beginning for a museum. Also have an organ for assembly 
hall. 

The Y. M. C. A. of our city have kindly granted the use of two large globes and a 
magnificent microscope. 

The teachers are elected annually by the board of trustees ; a principal and nine 
assistants; highest salary, $75; lowest, $40; average, $56.87i; principal, $1,200. 

The entire school is divided into nine grades ; each grade, except eighth and ninth, 
again divided into classes A and B. 

Grades one, two, and three constitute the primary school. 

Grades eighth and ninth, high school work : 

1. R^8um6 of United States history with civil government. 2. English history 
with English and American literature. 3. Business arithemetic with algebra and 
geometry, 4. Physics and chemistry with laboratory work. 5. Botany, zoology, 
and physiology, with microscopic studies. 6. Writing business forms, elements of 
bookkeeping, drawing from objects. 7. German, Latin reader and Caesar and 
Virgil. 8. Rhetoric. 

The entire school sing, and are taught the elements of music; all are drilled in 
composition, elocution, and calisthenics. French and German are extra and are 
taught out of school hours. 





Boys. 

205 
175 


Girls. 


Total. 


Number enrolled 1888-89 


176 
148 


381 


Number remaiuing at close 


323 


Average attendance daily 


315 











City school tax, 1^ mills. 

Salaries for school-teacliers, 1889-90 $4, 840 

Janitor and other expenses 200 

Coal 90 

FACULTY FOU 1889-90. 

White school. — E. E. Bass, principal; Miss Christian, first assistant; Miss Darling, 
second assistant; Miss Easley, third assistant; Miss Stern, fourth assistant; Mrs. 
Young, fifth assistant; Miss Finley, sixth assistant; Miss Trigg, seventh assistant; 
Miss Johnston, eighth assistant. 



[ Whole Number i 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDUCATION. 
OrROULAR OF INFORMATION NO. 2, 1899. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL HISTORY. 

EDITED BT HERBERT B. ADAMS. 



No. 24. 



HISTORY OF EDUCATION 



IN 



MISSISSIPPI, 



BT 



JED^WARD MAYES, LL. D., 

Ex-Chancellor of the University of Mississippi, President of the State 
Historical Association of Mississippi, 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1899.